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Volume I. 

miNTING 4i«peb the clooro of mental n 

HaUl pleadng ftrantain of aU cbeerins light 1 

How like the radiant orb which ghret the ilaj, i 

A«d o*er the earth acads forth th* eoUiht^ofaig Ajft \ ('-..J'. ,] j^ 





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^^ BE IT REMEMBERED, Th^ on the eleventh 
day of May, in the thirty fourth Year of the Independence of the 
United States of America, Isaiah Thomas, of the said District, has 
deposited in this Office the Title of a Book, the Right whereof he 
claims as Author, in the Words following, to tvit : The History of 
Printing in America. With a Biography of Printers, and an Ac- 
count of Newspapers. To which is prefixed a concise view of the 
Discovery and Progress of the Art in other Parts of the World. In 
two Volumes. 

In Conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United 
States, entitled, " An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by 
securing the Copies of Mi^, Charts^ and Booksi to the Authors and 
Proprietors of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned 5" 
and also to an Act entitled, "An Act supplementary to an Act, en- 
titled. An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by securing the 
Copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors 
of such Copies during the Times therein mentioned ; and extending 
the Benefits thereof to the Arts of Designing, Engraving, and Etch- 
ing Historical, and other Prints.*^ 

CUrkjff the District of Massachusetts. 

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The President^ and other Officers and Member s^ of 
CIETY, in Pennsylvania : — 


The Presidenty Counsellors and other Members^ of 
AND SCIENCES, in Massachusetts. 


I KNOW not to whom I can with more pro- 
priety dedicate this work than to you, who are pro- 
fessedly patrons of the arts. 

No writer, on either side of the Atlantic, has 
presented to the world a History of Printing in 
America ; and, as many of the facts relating to the 
subject were in danger of being irrecoverably lost, 
I have, with a view of placing them in a state of 
preservation, undertaken to collect the same, and 
now take the liberty to present them to you. 

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Should these volumes meet your approbation^ 
so distinguishing an honor will afford ample com- 
pensation for the labor which has attended the con- 
struction of them. 

With the greatest respect and esteem, I have 
the honor to subscribe myself, 

Your faithful servant, 
JVorcesteTy Massachusetts^ 
May 7, 1810. 

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VOL. I. 


HISTORY of Printing, ir 

Account of Books, ibid 

Materials of which books have been made, .... 28 

Inventioa of Parchment, • * • ^^ 

Various kinds of paper, 34 

Scarcity and value of hookfi before the dbcovery of 

printing, • • • 48 

Books written by the scribes, compared with those first 

printed, 48 

Description of ancient Bibles, 45 

Illumination of books, 70 

Origin and practice of Printing in China, .... 73 

Discovery and progress ofthe art in Europe, . • . 85 

IntroduQldoa of, Printing in England, 125 

Account of the first English Printers, . • • . . 133 
List of the first Printers in Europe, Asia, Africa and 

America, 141 

Miscellaneous Observations, 158 

On Printers and Printing in Europe, , . ibid 

. Stereotype Printing, . . do 161 

. Logographic do. . . . do. • • . • 168 

. Engraving Machine, . . do ibid 

. Ancient Engraving, . . do 170 

. Modem . do. ... do 181 

. Printing Presses, ... do. .... 185 

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Introduction of the art into Spanish America, . • . 189 

Mexican editions of bociks, 194 

Peruvian . • do 196 

Introduction of Printing into Portuguese America, . 20 1 

• English America, • • 203 

• . • • . the art in Newenglandy ibid 

General Remarks, 209 

on Papermaking in the United States, . 211 

Type Foundries, • . do. • • . 213 

...... Stereotype Printing, . do. ... 215 

. • . . . • Engraving, . . • do. . • • ibid 

Printing Presses, • . do. . • . 230 

Printing in Massachusetts, . . • 320 

Printers, . . do. . .... 327 

Catalogue of books first printed in Cambridge by Daye, 23 1 

Books printed by Samuel Green in^Cambridge, . . . 253 

Catalogue of books prin^d by'Marmaduke Johnscm 

indo. . 27J 

Printers in Connecticut, 40S 

.... Rhodeisland, 4ld 

. . . . Newhampshire, 433 

Notes, 43r 

See INDEX at the end of Vol. II. 

In page 68| reoi— between the yetn i^aS and 1431.^ 

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THERE is implanted in man by the allwise Creator, a 
principle which stimulates him to invention, and produces a 
^sire to communicate his discoveries tp his contemporaries 
and to posterity. With this natural disposition to inventi 
and then to reveal the products of his ingenuity, is connected 
an insatiable curiosity to become acquainted with the origin 
and history of every discovery made by his fellow men. 

In no condition of man are the first principles of the arts 
and sciences unknown ; which circumstance demonstrates 
that the efforts of invention arise from natural propensities, 
perpetually stimulated by his desire to render hb works more 
perfect and useful. Rousseau says, « Man b employed, from 
the first age of his being, in invention and contrivance." 

As respects the communication of discoveries, it has been 
the custom of all civilized nations to hand them down from 
age to age by the pen of the scribe, and by the types of the 
printer; and, even among savages, it is the office of particular 
persons to chronicle, in their memories, the most interesting 
occurrences and exti'aordinary events, in order that they may 
be conveyed to future generations. 

But notwithstanding all that has been done, to transmit to 
us the history of the origin and progress of the arts, we arc 
still very deficient in this branch of knowledge. The Greeks 
pretended to know the source from whence every thing was 

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derived; and itiiras, probably^to conceal their ignorance of the 
rise of the arts, &c, that they assigned the invention of them 
to fabulous pei*sonages of fabulous ages.— To Prometheus 
they ascribed the discovery of fire ; to Ceres, or the Egyptian 
Isis, the method of sowing wheat and barley; to Bacchus the 
introduction of wine ; to Cadmus the art of carving, or stat- 
uary, &c. 

On the other hand it has been pretended that there never 
was a first physician, statuary, architect, or astronomer ; but, 
that each art and science has been the result of the combined 
knowledge and application of a number of individuals who, in 
most instances, succeeded each other. And, it is ssdd, that 
the progress of every art was a mystery to those who first 
practised its rudiments. As an illustration of this position, it 
is maintained, that he who invented an alphabet never thought 
of a library so large as that oi Alexandria. 

As the discover/ of all those arts, which have a just claim 
to antiquity, is involved in obscurity, we cannot wonder if 
some dark clouds should render a view of the origin of Print- 
ing indistinct. The following pages will shew, that the pre* ^ 
cise date of the invention of it in China cannot be ascertained ; 
and, that the first princ4>les of it were known in Europe, and 
in other parts of the world, from very remote ages ; and, long 
before the reputed discovery of the art at Haerlem by Lau- 


* In a work called the Cabinet, printed at Rdlnburgby there is an 
account that several plates have been found in the ruins of Hercu- 
laneum, a city of the kingdom of Naples^ supposed to have been 
overwhelmed by the great eruption of Mount Vesuvius, A. D. 79, 
on which plates were engraven the names of eminent men. By 
means of these plates they were enabled to affix their signatures to 
any paper, or parchment, with greater expedition than by writing 
them. This was printing to all intents and purposes, but not ar- 
ranged into that useful form which it has now acquired. 

$0 J.OMON has said, that " there is no new thingunder the sun ;" 
and DuTENS, in his Recherches sur Us Decou*vertes attribues aux 
Modernes, makes some observations, which are humiliating to the 
pride of modern inventors. He affirms, ** there is scarcely one of 

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But whaiterer dbtcarlty may rest upon the origin of Print- 
ingj the in^ntion has happily been the mean of effectual^ 
pcrprMflt^ the discovery of all other arta^ and of disseminata 
iag the prbidples by which they are accomplished. It is, 
ithen^ii«,c(»sldered as the most important of them all. This 
benefit trhidi has ailbrded to the world, together with its use^- 
fvOness in propagating knowledge of every kind to all classes 
df men^ has excited the attention, and engs^^ the patronage, 
not onfy of monarcha and civil rulers,"*^ but also of those who 
have held die highest rank in litetatnre*, and, has induced 
authors in the civiliaed nations of the old world, wh^e this art 
has been introduced and established, to write histories of its 
ie^rigin, and the various stages of improvement it has under- 
gone, down to a certain period of time. 

iBbe discoveries attributed to the moderns, which had not been, net 
only known, but also supported by the most soUd reasonings of the 


The celebrated French academician Frerj^ t, much to the same 
effect, observes, ** Being, at this day, destitute of the works of the 
ancient philosophers, we are, necessarily, ignorant of the methods 
they followed in the arrangement and the connexion of their ideas ; 
their systems are to us like those ancient statues of which only fntgi. 
meats remain ; and, consequently, we have it not in our power to form 
a complete judgment of them, unless we could restore the parts 
which are lost. We owe the same justice to the ancient philoso* 
phcrs as to the ancient sculptors ; we should judge of tfae parts 
which are lost by those which remain, as it is reasonable to suppose 
there was a mutual correspondence between them ; and, diat a coU 
lection of them would form a whole, which would be perfectly uni* 
form aRd consistent. If the moderns have any advantage over the 
ancients, it consists in their coming after them, and in travelling in 
roads which have been beaten and prepared by the ancients j and, 
by the advantages for instruction which we derive not only from 
their discoveries, but, likewise, from their errors.'* 

• King George II, of England, it is said, entertained a great re- 
gard for Ais art. In a London newspaper of February 16, 173 1, is 
the following paragraph—" A printing press, and cases for compos- 
ing, wei-e a few days since, put up at St. James's house for theij^ 
majesties to see the noble art of Printing. The royal family, and 
several lords and ladies of the household, attended the exhibition 

I B 

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Amidst the darkness which surrounds the discovery of 
many of the arts, it has beeii ascertained that it is prac* 
ticable to trace the Introduction and progress of Printing, in 
the northern part of America, to the period of the revolution. 
A history, of this kind has not, until now, been attetnpted^ 
alth(»igh the subject^ in one poiat of view, is more^ interesting 
to us than to any other nation. We are able to convey to pos- 
terity, a correct account of the manner in which we have 
grown up to be an independent people, aiid can delineate the 
progress of the useful and polite arts among us, with a degree 
of certainty which cannot be attained by the nations of the old 
world, in respect to themselves. ' 

. lam sensible that a work of this kind might, in other 
hands, have been rendered more interesting. It has a long 
time been the wish of many, that some person distinguished 
for literature would bring it forward: but, as no one has ap- 
peared who was disposed to render this service to the rc^pub- 
lic of letters, the partiality of some of my friends led them to 
etitertain the opinion, that my long acqusdntance withPrintiixg 
must have afforded me a knowledge of many interesting fects, 
and pointed out the way for further inquiry, and that, therefore, 
I should assume the undertaking. Thus I have been, per- 
haps too easDy,led to engage in a task which has proved more 
arduous than I had previously apprehended ; and which has 
been attended with much expense.* . 

It is true, that in the course of fifly years, during which 
I have been intimately connected with the art, I became 
acquainted with many of its respectable professors ; some of 
whom had, long before me, been engaged in business. From 

*- Few persons would form an idea of the cost which has attended 
the collection of the information I have found it necessary to pro- 
cure, from various parts of the continent. An entire sale of the 
edition of this work would barely defray it. The purchase of vol- 
umes of old newspapers alone, has required a sum amounting to up- 
wards of a thousand dollars. It is true, however, these volumes are 
valuable J and, together with the collection previously owned by the 
author,.probably, constitute the largest library of ancient public jour- 
nals, printed in America, which can be found in the United States. 

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B&EFACE* 11 

tihtm I received infonnadon .respecting the transactions and 
events, which occurred in their own time, and also concern* 
ing those, of which they received the details from ^eir pre- 
decessors. By these means I have been enabled to record 
many circumstances and events, which must soon have been 
buried in oblivion. My long acquaintance with printing, and 
the researches I made in several of the colonies before the 
revolution, certainly afforded me no inconsiderable aid in 
this undertaking; and, to this advantage, I may add, and 
I do it with sincere and grateful acknowledgments, that I have 
received the most friendly attention to my inquiries, from 
gentlemen in different parts of the United States ; among* 
whom I must be permitted to name the following, viz.— Eb- 
XNEZER Hazard, esq. and judge J. B. Smith, of Fhiladel" 
pUa; thehon. David Ramsay, oi CharleBtoru^ Southcaroli- 
na ; rev. doctor Millbr, of Xewyork ; rev. Aarov Ban- 
croft, and mr.. Willi AM Sheldon, of Worcester i the rev* 
Thaddeus M. Harris, of Z)©rcAe*fer; the rev. doctor John 
£liot, of Boston; and the rev. William Bentley, of &z- 
km ; Massachusetts. To these I must add, among the elder 
brethren of the type, William Goddard and John Carter, 
esqrs.of -ProTytc/ence; and mr. Thomas Bradvord, and the 
late mr. James Humphreys, of Philadelfihia, Many others 
belonging to the profession, in various parts of the union, have 
laid me under obligations for the information they have giv- 
en me. 

Through the politeness of various gentlemen, I have had 
access to the ancient MS. records ofthe counties of Middle- 
sex and Suffolk, in Massachusetts, where Printing was first in- 
troduced to this country ; to those of the colony of Massachu- 
setts, and of the university of Cambridge ; and, also, to those 
of the United Newengland Colonies ; all of the seventeenth 
century ;— likewise, to the recoixis of several of the southern 
states ; and, to many of the principal libraries, in different parts 
of the United States. From these documents and institu- 
tions I have obtained much valuable intelligence. 

Yet, notwithstanding all these advantages, I have experi- 
enced much difficulty in collecting, through this extensive 
country, the fects whiph relate to the introduction of the art 

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Ift PftfiFAC£. 

of FrfntiAg hi the several states. These fiu:ts were all to be 
soaght fdr, and the iiHj^ry after them had so leiig been iieg^ 
leeted, that the greater part of them would soon hare passed 
beyond the reach of our researches. Most of the printers^ 
mentioned in these Tolumes, have long smce been numbered 
with the dead, and of whom mmy were but tittle known wUle 
living ; yet, the essential circumstances respecting them, as 
connected with the art, will, I believe, be found in the fi>llow« 
ing pages ; although I cannot flatter myself that they will be 
entirely free from unintentional errors or omissions.*^ 

The length of tlm^ devoted to cotlecdng materials for 
this history, has prevented my paying so much attention 
as was necessary for the revision of it. I make no preten« 
slons to elegance of diction; bat had I not been pressed bjr 
advancing age, and a multiplicity <^ domestic concerns, I 
.might, perhaps, have attempted some improvements in the 
phraseology, although I should not, probably, have altered the 
general arrangement. As it is, the reader will receive a 
^mple and unadorned statement of facts ; and to his judgment 
and candor I submit the work in its preset state* Should 
any object that the statements, respecting some persons mea« 
tioned in these pages, are rather unfavorable to their charae* 
ters, I can only assure them that they are such as came to my^ 
hands, and that I have <^ neither extenuated, nor set down 
aught in malice.'* My first object has be^ to publish noth<« 
ing but historical truth. The satires and lampoons which 
■^ere published during the war, had their effects, but they will 
now pass only " for what they arc worth ;" and will not affect 
the moral character of any man. I introduced some of them 
with a view to give a true idea of the spirit of the press in 
those times. 

* Those who discover errors, and such as can add to the inform- 
ation contained in diis work, are requested to acquaint the author 
therewith, by letter ; as it is his intention to make every aecessarf 
correction and amendment, which from time to time may come to 
his knowledge, in a copy he has appropriated to this purpose $ in 
order, that if, hereafter, another edition should be called for, the 
corrections, &c. may appear dierein. 

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Tlie leader wiU ptrctite diat I have ibUowtd tSbe commoii 
jumotke of the vtitera on Priiitihg> and have traced the art 
bom the perkd of the diacoterf c^ ilin Europe ; but I am 
penniaded that &u^ will coouder this aa a irork of fiU|perer(>ga« 
thm; br eithough faiatoriea of the oiigxa and progreas of 
Prmtmg hanre beca writfen by sereral em^^piaiit men^ Europe^ 
yet^ I presumoy that tiie i<eader will {Mrefer hanng a view of 
thm whole aubject kid before faim ; especially) aa it will be 
veiy difficult and expensive to procure the works of those £u« 
lopean writers. Ihave^ therefore) endeavored tooompiise 
within a few pi^ea, the substance of many volumes published 
en the subject ; mi, I oonoeive this compressed statement 
will give a neW) and) I hope, a dear view, of the di9coveT7 
and pVDgi^ss of th^ art on the other aide of the Atlantic.* 

An ac€<mnt of the Origin of Books, and of the arts of Pa* 
permaldiig, Engravmg, Scc« wMeh sore intimatelf connected 
with Printing, Wdre^ by several of my friends, recommended 
to my attention; and, I flatter myself, that the introduction of 
these su^ects into the work, vtSL prove l^be not sdtf^ether 
uninteresting, or in^)plicable. 

In the notice I have taken of ancient an4 modeon books, 
and of the arts of Printing) Engraving, &c.if the reader should 
not think the observations important, I am persuaded he will 
find some which are new. 

It may be thought that I havof^ven in the account of the 
printing and the printers of this country, too much attention 
to some circumstances that are not generally interesting. Eu- 
ropean writersi however^ have been very precise in such par* 

^Oneof the aocieot ^rfiher$, by way of iqK>logy for publishing 
a ^eok on a oul^fct that had been treated of larj^ by others, 
obiervedi *' Thii advantags we owe to the multspUcity of hooks on 
the aaiae.fMbjcct, that one falls in the way of one man, and another 
be^ |ult$ the level or comprebeasioa of aootber. Every thing that 
is written, does not come into the hands of all; perhaps^, says he, 
acMae nwyr meet with my book who may hear nothing of others^ 
a^ich have treated better of the same subject. It Is of service, 
therefore^ that the same subject be handled by several persons, and 
that the explications of di£cuUies and arguments for the truth may 
come to the knowlcd^ ^f every one by oue way or other/' 

l^Encyclop, Ext* 

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ticulars, and I have thought it best to follow their example.^ 
It will be recollected that things have a relative importance ; 
and minute circumstances often serve to elucidate a subject. 
To inquisitive minds, even the Imfirintsdnd Colofihona to old 
gazettes and books, are more ii^resting than any thing which 
could now be written; they carry us back to the time when 
those public^ions first appeared-— 4iie publishers of them 
seem to speak to us in their own persons— -they take us to the 
very spot: where they printed, and shew us things as they 
were ; in a word, these are images of antiquity which we can** 
not in any other way so accurately delineate as by reprinting 
them^* They are, therefore, in every instance, copied with 
exactness, as are also extracts froai ancient printed books and 
manuscript records. In such quotations, both the orthogra^ 
phy and syntax of the original works from which they were 
taken, whether in Engtish or in other languages, have been 
careMly preserved,, and may, therefore, in these.casel, ac-p 
count for misspelling. 

In the arrangement of the work, the .memoirs of printer^ 
follow each other in the order of time in which the subiectsr 
of tliem began biisiness in the respective towns or cities v^ere 
tliey resided. 

* What is denominated an Imprint by printers, is thd informa-r 
tton given, commonly at the foot of the title page of a book, where, 
and by whom, it was printed and sold, the date of printing, &c. 
Formerly imprints were placed at the conclusion ot the text, or at 
the end of a volume, with, or without, a colophon. 

Colophon, is a word derived from a city of that name in Asia,^ 
where the artists of all descriptions were exceedingly expert, inso- 
much that KpXo^Sm* in7i§ifflM, became a proverb among the Greeks ; 
signifying f<//jmtffv maiiumimponere^ to put the finishing hand to any 
thing. The same idea was implied by the word C9lopbonem among 
tiie Romans ; and, hence our ancient' typographical fathers usually^ 
concluded the books they printed with an article written by them-\ 
selves, expressing the time they had spent in printing them ; the 
labor and expense attending the business ; the patronage they had 
received from great men ; some observations respecting the nature 
of the work, or the design of the author, or translator, in having it 
published, &c. accompanied by pious ejaculations. These conclu* 
sk>nS| or finishings of the work, they called CohfbMt. 

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Pil£FAC£« m 

The biographical sketches of printers are principally con* 
fined to their professional concerns, and to such events as are 
connected with them. 

Newspapers are placed in the proper order of succession) 
or agreeably to the periods in which they were established in 
the various cities^ towns, &c. 

The narratives respecting such persons as remained in 
business after the American revolution, and such newspapers 
as were continued after this event, are brought down to the 
time when those printers quitted business, or died, or these 
publications were discontinued. From the settlement of the 
country to the establishment of the independence of the Unit- 
ed States, few printers, and not many Newspapers, have, I 
believe, escaped my observiation ; and, I may venture to as- 
sert that the data respecting them are as correct, as can, at this 
period of time, be obtained by the researches of an individual. 

Histories of printing in Europe, end at the period when the 
art became generally diffused over that quarter of the globe ; 
that is, at the close of the fifteenth century. Historians who 
have written on the subject of Printing, in particular king- 
doms, have observed the same rule i indeed, when an art be- 
comes generally known through a country, it is no longer 
necessaiy to trace its course. . 

The history of printing in America, I have brought down 
to the most important event in the annals of our country — the 
Revolution. To have continued it beyond this period, all 
will admit would have been superfluous. 

From the consideration that the press, and particularly 
the newspapers to Which it gave birth, had a powerful influ- 
ence in producing the revolution, I have been' led to conceive 
there would be much propriety in giving accounts of the pros- 
ecutions of printers for publishing Libels, which occurred un- 
der the several colonial governments. Articles of this descrip- 
tion,, will be found in such parts of this work as contain me- 
moirs of the Printers who were prosecuted, or descriptions of 
the Newspapers in which the supposed libels were published. 

With a view to gratify the admirers of typographical anti- 
quities, I have, in several instances given, as accurately as the 

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mtuit ^the ease would admie, repi^Mntatioiia of tht titles ^ 
fhe most ancient Newspapers ; from which a tolerable idea 
may be formed of the feshion of the originals. 

Although a woHc of this nature mof be principally mter* 
esting to the professors of the typographic art^ yet the £Btct8 
relating to printing are necessarily connected with others 
which I have thought it proper to enlarge upon* This cir- 
cumstance may render these volumes amusing to the man of 
letters, and not altogether uninteresting to the andquaiy. 

I devoted some time to obtain a correct account of the 
booksellers in Boston ; it having been my intention to take 
notice of all who were in the trade from the first settlement of 
each colony to the year 1775 ; but I discovered that particular 
information from other states respecting mM^yy who, in this 
character, have passed over the stage of life, could not be pro- 
cured, therefore, the statement is not so complete as X 
kitended it should be. But supposing that the particulars 
which I have collected may afford some gtatification, I havt 
annexed them to this work.* 

I will conclude by remarking, that in the account of prints 
ers and newspapers, I have not bought it necessary to attenfrt 
the avoidance of a repetition ^ the setme terms; indeed, I 
much doubt if our langus^e affords a tufi&cient variety foft the 
purpose of changing the phraseolpgy in the narratites given 
of a great number of persons, or things, which are alike is 
their nature, professions, or descriptions. 

If this work should Ml into the hands of critics who may 
kel disposed to treat it with severity ; in case I have not 
already aidd enough to ensure their foitearance, I beg leavt 
to inform the liberal and ingenuous writers who ^ assume tb» 
critic's noble name," that I will readily correct all errors 
which may be candidly pointed out to me ; and, that I will 
bear all " just reproof with decent iulence." 


Worcester^ May 7, 1810. 

• It was my design to have given a catalogue of the books 
printed in the English colonies previous to the revolution ; finding, 
however, that it would ehlarge this work to another volume, I have 
deferred the publication ; but it may hereafter appear. 

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Books bemg the great offspring o( the pressj 
before I enter into the history of Printing, it may- 
be proper to state the advantages and disadvantages 
commonly imputed to books ; and, give a detail of 
their mechanical construction, and the materials 
whereof they are composed. 

Of Books. 

AT different periods of time objections have been 
urged against books and learning, the principal of 
which are, that they may be employed to excite the 
evil passions, and propagate heresy and impiety; 
-Asat they may be used for the purpose of imposing 
on the people; and the famous John of Gaimt, duke 
of Lancaster was of opinion, that books are perni- 
cious, because they have a tendency to make people 

But, if books may be employed fbr ill purposes, 
they are much oftener used for those which are good. 
.They are the chief instruments of acquiring knowl* 
1 c 

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edge ; they are the repositories of the kws, and w- 
hides of learning of every description ; our religion 
itself is contained in books, and without them, says 
Bartholin, " God is silent. Justice dormant, Physic 
at a staled, IHpti)gef>|i)^ Iamr„, Lf^tt^tfis; diam||>,^^and all 
things involved in Cimmerian darkness." The 
culogia which have been bestowed upon books 
are numberless ; they are represented as " the ref- 
uge of truth, when it » )mf»shed out of conversa- 
tion ; as standing counsellors and preachers, always 
at handy and always disinterested ^having this advan- 
tage over ^ other nopdes of instruction,, that then^^^are 
ready to repeat th^eir lessors whenever we have oc- 
casion fbr the^n.^^ They sjupply the want of mas* 
ters, and even^ iji some measure, of genuisand ih- 
ventiony and can raise the dullest persons,, who have 
memory^ above the level of the greatest geniivses 
which are destitute of the aid of books,; "Perhaps 
their greatest glory is the aflfection borne to them 
by some of the greal^ii^eii-,'^ The devotion of the 
renowned Scipio £or them was so great, that he pre- 
feired tibrear (^^mpmyj tQ i^^i. ef Utring-fe^gis^ ,and 
ii3ed tQ s«f ,c ^t ^Hterowg^^k ««^wjs;ae- was:5©»- 
er le§§ §|<»^. tifem wl^m h^lmm^i'^ to-bimjiwrjr 
he added^ M-; Caiboy. Afe dik^ Winy,, the «mpw<ir 
Jutiaa, and mm^ otber d^istittguiGh^ ckdmctaax^ 
Rich^d Bury^ biaho]^ q£ IHiadMMat aodi toad) dim- 
cellor of Engbi^d, wxofeft ai trie^so^ e^pccasJjr on the 
love of bodk^r 

As to their being a source of idleness, thai: i& 
coijlartdictod by- ^^xp©rknQC:of aUiag<b5^ and the 
examflesofemmes^ioeiik, I£AB9;xagtmfi,.d3rq!u^ 
vlIqw of Q(»dtei»i]latkw^^agte^(idl^ d&ms^ 

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he lia2& lond^ hvrt fieir inntators. Many Bfaistnous^ 
Itomqiw& ctHddLbeaiesitinQed who ahemailely follow- 
ed tte pknigh^ fiandigued in tbe forum, and com- 
mBDikid aiSnMss, vfeo wgcc a£taei^w to hooks. The 
|) i inrttnjis ; and: tise in^ibed psabcist wex?e eaiment 
im^ yet did ikey not sfigkct dteir business a;s 
^hepbesMbs ; and Si* Paa]> an eminsent scbolar, \ras 
a tentmaken Cleanthes was a gardener's laborer ; 
Esd^ aMif ^ereiiee vnem ^srves. Aiigustua Cesar 
had Ms garments spun aaad W€)ve in his own house* 
Mahomet iindted his own fire, swept the floor, milk^ 
pi hi& ewes^ and mended his shoes and his wooUeu 
ganment with his own hands* Charlanagne made 
a tow to tegulaie the s^e of ]m eggs ; and c^ Gus- 
lavus Vas^ k is^ said that *^ a better laborcf iKver 
strmdt sted," Althoi^ most of these great 
characters had much acqumntance with books, yet 
that circumstance did not prevent their attendance 
Q[k the most minute of their public or private con- 

We must admit, bowcver, that the paAs of 
knowledge are not entirety firee from difficulties or 
causes of regret. The more a man knows, the more 
fully will he be convinced of the circumscribed lim- 
its of the human understanding, which are confined, 
prine^fidAy, to this earth, aad to i^ very c^mtiacted 
view of ^ transactions oi men which have taken 
place in the course t)f some thousands of years. 
The infinity of space, the remote, if not the bound- 
less ages of antiquity, are, as it were, before him, 
but must for ever remain unexplored and luiknown, 
attfaoi:igh they are not entirely impervious to ccmjec- 
ture. It is a cause of regret that Homer did not 

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enlarge on the subject of the Atlantic Island ;* that 
Solon did not finish his poem of the Attantides, and 
that Plato did not complete his Timsus, whidli 
would have contained all the information he obtain^ 
ed from the wise men of Egypt on that interesting 
part of the histoiy of the world. It occasions regret 
that the three great libraries of Alexandria were dc- * 

* The Adantic Island, or contaieiity was supposed to h«ve 
bfen situated where the Atlantic Oceanix>wi8. There are 
several hints in ancient authors respecting the AUantides, a 
people said to inhabit that country. Plato, who lived about 
four hundred years before the time of Christ, gave some ac« 
count of them in one of his dialogues ; he intended to have 
given a full account of them in his Timaeus, but he &d not live 
to finish the work. He had his account of them from the wise 
men of Sais, in Egypt. The particulars he has written con* 
corning their cities, buildings, &c. are more like romance than 
history. Among other things he mentions, that they invaded 
Greece with a powerful army some thousands of years before 
his time. In Gen. x. 25, there is mention made of Peleg the 
sonofEber, who was so called because in hia daya the earth 
foas divided. From this passage sopie learned men have in* 
ferred that anterior to that period the country of the Atlantides 
was joined to Europe ; and that, by some great convulsion of 
nature, it was then disjoined and torn from Europe and Afri- 
ca, removed farther west, and was this identical continent of 

The Rev. Samuel Mather, of Boston, who nearly forty 
years since, wrote a small, but ingenious treatise, intitled^ 
<< America known to the Ancients," appears to have been of 
opinioii, that the posterity pf Japhet, by Mago^, were the pa» 
mary infeabitaiits of America. 

Should thi$ be true, this country was, thousands of years 
since, inhabited by a renowned and warlike people, who were 
weH qualified to make those ancient encampments, the re« 
plains of which haviB lately been discovered, 

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O^ BOOKS. 21 

sixoytd ; first, by the Gentile Cesar ; secondly, by 
the Christian Theophilus ; and thirdly, by the Ma- 
hometan Amrou, by order of the Saracen caliph 
On^u:. The ccmtaits of those libraries might have 
thrown li^ on the history of the Atlantides, and 
many other curious facts, which are, for ever, sunk 
in oblivicm. ^ 

TheGodis and Mahometans are not the oiily 
peo|^ who aie to be bhmed for the destruction of 
ancient manuscripts. Many, very many, valuable 
works have been destroyed by the Popes, and other 
intolerant bigots among Christians; These things 
are to be regretted, and .particularly the burning of 
the library of the Escurial, which contained the 
learning of the Moors in Spain* The superstitious 
priests who followed Columbus to America, in their 
2eal to promote the Christian religion, destroyed 
the ancient records of the natives, depictured and 
petpetuated by hieroglyphics, which in fact gave 
the history of that part of this immense continent ; 
but which the Spanish priests supposed were used 
, m the rites and ceremonies of Paganism, and believ- 
ed them to be the works of the devil, with whom 
they imagined the Mexicans had leagued them- 

To get wisdom, is not only pleasant and conven- 
ient, but it is a duty frequently enjoined in holy 
vmX^-^Happy is the man who Jindeth wisdom^ and 
the man who getteth understanding. For the mer- 
chandise of it is better than the merchandise of sil- 
very and the gain thereqfthanjihe gold. She is more 
precious than rubies; and all the things thou canst 

♦ Clavigero's Hist, of Mexico. 

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demre^ ^tre not to be totnpared unto her. Plrovearb« 
in. 13— 15. 

Hew great then are our cbligations to flie lit* 
ventors of the art of Printing, who haTe rendered 
wisdom easy of attaipment, and given us an im- 
mense advantage over the ancients, who 

Wand'ring from dime 1» clime^acvvBnt sdaqr^l^ 
Their manaen noted aad their sttttfea turfejr'dL* 

Like the bees, they were obliged to collect their 
sweets by roving from flower to flower; but we 
come at once to the hive, apd get our fill without 
difficulty or labor. Lycurgus and Pythagoras were 
obliged to travel into Egypt, Persia and India, to 
learn the doctrine of the Metempsychosis, the prin- 
ciples of Zoroaster and the Gymnosophists. Solon, 
Plato, and most of the ancient sages and philoso- 
phers, were under the necessity of seeking the wis-., 
dom of Egypt in Sais, and other Egyptian cities. ' 
Herodotus and Strabo, had to collect their materials 
for history and geography from the observations* 
they made in their travels. Till within the last 
three hundred and forty years,! there were no print- 
ed books in our language ; they were all written ; 
and being scarce and of great price, were conse- 
quently in but few hands ; the means of knowledge 
were then very inconsiderable, compared with what 
they are at present. If a man wanted to become ac- 

• Pope's Odyssey. B. I. 

t The first book known to be printed in English was, The 
History of Troy, translated from the French by William Cax- 
ton, at Cologne, and by him printed in that city, anno 1471. 

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.0^ vooss* 1 . S3 

^juKfiinied wilb lis iratoqi 

OT to gsufi other useful kformoti perlnpifrhe)^ 
to^ travel srv^ai biHidi«d& of miles ta get sight of 
Minei»ttiuscri{^whidiielailcd tovorexplatiieclAie 
subject moiciier of iii^pmy. But we ^oe ccmtenifK)^. 
fanes of all agts^ and citiaais of sdl nodons. We 
oan^tfavetHmcb fatiict than did! JasoA^ or Ufysses ; 
imdtqrow fii^ sodes extmi our acqttaiiitei6& to 
die regions they vii»ted ; where we can also scan die 
g^cot Smdusm Ocasan widi Drake^ Boogainyilley 
Cook, and many odier eareumnavi^tora^;. and be- 
come acqusobted widi the: history, gcograpfc^r I^tws, 
ma&ners and product of att the[ known nationsdr 
-die earth, in conq)any widi ai vast, number of well 
io to imcdi ancient said nodeFo trafrdlers* We aspire 
^aih Copcxidcus,. Galhteo:, Hnygeos, and Newton, 
taesqikitethe.iafimtSL xeginui of ^ace^ and to as- 
certain ^^ wint other sjcstenxs circle odier suns*" 
We soar mth Ldbniltz,. or Lodke^ into the r^ons 
of metapfa^csixni^ or doscend wkht Woodwardv^ ^ 
BujBbQ) i]lr Lucy dt Widtehurst, to aa examinotkm 
of organic structures on the &ce of die eardi ; en* 
search, beneadi its; snuiac^,. and ^scover the ruins of 
anriqirityy which havse heest hidden for ages. We 
smrvcy sapafecaiand soSd coBntents with Fergusson, 
ite to Hise^ or Hei a c hel ; or, aitsr into the chym^ 
kail analfosiB e£ matter w^ Piiesdey or Lavoisier. 
BoofcsiafiacdlQs oppoctonides ta> become acquainted 
widlr sSb sufafectB, lecondile and familiar — ^with the 
vdifpmmoi aU ages, a^nadons-— ^i^ the institu- 
tEcmiB cfi Motts^ ami of L^cacgus--o«^vith die Theog- 
my of JScadod^ and dfis^: IVfythdogy of Homer. We 
learn to revere die luippy influences of genuine re- 

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ligion ; and to detest the l^utieful operations of big* 
otiy, enthusiasm, superstition and ^delily. 

Such are the benefits we derive firom hockst 
and, as it respects the great body of tfaepe(q;dc^ 
nearly all these advantages r^ult from Printing; for 
without this discovery few would have been aWe to 
procure even a Bible, a manuscript copy of which 
must have cost, perhaps, five or six hundred dol- 

At the present period of light and informaidon^ 
we can easily conceive of the shackl» which retard-^ 
ed the progress of the human mind, in its researches 
after truth, before the invention of the ars ariium. 

Ancient authors had no means of convejring to 
the world the knowledge they had acquired; they 
could, it is true, transcribe a few co[»es of their 
works, which, in circumstances the most fiivorable^ 
could only reach a very few libraries of the most 
wealthy in a kingdom, and then, peiliaps, were 
doomed to perpetual rest, or subjected to be de- 
stroyed by the caprice of the powerful, and the pre- 
judices of the illiterate. 

Printii^ removed the veil which obscured the 
reason oS man ; it broke the chain that boimd lum 
in superstition. By multiplying copies of the labors 
of the learned, and dispersing those cc^ies over the 
earth, even to its remotest r^ons, he was enabled 
to search after truth in religion, in philosophy, in 
politics ; and, improvement in the mechanic arts. 

The advantages of books to society, ha^ been 
atheme which has employed the pens of many wrk- 
ers, from the time of the origin of Printing to the 
present day. 

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Of MocmB. if 

A dekhralod ntodmi Frarth wthor|# dius •!§» 
gttitly dMcribte tte Itcmitt which lbs world hai HU 
Mufy ree(sivtA fipoA the invtntion and progrtai «f 
A« sort^ bjr juigmtating thrnumhtr of bodcs^ 

'^ Pitelbg hu been ai^dkid to ae lniii3^ Bttb^^ 
h&DkjR have so rapidly inor^aaed, diey have been io 
admirably adapted to every taste, every degree of iti^ 
ibriilatidiit and 6very titii^to ttey afforded 

$0 eaiy^and frequently ao dtliglrtfiil^ an inetnietion i 
they have opened ao inan|r doors ta truths which it 
ia tmpoaaible ev«r to eloae afain^ ttiat there ik t^ 
tl^i^er a clasa or pttifcaaion ^ inanldb^ 
^tm iight of knowledge eaa abadiutety be endiided^ 
Aeoontin^y^ though di^:)e may adll remain a muli^ 
liftudi^ of indUviduala cimdemned to a foro^ vnU 
tuitary ignorance^ yek the harrier between ihe e»- 
^ightened and unenUgfatened fp^^iortion »f mtnktoj 
^ nearly d&ced^ and an pnirneiHe gmdatiDil oecH*- 
piesthespaoewhidhaepanAedthetwoejitMilMa of 
^eniufe and stiupidity.^'t 

An £nglieh divim^ wboie £aai^ am wdl 
JtiK>wn and iqypnoved by th^ learned and pioue^ ie 

View of the Progrew of th^ Human Mind>" 

jrtfiT#4 withf^ $ha «pHiaa ^ AiM^ aen^uif s ID ;^^ 
in the ^arkagas, 41 \r»r^ r^iw^^ f^^m^ly thr ^aipe Ji^r^ «^f 
jyg;nprance aad brutality. Lord Ly^etci^; in his liij^ of {{^^^ 
ff Itiihhtn^ Us, fhdtijtilh^ Mgn pf King Ste}>hen9 Jh t^ 

t 9^VlMeifoaWiXiiMt« 

1 2> 

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one among many who inform us of the benefits 
which Christianity has dmved from the increase of 
books ; as well as the great utility of Printing to the 
literary and political world, notwithstanding the 
abuse of it by the artful and licentious. The obser* 
vations of this able and pleasing writer are these, 

"To the art of printing, it is acknowledged we 
owe the reformation. It has been justly remarked, 
that if the books . of Luther had been only multi- 
plied by the slow process of handwriting, they 
must have been few^ and would have been easily 
suppressedby the combination of wealth and pow^ 
er ; but, poured forth in abundance from the press, 
they spread over the land with the rapidity of an in- 
undation, which acquires additional force from the 
efforts used to obstruct its progress. He who un* 
dertook to prevent the dispersion of the books once 
issued from the press, attempted a task no less ar- 
duous than the destruction of the hydra. Resist- 
ance was vain, and religion was reformed ; and we, 
who are chiefly interested in this happy revolution, 
must remember, amidst the praises bestowed on 
Luther, that his endeavors had been ineffectual, un- 
assisted by the invention of Faustus. 

" How greatly the cause of religion has been 
promoted by the art, must appear when it is consid- 
ered that it has placed those sacred books in the 
hands of every individual, which, besides that they 
were once looked upon in a dead language, could not 
be prpcured without great 4ifl&.culty. The. numer- 
ous comments. Qjx .them of every kind, which tend 
to promote piety, and to form the Christian phi- 

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losopher, would probably never have been com- 
posed, and certairdy would not have extended theif 
beneficial influence, if tjrpography had still been un- 
known. By that art, the light, whiQh is to illumin- 
ate a dark wor|d, has been placed in a situation 
more advantageous to the emission of its rays^; but 
if it has been the means of illustrating th^ doctrines, 
and enforcing the practice of religion, it has also, 
particularly in the present age, struck at the root of 
piety and moral virtue, by propagating opinions fa- 
vorable to the sceptic and the voluptuary. It has 
enabled modem authors, wantonly to gratify their 
avarice, their vanity, and their misanthropy, in dis- 
senunatmg novel systems, subversive of the digni- 
ty and happiness of human nature. But though the 
perversion of the art is lamentably remarkable in 
those volumes which issue, with offengive profusion, 
from the vain, the wicked, and the hungry, yet this^ 
good results from the evil, that as truth is great and 
will prevail, she must derive fresh lustre, by display- 
ing the superiority of her strength, in the conflict 
with sophistry. 

" Thus the art of Printing, in whatever light it is 
viewed, has deserved respect and attention. From 
the ingenuity of the contrivance, it has ever excited 
mechanical curiosity ; from its intimate comiexion 
with learning it has justly claimed historical notice ; 
and from its extensive influence on morality, poli- 
tics, and religion, it is now become a subject of V^ery 
important speculation. ' 

" But, however we may felicitate jnankiitd on 
the invention, there are those, perhaps, who Wish 
that, together with its compatriot art of manufactur- 

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^1 HISTORf dt *R*>rTING. 

Of ltd ^tiU <^ Uter^ii») "^y lOMtert^ Ost it fasn 
m^^idid tlife number pi 3ook9, tail they iiktiwt^ 

»AA«^d6 oil tncmds they ebn^^tain, tfant k iiatsioftbni 
iAt!Podu^ed n fdlte refintin^nfi, teoompiilQbte mtii<te 
ditnpliia^ df |«imhiv« piety «Hd fisimitt ^^irttie^ 
With respect to its Ikatuy ill e(ms;eqD$iiOQ6, it iti^ 
1^ said ^t ^h&&^ it pr<>da^{4^ to tiie t^itil m ift^ 
fihltfe member ^ vm^^m p^bttcati^t»i% yet imt 
#iiaml fine ^eoiftpositioti wUl still reiak tMr ^p^idu^^ 
mid it win be lan ^as^ task &r <srlti^ disdemtMM 
to i»ekct tfies^ &oM the suiroun^tii^ ^tnMst of ^«yaw 
dit^r ; aM though, ^^ te^p^m t^ it^ iCfedil^ «£toft^ 
j^ggaiHi to ^uth €zt<»^ l&e ^^Mi&si4bi^ «hit k t^ 
fesed ii^iM^ality afid ^l^g^n, 4iii^g^ WJlAi ^3rai4 
ii$ipeitin^<^ thfe 4se^p€ti^ ^ ^iiptat^ Mlb, laid «{m«d 
^ tale of $^sihd^4Str«^h te ^i|M i ytt^ d^ 

#y^ m^, nt aity tbi^ ^ iSttpifiiBikd liy iif i$|ftw 

tive interposition/' . 

^JtTie Materials g/* which l^ooks have %eim ift^. 

TH£ itMsthbds 0f imMi% to^wd itmmmnt 
nkii3€^hkek%ey were e^mpetsi^^im^^^^ 
in differtent ages of the world, Q^t ffp^^^^^t^&i^'^ 
pm i^ 4mw ^eea ^Nii^e^ ^f ^IfiPHWliti^ Aeff 

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ear Boaict, Gl 

HBsifbh fi^phth^ eddied iiDdiam» tdbuh, dlia^ er ftit 
tf9ay mheda, codex^ liber, bihlos, Ice. 

A veiy anckmt method wao, dbaiof ^ifnidi n g 
wut on wooi iRAde into tiiktbamb, aad ^vrking m^ 
dtetni wit)i die Blyinfi ; &e bcnrds "were stnio|^ to« 
gether, and itias msidc books. At odier tssirs tfa» 
tt]^us W3A ^saxployoSi mi t^n sheets of lead, on hfo* 
17, die baric of trees, on spade faooes, vchich vvcro 
dts^ng leather, xuntil they were s innA r iilfd by tkt 
Egyptian fiapynist, vduch mftde decent booioi. 
Timt«nio|e, hon^erear, umis not fvoduced m «&• 
cieM ^andtiet to fimiiA the Ikenoy nsdcps of 9w 
tiqi|ity; ^verefini^ tpanelBMsit ip^^^a used ai laaiof 
eqncifi^ies; the ]iivaitiim*<)f whicklastnqiaseEibv 
ed to Eumenes king of Bergmnus. 

QutlJiemqre those idiodotdDt-wdM^licvJCiiine? 
Btt w^iht HOiiginal wv tgii tp^ -^ smuit iMvr beeo 
kooiRn loag tefero lis i&ne ; &r loeaiaG^ 
k1symttmm»cksatmxdi0ai. The profdiecy of ier^ 
endaliiiwiviitteB, by JBarach, an ^rMrfmimk^ 
utility oould not iocve been tbe Haen raH isade use 
of in less ancient times. Some have supposed that 
ih? ^oqk df tlie Jaw pf Moses puist have been pf 
pirc^^t;^ prlt cchW qpt; }»ve tested sproa^ 4^ 

IkntliiL Fhiiiitiiiit ifcTtftiMrd 1I111 litiit rf A# rt'^rrr TflndfmA 
mittTf ttttcb oMrtinr thflti tmut nTitinniiTinni iiinitt te^aaiiMflfeui 
Are ^dme. 

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as it did. ' What ling Eumenes did, was, probably, 
nothing more. than to make an improvement on 
parchment, which from him came to be called Per^ 
gamena. The occasion was this— -Eumenes was 
ambitious to rival the Alexandrian library, founded 
by Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt ; but, in 
order to circumvent him, Ptolemy prevented the 
exportation of the papyrus, that Eumenes might not 
find a substance on which his scribes might copy 
the books ; upon which Eumenes directed them to 
make use of parchment, which many suppose was 
then very well known— and, as his scribes became 
so familiar with it, we caimot wonder they lut upon 
some improvement. In process of time the papy- 
rus, perhaps on account of the troubles of Egypt, 
grew into disuse, and parchment supplied the place 
of it, insomuch that nearly all the ancient manu** 
scripts which have been handed down to us are made 
of that material. There are some in difierent pails 
of the world, which are from twelve to fifteen hun- 
dred years old ;* some of them are in the shape of 

* See Wetstein, Woide, Griesbach, Micha^lis, See. on the 
Alexandii^nmanusciipt, in the British Museum, of which 
Dr. Woide published an edition in 1786, with t3T)es cast for 
the purpose, line for line, without intervals between the words, 
as in the manuscript itself. This copy is so perfect an imita- 
tion of the original, that it might supply its place. Its title is, 
J^ovum Testamentum Gracum CoeUce, MS, Alexandrino qui 
Londini in Bibliotheca Mtiaei Britanrdci aa^ervatur descrifi* 
turn. It is a very splendid folio, and the preface of the learn- 
ed editor contains an accurate description of the manuscript, 
which i^ supposed by many critics, to be about 1 500 years 
old. * Considerable dispute, however, has arisen respectmg its 

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our quarto books, and many of them are considera* 
biy larger. Some writings were made on rolls of 
parchment down to the period of the invention of 
printing. Such are the British rolls of parliament, 
for the care of which an officer is appointed by the 
British government, who is called the Master of the 

That Eumenes, king of Pergamus, was not the 
inventor of parchment, appears clear ; because Dio- 
dorus Siculus says, it was used by the Persians in 
very ancient times ; and, Herodotus remarks, that 
the skins of sheep and goats were used among the 
ancient lonians long before the time of Eumenes. 
Some have concluded that it was not known among 
the members of the Amphictionic league, because 
they engraved their ancient ti'eaties on columns ; 
but that was done with a view to make them more 
public and durable ; and it might be for the same 
reason that the children of Seth, as mentioned by 
Josephus, wrote, or engraved, their astronomical 
discoveries on columns. The writing of the law of 
Moses on two tables of stone, does not prove that 
parchment was not then in use ; for Moses mentions 
some books ; and the book of Jasher* is mentioned 
in Jo^ua, &c. and as it is believed that Moses was 
the author of the book of Job,t we may, from the 

. ♦Joshua X. 13.— See also Gen, v. 1.— Exod. xvii. 14.— 
Numb. xxi. 14. — ^Deut. xxxi. 24, 26.— Josh, xviii. 9.— 
1 Sam. X. 25, &c. 

t Commentators on the book of Job have differed respecting 
the author ; some ascribing it to Moses, some to Job, and oth- 
ers to Eliphaz the Temanite. The Rabbins, and the gener- 
ality of Christians, consider Moses as the writer of it. 


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exdanyoioa^ O that mtim (xb%r^^y had wfi^m 
m 600k f presume that in those days the inaki- 
ing of books wite a familkr t^^ctice. Indeed 
Irom Mother pasit^ iii lob> cha^. xi%, v. 3Sy 24^ 
It might b^ pm&\ita^ t^at iall th^ dU£fbent modes of 
Widting, aj» W^ ad firinti^^ engr^mng and bookw 
makmg were known in those days; for he 8a)r^ 
Oh thdt my t^wtfe 'iu^efHm wt-itten ! Oh thm ^y 
tp^n? pfifited fti ft dd^/ T^eit ^y iv(^& pu^m 

Tht Grtiktt had mdfty authors \Mott Afe lime 
of Homer, ru^h ^ Orpheud, Mtidceii^, ti%rm€&, iiiid 
aixtf (^ ^ventymore, who afc m^titiotied by an- 
d^nt WrUeri ; and, som<^ are ttf opinion, that Hom^ 
liVfed much earlier than is gieneraUy supposed* His 
1/r^ki Were 'written, according to some auth(»i9, 
in tablets of Wood covered With Wax. Th6 Writ- 
ings of Hesiodj which W^re deposited in the Tern* 
pie <X the Muses in B^Botia, v^tt originaUy 
written upon plates of lead* The^ fects seem td 
prove that in tiie time of the most ancient Ch^efc 
authors, parchj^ent and the papyrus were unknowh ; 
but there ca^ be no doubt that the skins of beasts 
prepared either as leather or parchment^ werekhoWtt 
before the time of Alexander^ and, consequently, 
prior to the pretended invention of Eumenes* 

Solomon was a great maker of books ; jhrhf 
spake three thousand proverbs^ and his songs tiwr c 
thousand and Jive. ^ He also wrote upon natural 
histoiy^ trees, plants, herbs, keaj$t$, fowls, im&G^tB 

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01 BOOKS. S3 

and fijAes ; and he im& acquwated wkk the woi;^^ 
0f iesymedmei^of othar natk^o^ He was a gp^t 
author ^ hut at hst he fi^und his sub^ts sa hie:;- 
haustible, that he came to the canclusion that, ^<^ m 
WMking wiany^ books there is no end^V^ It is sup* 
posed that Solomon was cont^poi;:^ with Zoroas-^ 
tar,t the foimder of the Magiau religion, in Bersia ; 
&at he warote ^ book of Ecclesiastes against the 
dogmas of Zoroaster ; an(l, it is probable, he had 
tho^ works written on p^chment, according to the 
' custom of Persia. Therefore, suppoang parchment 
had not been introduced into Judea, preyiously to 
his time^ w^ cannot syppose that a king, ivho was 
acquainted with all die riph productions and luxu- 
ries of thp world, could remain ignorant of so great 
a conveni^ace. We cannot, indeed, doubt that 
parchment was, before his time, known by the Is- 
radites ; and, that it was used even in the times 
when die Jews were liberally supplied with the pa- 
l^yrus from Eg3^. it has continued in use from 
those days until now ; and is still much used in Eu- 
rope, in ail records an4 legd transactions. 

Paper, for mQre than two centuries, has been 
employed ^ die manufacture of printed books. 

* Eccles. xii, 13. 

t We leam from ancient aud^ors that the writings of Zoro- 
Atffisr Amounted to two mUlion^ of lines, or verses, which 
ipiist J^aye i^ade ^ ye^ry ^oo^cjerakle number of l^oo^s. jjLs it 
i^ been affixsned there were xu^ny learned pen pfthsi^ I?^^) 
it is thought, by some, the writii\gs 6f all h§iye been im^tjMl .to 
one of them. Seneca, in his Epistle Ixxxviii, mentions that 
^9^<)f Ijh^ 4000 yolujB^es ^^perk^Srj^^s] pf^Wy^f, were 

1 E 

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Numerous authors have written largel)rboth with 
respect to parchment and paper ; but, I will endeav- 
or to comprise, in a few pages, the substance of 
what they have published in many volumes. 

It is the opinion of many of those authors, that 
the art of making paper from silk and cotton, came, 
like many of our arts, from the Chinese. The use 
of it in Europe cannot be traced higher than to the 
eleventh century. In England, the oldest testimony, 
of paper, made from linen, does not ascend higher 
than to the year 1320. 

Of paper, there have been four principal kinds ;' 
Chinese, Japanese, Egyptian, and European, which 
were invented in different periods of time. 

As to the epocha when the Chinese paper was 
invented, we are left in darkness; nearly all we 
know of the matter is, that the Chinese have had 
the use of paper from time immemorial. They still 
excel all other nations in the manufacture of it, so 
far as relates to fineness, and delicacy of texture. 
Silk is supposed to be an ingredient in the manufac- 
ture of the best^Chinese paper.* Common paper 
is manufactured in that country, from the young 
bambf)o, the inner bark of the mulberry, and other 
trees, and from the skin which is found in the web 
of the silk worm. 

Paper is made, in Japan, from the bark of trees, 
the growth of that country. Kempfer describes 
four, but the best paper is made of the bark of the 
young shoots of the true paper tree, called in the 
Japanese language kaadsi; this bark is properly 

* The Chinese have a book called Yexim^ said to have been 
written by their first kingFohi, about 3000 years before Christ. 

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cleansed, and boiled in clear lye, till the matter ac- 
quires a proper consistency ; it is then washed and 
turned till it is sufficiently diluted, and reduced to 
soft • and tender fibres ; after this, it is laid on a 
smooth table, and beaten with a kind of batoon of 
hard wood, till it resembles paper steeped in water ; 
the bark thus prepared is put into a narrow tub, and 
a glutinous extract from rice and the root oreni, is 
added. These are stirred together till they form a 
liquor of an equal and uniform consistency ; then 
poured into large tubs, and the workmen proceed 
to form the sheets. The Japanese paper, according 
to Kempfer, is of great strengdi ; and, it is said, the 
materids which compose it might be manufactured 
into ropes ; one kind of it is fit for bed hangings and 
wearing apparel, resembling so much stuffs of wool 
and silk that it is often mistaken for them. When 
paper was first made in Japan cannot be known ; it 
is believed they received the art from China. 

In Egypt, the western parts of Asia, and the 
civilized parts of Europe, it is probable, paper was 
not known till long after it was discovered and used 
in China. The ancients wrote on stones, bricks, 
the leaves of trees, and flowers, the rind or bark of 
trees, tables of wood covered over with wax,* and 
on ivory, plates of lead, linen rolls, spade or blade 
bones. Pliny says, the most ancient way of writing 
was on the folium, or leaves of the palm tree. Then 
they used the inner bark of a tree ; and hence, biblos 
in Greek, and liber in Latin, came to signify a book. 
When they wrote on harder substances, they used 

* This method is mentioned by Homer. 

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56 HISTORY "dt '^Pfli^NTINC. 

iron^fA, Snd fWM this cfrcuHitftaiic&, itfeiS^ 

^c6o]hfi*g to VHiTo, ^^^erMs not hi&db^fittt 
iBic Egypitife TpapJ^s, till abbtit *the tiitte^thaft A3€*> 
^ffer life ^eit %>nat Afexanarfe. Fit^ thfe^teHfc 
p^^is, fe ^enVea bur i*56ra ps^. Thfe fttp^rhft 
^i^lillr!^ nisli, or rei^d, which grewm Eg;^ tb 
lte-^feigHtt)f several feet, and of ^ cori^dmribfe big«* 
ifi^> The T^gyptians m^de s^, iig^g, T<^i6s, 
iriafs, lilmjkets, clothes; also, sfieisdl ^^^ of ^ 
^lyfe of fte papjrrus, tod paper. 

From Pfery;! Guilandintts and ^&18nttslus, ^ 
l^in tt&ttKe Egypdaris nubde theu'^q)er & -flie^fdl- 
"Tc(wit%%tamier. They began with feppfrng^^fe 
iliiro extremities of the papynls, nfittidy, ^tKfe hca& 
'ithd r06t, ais of ik) tiise to the mami&ctuirer ; the'rt- 
triaining^emthi^'dk lengthwise, mtb two equal 
par(s,'aifid ftom^&\ of these they stripped the Ihki 
scaly pdfi61es,t>fwMch it bonsisted, wiA^ite poiitt 
of a^ecdfe, *br teiSfe. The inneftfriost of those pel- 
licles^re looked upon as the best, and tho^inear- 
'est the rind, ^e worst. They Were, according^ 
itept'^pah, ^hd 'cbiistituted^ffiitnt' sorts bfpapfer. 
As the pelliiJfes^re teifcen off thdy ^xtendi^ theih 
t»i a tible; then two, or more of them, w*e laid 
over each offier transVel^y, so as Siat the^ffl^i^ 
rnaSe Tight angles. In ^fe state they were ghitell 
^bgdther by the muddy Wiater of -fee Nite, iUid'put 

♦ Itgtiw in ihahflies n^ar tiieli^ile, %tot>f atrf*i^i<Hr 
shape, nbout fourteen feet high, and i6%fateenDrtwinl7*in6his 
in circumference. 

tPlinjr,lib. siii. C.2. , 

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tir iand {MsiUie fntsvtd kie&ctual, a paste made of 
4Sht ^tMrnh^xtrAoar^ tmxti whfahDtirater^inda 
t^io^dding of vbsssgsar^ was jutd^ tkc^ skeabs were 
l^jl&i ^[A'^Msl, fiind vimmtdB dsbd tby the sun; 
4ii^^#^fei&m&itteifed ^md ismodtfaed ii3rii6at]ng 
Ae% ii^kh a 'itfaUen, t^n titiey became qpiper; 
l^liich *fti[^ s^liKtiiAdfi ^pdlhifaed by rtibbki^ ^ with 

lPti{>€iri;(/«u^ an ittii^Grtont branch of oommercet^ 
the Egyptians, which continued to increase toumrda 
«ke<^«l ^ ikt^i!Oi&mt i«p«Mc &i^(fetter of the 
«mpeaMar AcbbiR, «he ^rqnEring of the /papjrms la 
%ie^)^tied as cfiHe ctf die prmeipal oocupaticoia in 
^^«?in^a. *^ in this rich and opuleitt city/' mya 
il^, ^^fidbddf is^een t^; •some ase en^^yedin 
Ibe tnaim^liE^ufittg^ jclddi, some in that df paper," 
tit. ^^ The^emand Cor'Ads paper was so great to- 
jf^jtfd die^n[d<>f4i^ tfahdccnt^ when the ty. 
i^t^FiifmisXx^nqnefed Egypt, he boasted that be 
hSidr^z6d^i!iiidi^aper and size as wouldsuj^xHt 
Kis whote artiiy."* 

^y a pubUead<m <^M. Meerman^jxtnbe Hagc^ 
in l:767,^apf)ears that papi^ 4nadein>m bim n^ 
*ia been 4ified ki Eurdi^ befi»ethe year 1300. 

The abbfi Andrez published, at Parma, in 1782, 
a^dilc therein he main^ui^, l^t paper made from 
i01k^Was~^]<y ahbic»vdy fai>Ficatedffi C^ina, and the 
«aitmi pans df Ask ; that the art of -making this 
^)ap^^itasearriecl%om China to Pfepsia abmitdie 
year tf*2, and fo Medea in 706. Tlie Arabs snb- 

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stituted cotton, and carried the art of making paper 
into Africa and Spain; from Spain it passed into 
France, from thence to Germany and England, &c 

The European paper made from bark, was only 
the inner, whitish rind inclosed between the bark 
and the wood of various trees, particularly the ma- 
ple, plane, beech, elm, the tilia, philyra or linden- 
tree, the last of which was chiefly used for the pur- 
pose. On this, stripped off, flatted and dried, the 
ancients wrote books, several of which are said to 
be still extant. 

The PofA^v^y or Charta Bombycina^ mentioned 
by Greek writers, formerly was used to signify silk, 
thou^ afterward the term was applied to cotton 
paper, which has been in use for several centuries 
past. Cotton paper appears to have been very com- 
mon eight or nine hundred years ago, consequendy 
it must have been invented long before. Anterior 
to the destruction of the late French king's library, 
at Paris, there were manuscripts in it on cotton pa- 
per, which appeared to be of the eleventh century. 
The learned antiquarian, father Montfaucon, saw 
one there, proved to be written in 1050. The same 
author mentions that cotton paper was cojnmpnly 
used in the eastern empire, and even in Sicily, in the 
twelfth century. 

Wlien, or by whom, linen paper was invented^ 
is not known ; as Polydore Virgil confesses, it may 
be of great antiquity. If the Decalogue was written 
on tables of stone, the laws of Solon on rollers of 
wood, those of the Roman Decemvirs on brass, and 
the ordinances of the Areopagus, and the various 
treaties of the Greeks, were engraved on colunms ; 

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if monuments have been found Math Eg3rptian hi- 
eroglyphics, with Pelasgic, with Runic, characters 
on them ; this does not prove that the ancients had 
not more convenient materials to write on. The 
quaint Dr. Arbuthnot says, that Augustus Cesar 
had neither glass to his windows, or a shirt to his 
back ; but however that may have been, linen was 
nuide in very ancient times. There is mention 
made of flax, and Jine lineuj in the writings of 

* Although Varro ascribes the manufacture of the papy- 
rus to the dme of Alexander ; yet, it is certain, they had paper 
in much more ancient times ; and from their great ingenuity 
in the manufecture of the Hnumj or flax, in which they excelled 
all people^ both ancient and modem, we may presume they had 
linen paper. The making of fine linen was a very important 
branch of manufacture among the Egyptians, who were so ex- 
pert at the business, that they carried it to a most wonderRil 
degree of perfection. It is related, that they could draw out 
threads which were finer than the finest web of the spider. 
The priests were always habited in linen, and never in wool- 
len ; and, not only the priests but generally all persons of dis- 
tinction wore linen garments. The Jine linen of Egyfit was 
renowned through all antiquity, and a most extensive trade in 
it was carried on ; much of it being exported into foreign coun- 
tries. The making of it employed a great number of hands. 
Fine linen is the first article of Egyptian commerce, mention- 
ed by the prophet Ezekiel, chap, xxvii. 7, and the women 
were much employed in the manufacture of it, as appears fix»m 
a passage in Isaiah, chap. xix. 9, in which the prophet me- 
naces Egypt with a drought of so terrible a kind, that it should 
interrupt every description of labor. Moreoruer^ they that work 
injinejlax^ and they that weave net work^ shall be confounded. 
We find that one consequence of the plague of hail, brought 
upon Egypt by Moses and Aaron, Exodus ix. 31, was, that 

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The fi^wm^ is^ tiie best evid^ence i kave beea 
dkitt to colleet, respecting tiie kivesitioa eS p^r. 
Blade ftmti KneH, in Europe ; wkiek tlie read^ witt 
^c is not entirely free from contFa^btioB. 

Scdiger ascribes the kwention to the Germany 
MaJHfei to Ae Italians, others to some Gre^ refa- 
gees at Ba^, who took the hint from tite manner of 
mdking cotton paper in their own country 5 Ccm^ 
gius thinks we received it from Ae Arabs. Lmen 
paper appears to have been introduced into Europe, 
about the fourteenth centuiy, according to the Count 
Maffd, who found no traces of it before Ae year 
1300. Some go much farther back, andtake Ac 
Hbri Rntei mentioned by Livy, and other Roman, 
writers, to have been written on liu^n paper. Oth- 
ers, make the invention mwe mod^ro than it ia, an 
can be clearly proved, for they date its origin on^ 
about three hundred years ago : but Mabfflon has 
shewn Ac contrary, from many manuscripts about 
four hundred years old, writteiji on linen paper j ancj 
Balbinus has produced divers instances of such man* 
uscripts written before Ac year 1340. To this W€ 
may add, that there are writings on linen paper, in the 
Cottonian Library at Oxford, in the times of mo^ 

thc/a:r wot 9initten^ because it was boiled. The embroidered 
work from Egyfit, mentioned by Ezekiel, was made from the 
finest of the linen, and frequently died purple. This, in Pliny's 
estimation, held the second rank ; the first place he gives to 
the Asbestos, or Asbcstinum, or inccnnbustible flax. As there 
was so much trade in flax and linen in Egypt, it is not unlikely 
paper was made from it ; and this may account for the diflicul- 
ty die modems have met with in tracing the origin of linen 

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Of" BOOKS. 41 

year 1:335. That celd»a«ed histcMrian and Arifue, 
X)r. HignphTtty Prideaiix^ wrbtc astfoHows^ on this 

^fTk/t insrenldoii of making' finen papev^ Mr* 
Ra?|r puts vevy late. For fas teOs us m Ms Hcrbat, 
that it WBS* not knoicni in^ Gurmsaty till the year of 
our luoni 1470 ; that th^i% two iBjen, named Antho^ 
tsy ai^Michad, brought tlus art fir^ to Basil, out 
o£ G^Ecky in^ Spdn^ and) thatt firom thence it \7a9 
kjarnt and brought into use hf the rest o£ the Ger- 
nuBHS. But there must be a. mistake m this, there 
beii^ both written and printed boc&s, as well as 
manuscripts, of this sort of paper, which are cer- 
tainly. ancieutor than the year 1470. There is 
extant a book called CathoUeony written by Jacobus 
d« Jamia, a monk, printed on paper, atMentz, ix^ 
Germanyv aimo 1460 ; and therefore the Germans 
must hav^ had the use of tliis sort of paper long be- 
fore Mr. Hay saith. And there are manuscripts 
that are written on this sort of paper, that are muchr 
ancienter, as msgr be especially eyidenced in several 
registries w:ithin this realm [England] where the 
cbdtes of the instrument or act& regi^ercd ja-ove Ae 
tina^ There is in the Bishop's registry at Nor- 
wioh, a regii^T book of wills, all made of paper, 
wherqin registiations are made which bear date so 
high up as the year of our Lord 1370, just an hun- 
dred jpiears before the time that Mr. Ray saith the 
use of ic began in Germany. And I have seen a 
registmtion of some acts of John Cranden, prior of 
Ely, mode upon paper,* which bear date in the four- 
te^rth year of king Edward the second^ that is, 

1 F 

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Anno Domini 1320. This invention seems to have 
been brought out of the East. For most of the old 
manuscripts in Arabic, and other oriental languages, 
which we have from thence, are written on this sort 
of paper, and some of them are certainly much an- 
cienter than any of the times here mentioned about 
this matter. But we often find them written on pa^ 
per made of the paste of silk, as well as of linen. It 
is most likely the Saracens of Spain first brought it 
out of the east into that country ; of which GaUicia 
being a province, it might, from thence, according 
to Mr. Ray, have been from thence first brought 
into Germany ; but it must have been much earlier 
than the time he says.'^ 

This passage from tiiat learned author, makes it 
su^ciently clear, that the invention of linen paper 
was earlier than the period marked by several of the 
authors I have mentioned. His supposition, that it 
" came from the east," favors the opinion that it was 
known in the east, and most likely in Egypt^ from 
very ancient times. 

It is not only possible, but probable, that the 
Egyptians made it some thousands of years since^ 
perhaps long before they manufactured the papyrus 
from the fragments of their linen ; and, that they 
made the papyiiis for ordinary purposes, to which 
it would have been extravagant to apply the paper 
made from their fine linen. 

Paper was, for near three hundred years, manu- 
factured on the continent of Europe in a much bet- 
ter manner than in England. I have seen books, 
printed at Paris about two hundred and fifty yeara 
ago, on paper which appears to have been chiefly 

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made from silk. It resembles the Chinese paper in 
regard to its strength, delicacy of texture, and want 
of whiteness. This shews that the !French, as well 
as the Dutch, had made great progress in the busi- 
jiessf of papermaking, near three centuries back* 
Till within the last century the English did very lit- 
tle in tins line of business ; but they now manufac- 
ture paper in greater perfection than the Dutch, 
from whom they formerly purchased the greatest 
part of their fine paper. 

From the preceding rei^arks it appears, that 
books were originally written on stone, bricks, 
bones, wooden planks, bark, leaves, wax, leather, 
lead,. linen, silk, horn, skins and paper. The forms 
of books were almost as different as the materials of 
which they were made. When bark was introduc- 
ed, it was rolled up, in order to be removed with 
greater ease ; the roll Was called volumen, a volume ; 
the name was continued afterwards to written rolls 
of paper and parchment, which were composed of 
several sheets fastened to each other, " and rolled 
upon a stick, or umbilicus ; t][ie whole making a kind 
of column, or cylinder, which was to be managed 
b)'the umbilicus as a handle, it being reputed a 
crime to take hold of the roll itself; the outside of 
the volume was called^ow^ ; the ends of the umbil- 
icus, comuaj which were usually carved, and adorn- 
ed with silver, ivoiy, or even gold and precious 
stones ; the tide, ^XKeiS^g, was struck on the outside ; 
the whole voluijie, when extended, might make a 
yard and a half in width, and fifty feet in length. 
The form, which obtains among us, is the square, 
composed of separate leaves ; this form was known, 

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diottghlkdeusedj^bytheaiKieiits. To the fisitn cC 
books belongs, also, the iiit^mal ecmiomy, as the or- 
der and arrangement of letters and poiHte, into lii^s 
and pages, wi^ margins and c^her a{^rtemnts« 
TTiis has und^gone many vaiiedcs ; Jrt first, die let- 
ters were only dii^ided kito linesl ; Aai into sepafaie 
words, whichj by degrees, were^noted With dcceitts, 
tod distributed, by points and ^<^, into periods, 
paragraphs, chapters, and oidier divisions. In some 
countries, as among the orientds, the Ikies begaa 
from the light, iind mn to the left ; in olhers, as the 
ncnthem and western nations, ^m left tor^ht; 
others, as the Gr^fcs, JToliowed both dIrecticmSj al- 
tematdy going in the oik, and retumii^ in the oth- 
er. In most countries, the lines nm from one side 
to die other; ki some, particularly die CUbese^ 
from top to bottom.* 

The ancients are said to hare made psq)er of the 
asbestos. Signior Castagnatta pr(^>osed a schem;e 
for making books of that kind of paper, ^ivbidti from 
its imperishable natuipe, he would call Books qfeter* 
nity ; not only the leaves, iHit the thread whidh sew- 
ed die books, and the covers, were all to foe made 
from die same substance; and the letters were td 
be made of gold. Dr. Brukmami, professor at the 
university in Bitinswicky in Germany, published tfee ^ 
natural history of that fossil, and four copies of h» 
book were printed oto paper made of ft# 

The reader will find, heredPte*, some notice cf the 
rise of papermaking in our country. Many of oikr 

» FfOnic. BJU. Aa^. c 19.— Silt Caqrc y«l. 3. 

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•f fiOOKt^ 4S 

itiamfaeMMinis^jpetirixite Intern i^n profit; 
aHhou^ ^o^fie 'dfthem mtvc^ to rival tiie best per^ 

Scamty and value iff Book Sy hefort the invention qf 

Wharton* mentkws iht «ia«:ity of books ki thft 
sevetidi, $aid sevaral ^bseqiiei^ ceiftuHes ; anu^ 
mtan^ instanced he gives the following* 

*^ Towards the close of the seventh CttrtuTf, 
cVtn in the papd tibrtljy at Rome^ the numb^ of 
boic&s was sb ihcons»detable, that pope St Martiti 
i'eqtiested S^ct^nrnid, bishop of MftestricI^ tf pd8« 
sible, to supply this defect from the remotest patti 

" " In the ye* 855, Lupus, abbot of Ferrieres, ifii 
France, »i* two of his monks to pope Bencdirt IIIj 
to beg a copy of Cicero de Oratore, and Quintilian'ti 
fcistitutes, and some other books; **fbr, says the 
abbxA, although we hare parts of these books, yet 
fliere is no whote ot complete copy of them in 2IA 

" Albert, abbot of Gembkmrs, who with incred* 
Me labor, and immense expense, had collected an 
hundred volumes on dieologicai, attd fifty on psfo- 
fene subjects, bdiered he had formed a splendid 

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" At the beginiiing of the tenth century, books 
were so scarce in Spain, that one and the same copy 
of the Bible, St. Jerome's Epistles, and some vol- 
umes of ecclesiastical offices, &c. served several 
different monasteries." 

" The library of the bishop of Winchester, in 
1294, contained nothing more than " Septemdecem 
parti librum de diver sis scientiis.^^ That prelate in 
1299, borrowed of lus cathedral convent of St* 
Swithin, ^^ Bibliam bene glossatam;^^ that is, the 
Bible with marginal annotations ; but gave a bond 
for the due return of the loan, drawn up with great 

" If any person gave a book to a religious house, 
he believed that so valuable a donation merited eter- 
nal salvation; and he offered it on the altar with 
great solemnity." 

" The most formidable anathemas were peremp- 
torily denounced against those who should dare to 
alienate a book presented to the cloister, or library, 
of a religious house." 

" The prior and convent of Rochester declare, 

' that they will every year pronounce the irrevocable 

sentence of damnation on him who shall purloin or 

conceal a Latin translation of Aristotle's Physics, or 

even obliterate the title." 

" When a book was bought, the afl^ was of so 
much importance, that it was customary to assem- 
ble persons of consequence and character, and to 
make a formal record that they were present at the 

" About the year 1225, Roger de Insula, dean 
of York, gave several Latin Bibles to the univer- 

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sity of Oxford, with a condition, that the students 
who penised them should deposit a cautionary 

" The library of the university at Oxford, before 
the year 1300, consisted only of a few tracts, chain- 
ed or kept in chests in the choir of St Mary^s 

" About the commencement of the fourteenth 
century, there were only four classics in the royal 
library at Paris ; the rest were chiefly books of do- 
votion ; the classics were Cicero, Ovid, Lucan, and 

" About the year 1400, a copy of John of 
Meun's Romum de la Roze, was sold before the pal- 
ace gate, at Paris, for forty crowns." 

The dutchess of Buckingham, left to the lady 
Margaret Beaufort, mother of kmg Henry 7th, of 
England, " in consideration of the lady Margaret's 
love of literature, a book of English, being a legend 
of saints; a book of French, of the Epistles and 
Gospels ; a Primer, with clasps of silver, gilt, cov- 
ered with purple velvet."* This was estimated a 
most valuable legacy. 

It is certson that after the art of making paper 
was known, manuscript books were multiplied ; but 
the number of books was greatly enlarged when 
Printing was discovered. Reesf observes, that " the 
invention of the art of making paper, and the inven- 
tion of the art of Printing, are two very memorable 
events in the history of literature and of human civ- 

• Strype's Annals. f Cyclo, Vol. 4, 

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Of Books WRITTEN by the Scribes, before tkfittrt 
i^FrifUif^ mi^icKsttovefredi €mAy qf tAom which 

Nearly four centuries having elapsed sin^e^ the 
ast of making books vas pBctind isho^^ by the 
aexibes; andws^^ having bibsn so long^fiuniliaiiiMd 
t9theprodiictk»]sof thepress^eannotformai) adi- 
eqpial^ idea of the mediods wluch wese u^ tor 
complete manuscript books, in the elegant wanner 
in which Ihey were foiindL Affeny thnireawds of 
icohimes hai^ afe gnest espense, and hy strenwais. 
exertions of leanu^ men, been cdiected fixim aUr 
til^ ancient d^ositaries of Ajsoa and AErica^ a6 well 
as. Europe, wiiddb^ were acceauMe, and fdaced m the: 
g^^eat public libraries in Italy, Getanany, France, andf 
£ng^d^ 9cc. but&w, on either side o£ the Atlantio, 
who have not had die opportuni^ to visit those li* 
l»B]ies, mid examine the antique viohmiftsj cao. be* 
well acquainted; with the state ^fperfiecticin^ whiolt 
the art of making them had been bceught. As tfaisi 
pact of America, was not setsded* till printed books 
hadi been neaciy two hiHidred yaacs ia use, very/ 
fiow manuscript volumes were bnsugUt hexe by our* 
fboefatl^rs-; ofthose few there are now scsffcefyiai^ 
remains ; so that evea a leaf is^hdd in hi^ estima- 
tion, by the American antiquary, as a pecious reUc-^ 
of the ingenuity mid skiU' of the ^incicEit scribes. 

From our want of information, we readHy be«. 
lieve that, with Printing, originated the mahy nice- 
ties, and methodical arrangements, M*dch constitute 

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Of iooits. 40 

books, and p^xiuce dieir ccmrenient formd and de« 
gant appearance. The &ct is otherwis&*«-printed 
books were made to imitate, in die most minute 
partioulars, those whkh had preceded them from 
the hands of the scribes^ The p^^sons who printed 
them, kept the art a secret, that the bo(^s mi^ be 
told at die prices usually charged for those which 
were wrkten.^ Ancient manuscript books were 
written, generally, on parchment, after the time oi 
Eumenes ; and, to c^ny on the deception, those 
which were printed, before the secret was €xploded» 
woe printed on parchment; and, indeed, for some^" 
time af^, untS die article became scarce through 
the multiplicaticm of copies, When paper wad made 
to resemble ydlum, and substituted in its place; 
that paper was, at least, equal to the finest veihim 
pBpar in use at the present day« The scribes pre« 
pared their parchment accor^i^ to the siae of the 
books they wtote* The sizes were g^^ally fo^ 
Iioa and quartosi^^ut few of octavo ; and some 
of a ainaUer size for children. Papor was made for 
hooks, die dimensions whereof corre^>onded with 
diose made of pardunenL The sizes of the sheets 
iKtrCy general^, those of pot and foolscap ; and, 
for k century, that used for printing did not exceed 
the limits of crown* 

After die parchment for manuscript books was 
prq^iared, the margin to the pages was determined ; 
ivhich, in all aninent worits, was large and hand« 
some. The ^aces for pages, columns and lines, 

^ Trimethliis ciilb Pfin^g^ << the n^Kmdtrfid art tf chafac« 

1 G 

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were marked out with the greatest exactness, from 
the beginnihg to the end of a volume — ^the space 
foe the lines was in proportion to the size (rf tf^e 
script or writing ;, the letters, or characters, ,for 
which, were what is tertned Gothic fllftCiUf') Very 
similar to the blacks or types of Gertnan and Eng- 
lish text, now occasionally used. The inventors of 
Printing carefully imitated the sizes and shapes of 
those characters, first on blocks of ,wood, and aftser- 
ward on metal types. Pages, columns ajid lines of 
written books, corresponded with the nicest, accum- 
cy on each side of a leaf, occupying the like spaces 
on one side as on the other, and were continued with 
the same uniformity throughout the volume-i^this, 
which is by printers called register, was perfect. 
The pages of written books were in two columns ; 
so were those of bodks from the press, for a centu- 
ry ^after it came into use. The, space between the 
columns was large. In folio volumes, written with 
letters of the size of pica, I have measured, in sev- 
eral MS. bodks, or rather the leaves of them, which 
I possess, five eighths of an inch between the col- 
limns ; and three eighths of an inch in quartos,^ ot 
works written in smaller^ characters than the size of 
pica. The same space was made betwefen the col- 
umns of pages in books first printed. 

In the infancy of the art, the variety in the sizes 
of the types, was but inconsiderable ; however, such 
as they were, they were copied from the sizes of the 
letters made use of in manuscript books. I have 
compared the pages of several of those books, writ- 
ten before the era of Printing in Europe, with the 
casts of both old and modem specimens of types, 

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and have found the lines of whole pages of tihe an- 
cient manuscripts to correspond in breadth of face, 
fee. with the pica blacks in the printed specimens ; 
the written and printed works measuring so exacdy 
together, as not to gain one line in thirty. The let- 
ters of some that I have compared, corre^onded 
exactly to english, and those of others to long 
primer and brevier. I was struck with the great 
resemblance of written brevier, on a parchment leaf 
of an ancient MS. quarto volume, to that of brevier 
illSCfc 6^y printed. At first sight, I thought the 
work was impressed by types ; but, soon discovered 
my OTor, by observing tl^ the spaces for the pages, 
columns and lines, were all marked out by the 
rule and divider ; and that the letters crowded on 
each other, in many places, more than they could 
have done, had printing types been used. I criti- 
cally examined this manuscript leaf, and laying it by 
the side of a J)rinted column, from brevier typ^, I 
found that the lines of each ran exactly parallel, for 
the whole length of the manuscript, containing sev- 
enty lines. The manuscript p^e was in two col- 
umns ; the width of eadi colunm, twenty two bre- 
vier ems. The space between the columns three 
eighths of an inch ; the breadth oif the faces of the 
lettei^, were as xmiformly true and exact as if they 
had been cast ; the ink wab a fine black, precisely 
similar to that anciently used for Printing ; or, to 
speak more correctly, the ancient printers used ink 
exactly resembliiig in color that which was used by 
the scribes. No rules at the sides, head or feet of 
the pages, or between 'the columns, wene used by 
the scrSbes, nor were they to be seen in books 

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made by the earliest printers. The use c^rales, w 
such black lines as divide the advertistmentB in 
newspapers, and flowers, 3xA two line letters, werd 
unknown till Itwig aftet the inyention of PHnting 
in Europe. 

Scribes, or illuminators at they were Called^ 
decorated die beginnings ci manuscript books, and 
their seireral cfa^ters, or divisions, with omamentedt 
capital letters. The ornaments were made widi 
liquid ink of various colors, and they were often 
very elegantly and beautifiilly pencilled and giltted* 
At the bej^nmng of books, and at die principal di<^ 
rbions •f them, the letters were larger than at the 
subheads, &c. The same method was used in the 
first printed books; a space was left in printing 
them, for the cniHunented letters, which were af« 
terwands filled up by the illuminator. Tlusmeth-» 
od was practised for nearly a century ; or imtil, at 
length, ornamented letters, engraved on wood, sup* 
plied the. place of die largest illuminations; and two» 
three, or four line letters, from the fi)undry, the 
place of the smaller letters for die purposes men* 
ttoned. Tire principal colors used in die illumina^ 
tion of such woAs, as I have seen, were red and 
blue ; and, in books, made three or fimr hundred 
years ^go, they appear ds fresh as if just laid on ; 
and, although some of the manuscripts have been, 
in part, decayed, by having been frequently wet>* 
and by otlier accic^ts, yet the ink with whkli the 
letters w^e made, and the colors* of the iUumina-* 
tbns, remain ftesh and unaltered. 

The art of cutting on wood, for ktter jh^ss, was 
brought to considerable maturity in the fifteei^ 

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cmitcgy^fVAto great {yerfectiott In the sixteenth. 
Liffge oiDamented eafnlal lett^^^ as substitutes for 
the^mirks of the iUmninatw, were then introduced, 
and vmtt sooti after followed by those decoratioM 
called head and tail pieces. 

From what hss been said^ it appears that die 
scribes excelled ki the art (^ l|^ing; and that 
Fkintii^ was, for a kmg time, modelled by the 
works odT the scribes, of wMch it was an imitaticm. 
Perhaps it never equalled their performances as long 
as it continued to imitate them* 

Manuscri^ books, and those printed for many 
years aftor the invention of types, were variously 
decx^iated in binding. Straigth apprared to be the 
first object, neatness the second, and degant works 
were executed for those who chose to pay for them. 
Tl^ were sewed <m single, or douUe bands, of 
strength proportioned to the bulk of the wwk. The 
bands were fastraed to boards of compact wood, of 
a proper siae, and planed to a suitable thickness. 
The^ boards were covered with parchment, and then 
im{»essed with divens figures. Some of the most 
elegantbooks were cova*ed with ckar vellum; then 
oveilmd with gold leaf, and imjuessed with a stamp 
nearly die size of the boards, and others were hand- 
somely ornamented ; after which tl^y were clasped. 
Stamps, with various devices, were used for. that 
purpose, and the year in which the book was bound, 
appeared in large figures, on its covers. 

Printing was introduced at Venice, as early as 
146& ; that city was famed for improvements in the 
art. Books printed there before 1476, and for 
many yeaijs after, exceeded, m neatness of type, and 

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el^^aoce of impreSsiwi, those of all other parts cS Eu^ 
rqpe. I had read of the bdaaty of the Palter, ptint-^ 
ed by Fatist and Schoeflfer, in 1457, and <rf :«eYefal 
^riy editions of thcBiWe, &c. printed at Ment^ and 
Venice. I supposed, however, no more was n^eant 
iimi that they v/gtc so estimated cotisid<^ing the in- 
fimcy of the art jpmd, I should - not have had a due 
knowledge, of me beauty <rf ancient typogrtiphy, 
had I not seen a Bible, which I, have the satisfaction 
to own, pintedat Venice, in fourteen hundred and 
seventy six; a date jvhich carries us back within 
about twenty years of tiie tipcie when metal types 
w^^ invented, by Schoeffer, \^i£t% cast faces, and to 
withm forty six years of the pmod when Printing 
was discovered by Laurentius. 

This Venetian edition of the Bible is a copy of 
the Latin Vulgate. It is a folio r and the paper is an 
imitation of fine, clear vellum. The types art semi 
Gothic, differing from either ancient ot modem 
blacks. They are superiw in n^ti^ss ; and, com- 
pared with blacks, may be consi^red as an elfegant 
specimen. The letters are shaped mwe Uke Roman 
ftan any other characters ; their faces are broad and 
bold, and have but few fine strokes. Double l^ers 
and abbreviations are very freely used. The ink is 
clear, and of a fine black ; and, in no book, ancient 
«r modern, have I seaa better press work. There 
is not a letter but what is feir. In technical lan- 
guage, no pick, blot, blur, friar or monk, is to be 
seen in the wcwk. It is printed, generally, in insets 
of five dbeets each, but some are of six. Insets of 
five sheets, require ten forms of two pages to a form ; 
and would render a very large .cast, or fount, of types 

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or BOOKS* S5 

necessary. The size of tiie types b near that of 
small pica in w^dth of body, the ancient pica gww 
ing of the modem about one line m twenty four. 
The sheets have signatures at the foot of ereiy other 
page, for ^e first ten, of the insets. There is no 
catch, av indicative words at the bottom of tfao 
pages; no fc^os, cv'page^ numbered; norumuiffg; 
titles, excepting every other page is headed; the head 
^tending beyond the limits of the page, widi tb^ 
name of the book,.as j^ltllieti, JBeemie, in larger 
type, of the size of two linesen^^ish, of handsome 
face, and iaore resembling bl^ks than the types of 
the text ;^ the'pages are in twocolumns, witha space 
of nearly half an inch between them; smda similar 
space between die body .of the page and tbe^heads 
abovementioned. There are no lypomphical dec- 
orations whatever ; but the whole work is handsome- 
ly oiminented by the illuminator ; ai^, die colors 
of tiie illuminated l^tei^ are i» lively as if just laid 
on with the. pencil. The illuminated I,' which be^ 
gins the, first chapter of Genesis, is very bpautiiul ; 
it is of the length of seventeen lines pica, and eight 
in width ; two ems of the width, encroach on the 
margin of the page. For the width of two ems, the 
CMTiamental part of the I, is carried in the margin, 
close to the text, along the side of the pj^, and ex- 
tends below its foot. The beginning of each book, 
has a lai^er illuminated letter than its several chap- 
ters. Those for the chapters are three lines in depth ; 
of only one color, and that is red- Each capital 
letter in the text has, throughout the volume, a 
touch of red from the pencil. In printing the wwk, 
spaces were left to add it\f illuminated letters- 

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Every (Jiiqpter «i without a breaks or indmtttioil^ 
from the b^innii^ to the end of it, except for the 
iUus^naibed letter^ If a chapter ended with part of 
a line, the other part is fiUed by ^ number of the 
chapter following, if only room hardy for the nume-* , 
rals* IfiK^roomwasleftythenumbarofthesucceedy 
«ig chapter is inaertel at the end of the first }ine of 
iSta^ chapter, m^iich fdlows on ivithout any white 
Ifne or space!; the illuminated letters bmng* die oni]f> 
m&As for dividing ^ chapters. Where a book 
ends, a white line follows, with adiori prologue, or 
introduction, to the next book ; then another wMt^ 
fine succeeds, and die text begins witha IprgeiUu* 
minatiid letter^ and the ifdiole of die ficst line in 
large types, <^ the same size as those used for the 
heads toeTcry other page. 

A prologue c^ sevoi parts, and the prefiuse of 
St* Ja*ome, precede the Pentateuch ; sfiar the Pen-* 
tateuch, the books of the Okl Testament, aeoDdi* 
panied with the prologue of St. Jerome, &c. ^re 
arranged, as is usual in the Latin Vulgate, as £di-< 
lows, viz. Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Kings, in four 
books, Chronicles, Esdras I, Nehcmiah, Ssdraa 11^ 
Esdras III, Tobit^ Judith, Esther, Job, Psahns, [the 
diviMons in the 119di Psalm are all numbered as 
distinct Psalms, m^ing the number of Psalms 1713 
l^roverbs, Ecclesiastes^ Song of Solomon, Wisdom^ 
Ecclesiasticus, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamoitaticms, Ba^ 
ruch^ E^ekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Oba« 
diah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zepfaaniah, 
H£^;gai, Zechariah, Malachi, and Maccabees. The . 
bo(^s of the New Testament follow each other, as 
in the present £n|^h translation, with the additbn 

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OF B00K6. 57 

of the prefeces of St Jerome prefixed to each. Then 
follows an alphabetical explanation of Hebrew names, 
in Mxty six pages. The whole work makes nine 
hmidred and fourteen pages* 

This edition is mentioned by Le Long " Biblio- 
theca Sacruy^ page 253 ; and by Clarke, in his Bib- 
liographical Dictionary. Vol. 1. page 191, in tiiese 
terms — " This is a beautiful ancient edition ; it has 
a copious index at the end, which enhances the val- 
ue of it. As it is not described by Clement, or 
mentioned in the Harieian catalogue, it is, undoubt^ 
^y, rare in Europe. De Bure menticois it, as une 
eStion rare^fort recherches des curieuxy 

In all probability, it is the most ancient printed 
book now in America^ excepting one hereafter men- 

TTus Bible, which has been preser\'ed with great 
care, resembles the work of the most perfect ancient 
manuscripts. Not any of the leaves are tcMH, and 
only two are wanting, one of which contains a part 
of the prologue to the Pentateuch, and, unfortimate- 
ly, the other was the tide page. The imprint is at 
the end of the apocalypse, and is as follows : 

" Explicit biblia ipressa Venetijs : p Fraciscu 
de Hailbrun 7 Nicholau tJ frankfordia socios 

I have a copy of the celebrated Bible called, by 
way of distinction, " The Great Bible ;" by Arch- 
bishop Cranmer;* printed in the reign of Henry 
VIII, anno 1540. 

*This is Tyndal^i version revised by the directions of 
Archbishop Cranmer, by JMiles Coverdale, afterwards bishop 
•f Exeter, andothers^ and exa^mined by Cranmer, who pre- 
1 H 

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This Bible is a fd&>, of large size^ {Hinted on 
good vellum paper, firom a bkck type of die size of 
forge bodied englidky and in insets of four sheets^ 
Every other page is numbered at the end of the 
running title, e. g. ^TOl^ im« and so on. The ink is 
exceB^t; and the work is wdl executed, though 
inferior to the printing done at Venice, and in otl^r 
part$ of Europe, sixty years before. This yohanae 
never received the finiidiihg touches erf the ilhimina- 
tor. The prologues, the first chapter of Genesis and 
of ^fattfiew, arc begun with very large ornament* 
ed letters ; and aH other diapters with smaller deco<» 
rated letters, firom wooden engravings. The large 
T, at the beginning of MattfieWy fills tte whole width 
of the lines of the column^ and a space of eighteen 
lines in length. Wooden cuts of scripture history, 
of nearly the widdi <rf the columns, and twelve lines 
deep, are interspersed throughout the woik ; but 
are not so well executed as cut& for similar pur- 
poses, which were made at the same period in C3ter- 
many, and many other parts of Europe, where ar- 
tists excelled in engraving on wood for letter press 
printing. The archbishc^'s prob^^ ends with 
<50tt Mtfe tf)t fttfige J and beneath, by way of 
what are calkd tail pieces, are two very large orfi^ 
mented letters, 5)* &♦ [Henry KingJ oi Gothic 
shape, well engraven on wood. 

The tide is, " f[ The Byble in Englyshe, that is 
to saye the contet a! al the holy scrypture, bothe 

fixed a prologue, &c. to it ; whence it is called Cranmer's, or, 
« The Great Bible.'* Tyndal's was the first translation of the 
Bible, printed in England ; though Wickliffd was the first 
translator of it into the English langut^e. 

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Ot JBOOKS. 59 

qf the olde, and newe testamet, with a prologe ther- 

iiito, made by the revarende fether in God, Thomas 

arohbyshoi) of Cantorbiuy,' ^ This is the Byble 

apoyntedto the vse of the Churches. ^ Prynted 

by Rychard Grafton. Cum priuilegio ad imprimen- 

4um soium* 9^, 0« iL'"' Tlbie lines are printed in 

black md red j^lteraately. This titia occupies thffee 

imiliesy by three and five eighths in the centre of a 

large frontisi^ce, or border, in magnitude thirteen 

and six eighths by nine and six eighths inches. 

Thb border is mentioned by British writers, in the 

Encyclopedias, &c. as a ** beautiful frontispiece.'' 

It is from a wooden engraving, and if not beauti- 

fuQy, it may be said to be well executed for that kind 

of wori^ done in England in 1540 ; a description of 

this frontispiece may, to many, be acceptable. 

Before I ^ve an account of it, I will observe, 
that ]t h used also as a border to the title page of 
the New Testament ; which, liiat title informs us, 
is " tran^ted after the Greke ;" and then mentions 
9U llie gospels, epistles, &c. which it contains. Like 
the title of the Old Testament, it is printed with 
Uack and 1^ lines, alternately. The frontispiece, 
or bofdet, 'm said to Mve bem d^ Hans 
IfolbieaD, a jsetebrated ^wm artist ^f that time. A 
description of it follows. 

On iflie top of k, is a represeiUation of the Al- 
nyghty in the clouds of heaven, with both his \m^ 
stretched out, and two labels going from his mouth. 
On that going toward his ri^\t hand are the follow- 
ing words, '' WieOsim meum auoi) cgEeDietur nz 
oce mnsunt tettertetitt as loe tiactuim, jKeD fa^ 
tin ^mtrnxm ootta. Cjeia. Hu'' His left 

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hand points to the king, who is reprfesented kneeling 
at some distance bareheaded, and his hands lifted up 
toward heaven, with his crown on the ground be- 
fore him, and a label going out of his mouth. On 
the label which comes from the Almighty is this 

text—'' 3[nt}ent tttrum iuxta cot meum, qui 
factet omne0 uoluntateisf meag. Situ ];iiu"~to 

which answers that proceeding from the king, 

'' Hucema pei>ii)U0 meifiwtbnm mum. P0al^ 

Crtiiii/' Underneath the Almighty, the king is 
again represented, but enthroned, and the royal arms 
placed before his feet. On the right hand stand two 
bishops bareheaded, and their mitres on the ground, 
in token, as it should seem, of their acknowledg- 
ment of the king's supremacy. The king gives to 
one of them a book, shut, with these words on the 
cover, '^ VERBUM DEI;'' and the followmg words 
on a label going out of his mouth, '' fj^tt pt0Ctp( tt 
DOCS^" The bishop receives it, bending his right 
knee. On the king's left hand stand several of the 
lords temporal, to one of whom he delivers a book, 
clasped, with '' VERBUM DEI" on the cover of 
it, and the following words on one label—" 3 1110 

conisitttutum t»t oectetum, ut m uniMmo im^ 
petto tt regno meo tremitfcant et paoeant oeum 

tlitientem* Danie* W And on another label, 

this text, " ctuon juistum eiBit luBicate. 3[ta par* 
Hum auDiett0, ut magnunti Deut pttmo/' The 

nobleman receives the book, bending his left knee. 
Underneath the bishops, stands archbishop Cran- 
mer, with a mitre on his head, and habited in his 
rochet; over which is a stole. Before him is one kneeU 
ing Math a shaven crown, and habited in a surplice^ 

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Ot BOOKS. 61 

to whom the archbishop ddivers a book, clasped, 
with the wonls " VERBUM DEI,'* on the cover 
of it ; he uses the following sentence, which appears 
on a label coming out of his mouth — " ]P&jG(Cit0 QUi 

tn tiotifi m stegem Clinstti. pttmo. ]?e. n:' 

Behind the archbishop seems to Stand one of his 
chapldns. At the archbishop's feet is placed the coat 
of arms of his family, which is the same as that af- 
terwards prefixed to his life published by archbishop 
Parker, only here distinguished by the crescent, as 
the arms of a younger family. Under the lords tem- 
poral stands the lord Cromwell, the king's vicege- 
rent, as appears by his arms placed at his feet, as the 
archbishop's are. His lordship is represented as 
standing with his cap on, and a roll of paper in one 
hand, and in the other a book, clasped, with " VER- 
BUM DEI" on the cover of it, which he delivers to 
a nobleman, who receives it of him bareheaded. The 
following label is over their heads, " £)itl0tt0 & Ilia* 

lo et Gac tionum^ inquire pacem et periaiequere 

earn* PSialmO fl£l£iiV' At the bottom, on the 
right hand, is represented a priest with his square 
cap on, in a pulpit, preaching to a large auditory of 
persons of all ranks and qualities, orders, sexes and 
ages, men, women, childreai, nobles, priests, soldiers, 
tradesmen, and countrymen ; which are represent- 
ed, some standing, and others sitting on forms, and 
expressing themselves very thankfully. Out of the 
preacher's mouth goes a label with these words — 

''fl)i)0ecto igitut ptimum omnium fieri o&ise^ 
crationeis, orationetf, poie(tulatione0, gratia* 
turn actionesi pro omnibuiai |)ominitiu0, pro re* 

SttUU, «♦ 1 Cimt iW' On the right side of the 

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<J2 HisTORy i)r printing. 

pulpit are the woi^, " VIVAT REX ;'' and, «j 
bbel^ ccmiiug from the mouths of tfee people am) 
chiWmn, " VIVAT REX/^ [Zoftg^ fii;# /Af JTmg^ 
to ^3^prt9$ the great and iimversd joy and sati^fec- 
tion which «U tjie kmg'^ subject*, Wgjh wd Ipw, 
great and little, had, and their thm^utoie^s to the 
king, for his grantmg them the privifege, of hav- 
ing and reading the holy scriptures ki their mother 
t<Migue. On tl^ left side, are rq?re«mted prisoners 
looking, out of the prison grates, and participating 
this great and common joy. 

In the text of tWs JKWe, those parts of the hsim 
ver^on, not found i?j the Hebrew or Greek, are in- 
serted in a smaller type ; such, for instance^ are the 
5th, i6th, 7th, and 10th verses (crfthe 14th Psalm, as 
ia^the translaticm used in the English boc* of Com- 
mon Prayer ; and the disputed texts, 1 3chn^ u* 23^ 
^id ch. V. 7, 8-^so, Rev. viii. 23, &e. A Biark is 
used to denote the difference <rf reading between the 
Hebrew ^nd Ghaidce, J<diiw50ii caHs this ediioij of 
the scriptures, " The Bible m the large or great vol' 
ume," and ascribes it to the year 1539, He, i^id 
several other Englidi writers, in tiiie notice they 
take erf it, observe th^.t king Henry VIII, at tb^ 
request of archbishop Cranmer, who bad Jong been 
engaged in revising and correcting Tyndal^s trans^ 
lation, determined to have it printed, although great 
opposition was made to it by some <rf the supearior 
clergy ; particularly in the ccmvocation, the ii4erk)« 
cutor wberecrf, made a speech ag;aio«(t imttmg the 
scriptures into the haxids of mei^ English readers ; in 
the course of which he maite u«e of this curious ar- 
gument — '^ If,'' said he, '^ we jgive them ti^ wrip- 

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titres in tfaeir vernacular tongue, ivfast ploughman^ 
-who has read, that no man having set his hand to the 
plough, and looking backj is fit for the kingdom of 
A^m^^»— will make a straight furrow ?*'* But tte 
power c£ the king prevailed, and the opposition was 
overcome. He allowed Grafton, the printer, and 
bishop Coverdale, as corrector of tte press, by per* 
Hmsion from the French monarch, Francis I, to go 
to France, and execute the wwk at Paris ; where 
printing was done better, and where paper could 
be had cheaper, and of a quality superior to whit 
was maide in Ei^land.t They according^ went to 
Paris in 1537, and nearly completed an impression 
of 2500 copies ; when, notwidistanding the royal per- 
mission to execute die work m that city, the offico^ 
erf the inquisition, by virtue of an order, dated De- 
cember 17, 1538, seized the work, prolubited their 
proceeding with it, and ordered all the copies to be 
burned. Coverdale and the English agents fled, and 
Ae hdy office became ^peased ; but the officer, 
who had the charge of committing the bodes to the 
iames, was bribed to save a part of them ; and Graf- 
ton's agente afterward returned to Paris, recovesr^ 
die copies that were |H-eserved, and carried them to 
LwidcMti, together with the types, presses and French 
printers, where tlie edition was completed ; as ap- 
pears hy the imprint of the book in 1540. If this 
aefcount be correct, flic work, though completed in 
Lemdc^, must be considered as a specimen of 
French, rather than of English, printing* [a] J 

• Hyder's History of England, t Rees's Cyclo. Vol. 4. 

\ References of this description point to noti&s near tlie 
close of the volume. 

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While I am treating of ancient books, I will 
mention one or two more in my possessioni The 
first of them, I believe was printed as early as the 
year 1470. A number of pages are lost, both from 
the beginning and end of it ; but above 500 pages 
of the Work remain. The title page, as well as the 
latter part of the book being gone, no imprint is to 
be found ; and neither the place where it was print- 
ed, nor the year can be ascertained. But the fea- 
tures of the typography are such, as to ascert^i that 
it came from the press in the infancy of the typo- 
graphic art. The subject of the work is natural his- 
tory. A considerable paij treats of botany, part of 
zoology, part of omitholo^, part of ichthyology, 
part of petrifaction, &c. The treatise on plants con- 
tains 530 chapters ; each of which begins with an 
illuminateid red letter. The chapter, whatever its 
length, is but one continued paragraph, from begin- 
ning to end, without a break line. Sections of chap- 
ters are distinguished by capital letters ; i. e. A 
shews the first section, B the second, and so on. 
The letters are placed in the beginning, middle, or 
end of the line ; and wherever one section ends, an- 
other immediately succeeds it. The volume is a 
folio ; the work is in Latin ; the pages contain two 
columns each; they are not numbered; have no 
catch or direction words ; but have, in large types, 
a running title, as, " CtaCtatU0," on the left hand 
page, and " D0 |]&0tl)i0," on the right, placed two 
pica ems distant from the body of the page. The 
work has a large margin, and a space of three 
eighths of an inch between the columns of each 
page. It has not the features of ancient Englii^ 

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pmtkek but bgj w«aFW *^ '^wk wilJv otJt^^ 
antique volumes, I am led, tp^ bel^Y^y ^i^A ijt caoi^ 
£pQn\^ Gemi^ pre$$»i T^^ like ^e ]&iU^ pitted 
at Venice^ has ik> ^[y]ppspqaphkalk ora^xiei^ ^ $jU(;I^ 
a3ih^ piece% |o\i^is> ruk% &x*— aij^i siwijiwr ^«^ 
ihsdy has, thrw^awt the whp|e> type$ of only twok 
a&aea— one fou thp te;!^t^ w/i a laj^ for thQ h^^, 
Tte wky l^e t^ of ^ ^^Hueat fti^iwg^ is excel- 
lput> aa 13 the pisess wQrk«» Thei?? is w pej?c(jptible 
dilfe^eoce in the color, or i^ the ii«^^5aop, throMgh- 
ont thq yoJkime. Th^ W)i;dci*j fxmst ^ oth€;r in^- 
p^^tions of thf prea% we should svpiK^ w^e 
unki¥>wa to the fe,ther$ <tf the typ^^ Th^ worlf is 
primed in kisetia of four sheets e^h«i with aaign^ 
tures ; a»d on good vellum paper, Tl\e type^ ay? 
the ancient blacfc» well casit, of the si^e of ^gl^ 
but broader feced, and wt $q hwd^nap ?i5 tjiqse ^ 
a kter period* The illuKiinj^ted Iptters ^ ^hg b^gi^^ 
tiing of the chapters, appear Xq h?^ve b? W W^ wi^, 
despatch, and are of iirferior exeqvtiPtt^ About ^ 
middle of the book, a mnfAl tett^ is intro^q<?^ in» 
the apace left for the illuminator, ^s, % direction ^ 
him to mafce the same let^r with, hi^ pencil. 

Preceding every chapter is a qut of tjie pl^t, 
animal, or bird, Sec, cpnceimig which the copter 
treats. ThjBse cuts are of the ^dth pf oi^ CQlupapt 
of the page, and are, gener^, from three, to fp\xf 
%sA a half incb^^ in length ; coarsely eij^equte^, ^4 
appear to be the rude eflForts of the earli^sf design- 
ers, in wood, for letter press printing. IJpwiever, 
the articles are well expressed, *nd t^ all cpjl/c^. 

Tim book is a valuable relic of ancient typp^- 
pby, aiid €pgr^vii>g oa wood ; and wouW, doubtless, 

1 I 

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be held in high estimation, if placed in the cabinet 
of an European antiquary. 

* Magdeburg acquired considerable renown, on 
account of the printing done in that city, in the six- 
teenth century. . I have a Romish Missal, by Simon 
Paulus, bearing the following imprint. " Ex of- 
ficina Typographica VVolfgangi Kirckneri. Anna 
1573." It contains seven hundred pages, small oc-* 
tavo, wett printed with good ink, on vellum paper ; 
and is principally from the cursive [/fa/wr J type. Old 
Grerman, and a very handsome Greek letter, were 
occasionally used for quotations, &c. and Roman 
for the introducticms, or what is since called, from 
its having been printed in red letter, the rubric to 
the prayers. A few of the Roman two line letters, 
in the title page, &c. are of riide workmanship ; and 
appear as if the faces were not cast, but cut ; others* 
are well shaped. The book has a number of well exe- 
cuted wooden cuts of scripture history .^ The print- 
er of it appears to have had a great yiariety of foimts- 
for that time. Among them I observed a very neat 
ciu^ive paragon, used for the dedication. The book 
is complete, and in its original binding of 1573^ 
The year when it was boimd, is impressed on each 
side of the cover ; and the execution is in the best 
style of that age. The cover is vellum, impressed 
with various figures, &c. over boards of hard wood^ 
Pasteboard was not then, nor for many years after/ 
used by bookbinders. 

Among the early productions of the press, may 
be distinguished various splendid editions of Prim- 
ers, or Prayer Books; they were embellished with 
cuts, finished in most elegant taste. Many of them 

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were grotesque, and some obscene, though not de- 
signedly so. In one of them is a representation of 
an angel crowning the virgin Mary, and the Al- 
mighty assisting at the ceremony. The editors of 
the Encyclopedia mention that they had seen in a 
book of natural history, the Supreme Being repre- 
sented as reading on the seventh day, when he rested 
from all his works. In some places St. Michael is 
seen overcoming Satan ; in others, St. Anthony ap- 
pears attacked by several devils, of most hideous- 
forms. " The Prymer of Salisbury," printed in 
1S33, is full of cuts ; and, at the bottom of the title 
page, is the following remarkable prayer. 
" God be in my Bede, 

And in my Understandynge, 
God be in my Eyen, 

And in my Lokynge, 
God be in my mouthe, 

And in my Spekynge, 
God be in my Herte, 

And in my thinkynge, 
God be at my ende. 

And at my departynge." 
Scaliger tells us, his grandmother had a printed 
Psalter, with cuts, the cover of which was two 
inches thick. In the inside was a kind of recess, 
which cpntained a small silver crucifix : The book 
appeared to have been printed from engraved blocks 
of wood; and, probably, was bound according to 
the prevailing fashion of those times. 

Luckombe, in his " History and Art of Print- 
ing," mentions that, " about the time of king Henry 
II, of England, the maimer of publishing the works 

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of Birthoi^ wm, to teme dieni read oiFer 4Jm^ d^K^ 
suooeesively, before one of the univefsiti^^ ^ totfkar 
jadgess appointed ^y^the pubKc; maif i£ tfeejmet 
^tb apprdbalaon^ looptes of thi^m were ithan fG^tti^ 
ted to Jbe tifcen^ which it^iere ^»ii9% «mtfa^ by 
modbs, scribes, ittttmimtorst tmd readem^ hvon^ 
tip to that busineBs fer tiiek* mfiiirteaaace.'^ 

{ Tvffl q\M the subfjesrt of ancimt bodks, afibOT 
having ^Hted sonoie ibrief obsen^atioBB oaliie ^^H^ 
rxxmtm^ t& jjaurentkifi. This wark, auofe Icr i^ 
use of children, m e%ht very- niiall pages, is mip^ 
posed to ha^e been the first book printed by Ihe 
discoverer of tbe ;axt mfunope, bel^Fieea ^ y^eaisi 
1430 and 1431- 

That adept ifi ly^N^^graj^y, Md learned anti* 
quary, Gerard Meemmn, x. 'l. d. jand pensionary 
of Amsterdam, bocsniie acquaintjod with the first 
literary characters in £urope. He ^iidisitod the prin- 
cipal libraries wbeaRe aJiy iflxiog di^ ficst issued from 
the presses of Holland, iJefmaiiy, Franee, or Eng- 
land, was preserviad ; arad, it ib presumed that no 
one, either befbre or smoC' his time, was better in- 
formed with reapect to ancient printing. He was 
the tiaost active erf afl the writer^s who Jiave attempts 
ed 281 investigation of facts, relative to thex^xn.- 
mencement of the art in £urope. He jescamked, 
'WitI) the eye and judgmet^ of a profoemd oitie, 
^veiy description of pri«dng that 'he met with from 
die presses of Layrentius, Geinsfeiche, Faust, Out- 
temburg and Sci^oeffer, as weH as those of ail the 
other patriarcl^S of tiie type, who flourit^ied in the 
iirst age of the Mt. In his Or igines Typographicae, 
)ie gives Ae resuk of his researdies respecting t|j^ 

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QjP 9O0K8. $9 

Bpfwwwh i^ «ubflteRce, as foUow9*— ^* It mu the 
tot work of Laupentifii9~-there is a rudeaess in the 
tfpc^ that I hftve not observed in any otiher io- 
atfitice.^«*-^fter it iim$ critiail|y eiSBmined t^ jmiper 
ailistSt and food judg£»» they gave it as their opin* 
ion^ tbat it agreed exactly with the description giveti 
(£ it foy Junius, Sec. It is conformable to the first 
editk>n of the Diitch Speculum Sciuatumisy and the 
ioBgmasis di die fiist Haerlem edition of Danatus^ 
balb of which are tibe works of the same Lauren* 
tittS) acrid wero firaoeded by the Iforarium.^^ 

Meerman has published Jac simUes of pages of 
several jproductsons of the press pf Laurentius, 
id»ch shew the progi^essive improvements he made 
in fliei art. Of these specimens the Horarmm occu- 
pies die first piaoe. I have had an exact engraving 
made from Meermaa^s fac sismle of it, which is 
annexed to this volume. It may be considered as 
the greatest typographical curiosity ever exhibited 
in this part of the worid. 

This small tract, which contains only the Alplia- 
bet, the Loid's Prayer, the Jve Marie vropro no-' 
H^y the Apostles' Creed, a short prayer begirniing, 
^^ Aoe sidus*Mtmdi;^^ and aiaothcr prayer, seems to 
es:htt>it, as Meerman db6er\^es, ^^ a specimen of his 
piety, afiid a first attempt m this newly invented 
»t'^ It has no J^nature, no directicms, or catch 
words ; nor has it smy numbers to the pages ; those 
which appear on the pkte, were added, togetlier with 
the crooked tines, by Meerman, to direct the pages 
as they followed es^ (rfher, vdien folded. There 
are no hypiicns at die end of the Imes wh^re words 
9re<^vided; on the oplitrary^ a syllable, divided in 

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the middle, is seen in the last page ; and, in the third 
and fourth lines, words are divided thus Sp iritu; 
and in page one, line six, " sanctijicetur.'*^ There 
are neither distinctions, nor points seen, as in other 
works printed by Laurentius. The lines are une- 
ven ; the letters vary in size, are dissimilar in fig- 

ar as if broken in the act 

wooden blocks, from 

it was printed, notwith- 

' judges in Europe,, who 

IS impressed on movea- 

perfect letters and words 

o in the original. The 

le Lord's Prayer, Creed, 

&c. were left, as was usual in all the books first 

printed, to be filled, by the illuminator, with tho 

large letters, which are wanting. 

Books Illuminated. 

The ingenious art of illuminating was practised 
long before, and for some time after the discovery 
of Printing in Europe ; but as soon as the art of 
cutting pictures on blocks of wood was brought to 
some degree of perfection, the ornamented letters 
of the engravers on wood, supplied the place of 
the illuminations formerly made with the brush or 
pen. The ornaments of tlje illuminators were, many 
of them, exquisitely fine, and curiously variegated 
with the most beautiful colors-^very often with gold 
and silver. The margins of books were embel- 
lished with a variety of figures of kings, and other 

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\taLi/^m jWemiarCt Ongims TyVO onATUrCM. rui:...j,^. \ 





by Google 

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or BOOKS* 71 

great men, saints, beasts, birds, mobsters, flowers, 
&c. which sometimes bore a relation to the contents 
of the page, though often these symbols were not 
analogous* These embellishments were costly j but, 
for those who could not afford to go to the expense 
of the most superb ornaments, others were made g£ 
inferior degrees, to correspond with the ability of the 

The origin of the practice of illuminating is not 
known. Plinyt informs us, that Varro wrote the 
lives of seven hundred illustrious Romans, and or- 
namented their histories with their portraits. Cor- 
nelius Nepos, J also says, that Pomponius Atticus 
wrote a work on the actions of great men among 
the Romans, which he decorated with their por- 
traits. These works are lost. The great libraries 
in Europe, such as those of the Vatican, at Rome ; 
St. Mark^s, at Venice ; the royal libraries at Paris ; 
the Escurial, in Spain ; St. James's and the Bodleian 
libraries, in England ; and several others, have in 
them vast numbers of manuscripts of Roman and 
even Grecian art. In the year 1731, a most la- 
mentable accident happened at the Cottonian Mbrary 
on the 25th of October. A fire broke out, which 
did considerable damage ; and among the manu- 
scripts and books which were injured, was that of 
Genesis in manuscript. That work contained two 
hundred and fifty curious pdntings in water colors ; 
and, unfortunately , only twenty or thirty fragments 
of this invaluable work escaped the fire. Lambe- 
cius has made a catalogue of the imperial library at 

• Luckombe. f Nat Hist. lib. 35. cap. 2. | Opera, cap. 18. 

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Vienna, fix)m wlneh it appears he found sgne dmiiN 
ings nearly as ancient as^ tiiose of the Cotton Hhrary* 
The Vatican Vii^il, which was made in the fourtli 
century, is <KTiamented with dniMmigs of the sub« 
jects 1/riiich are descanted on by the Roman poet% 
A copy (^the gospels was carried into Engfand hy 
St. Augustine, in the sixth century, to each of 
which a miniature drawing is prefixed. This wori^ 
is preserved in the library of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in England. There are speoineni 
of the state of the arts in Englahd, from the aevrath 
century, downward, to be found in the libraries of 
the two universities; and others, particuhiiy ia 
that of the British museum, which shew the prog*^ 
ress made in the Rumination of books, as long as 
the practice continued in fashion. 

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Origin and JPractioe qf ^ Art* 

IT is aciiiowledged by all writers on the origin 
of Printii|g„ that the art was first practised by the 
Chinese. The precise epocha when it was invent* 
ed, cdanot be ascertained. The Chinese assign a 
date to it9 origi&i which is anterior to the promulga* . 
turn of Christianity. Some historians, of other na* 
ticHiSt who have attempted to ascertain the fact, ad* 
mit that the Chinese practised Printing as early bb 
the sixth century; others, among whom is Phil. 
Couplet, who has always been c^sidered by the 
learned as a very accurate historian, ascribe the 
invendoDy ii) China^ to the year 930*^ The cele« 
bntted Meermra, in his history of Printing, men*. 
tkms that ^ The Historia Sinensis of Abdalla, writ* 
teh in Persic in 1317, speaks of it as an art in very 
common use*'* And, indeed, as the art is so useful, 
and, as practised in China, so simple, we cannot 
hare a doubt that it was> at least, coeval with many 
o^ier arts ; whicht though less needful, and more 
Crasplicated and intricalie ia jmictioe, are very geae^ 
rally acknowledged to have been in use, in that great 

•BritEnqrc* Vol.15. 
1 K 


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and very ancient empire, for many ages previous to 
a knowledge of similar arts in Europe.* 

The latest account of Chinese Printing, is given 
by sir George Staunton, who was attached to the 
embassy of lord Macartney, to the court of Pekin, 
in 1793. 

He informs us, that ^' the art was, probably, prac- 
tised at a very early period of the empire ; and, may 
have contributed to preserve its government, in a 
nearly uniform state, to the present time. 

Sir George Staunton's account of Chinese Print- 
ing, agrees with the accounts given us by die learn- 
ed disciples of Ignatius Loyola,t who long resided 
in China, and others, who have written on Ae arts 
and manufactures of that country. His is, however, 
more circumstantial on the subject of Printing, 
than any other which I have had an opportunity of 

Mr. Winterbotham, who, to enable him to com- 
pile " An historital, geographical and philosophical 

* The abb6 Raynal, Histoire Philosophique et Politique, 
tome 1 , p. 151, says of the Chinese — »" 11 leur faut dea siecleft 
pour perfectionner quelque chose ; et quand on pense i Tetat 
oii se trouToient chez eux les arts ^t les sciences il jr a trois 
<^ens ans, on est conraincu de T^tonnant duree de cet empire." 
The same argument will apply to the antiquity of their lan- 
guj^e, and the art of Printing among them ; in which they 
have not for many ages made any improvement, because, " La 
l^gue des Chinois demande une 6tude longue et p6nible, qui 
occupe des hommes tout entiers durant le cours de leur. vie." 

t Ignatius Loyola was founder of the order of Jesuits. He 
was bom anno 149 1, died in 1556 ; and; was canonized by Paul 
V, anno I6O9. ' 

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IN CHINA. ' 75 

View of the.Chinese Empire," consulted the various 
writers of Chinese history, as well as some of the 
gentlemen who were in the suite of lord Macartney, 
in treating of the literature and arts of that country, 
gives an account of Printing, similar to the narra- 
tions of the other: writers I have mentioned. From 
these authorities, the process of Cliinese Printing is 
ascertained to be as follows. — ^They first write, or 
draw, a fair copy of the work intended to be printed ; 
it is then given to the engraver, or, more properly, 
the carver, who glues the leaves of the manuscript 
upon a piece of hard board, or plank, properly pre- 
pared, on which he traces over, with a suitable in- 
strument, the strokes of the writing ; carves out the 
characters, in relief, and cuts down the intermedi- 
ate parts of the wood ; therefore, the beauty of the 
letters depends on the dexterity of the person who 
.writes the copy. The adroitness of the carver is 
such, that he copies every stroke exactly ; his work 
is some^mes so neatly executed, it is difficult to 
distinguish a book that is printed, from one which 
is written. The board, thus carved, or engraved, 
generally contains the characters for two pages. 
When the work of the carver is completed, it. is 
taken by the printer, laid level, and fixed in that 
position. The printer being provided with two 
brushes, he takes that which is hardest, dips it into 
the ink, and therewith lays the ink on the carved 
board in such manner as to have a quantity which 
will be exacdy sufficient for four or five impress- 
ions, as he does not ink the board ifor every im- 
pression. When the board has received as much 
ink as the artist judges to be sufficient, he lays on 

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K6 HisT<wiir t>r ^aiktikg 

the f&pct; ^nd, wMi ihc^nHnet brushy ^Mtk is^an 
oblong figure, and softer 'dum 'the &«t, he ^itsees 
'^ paper upcm &e boafd, by geii% drnwhig te 
•bruEdn^over 4t, vi4th a^wce, v^hkk h a^t^e iaereas- 
-eA for each impression, un^ ike irik, put on lb& 
letters, is aU taken off by ^e pap^. In this mode 
<€>f performing the {>usiness, cmejnanis elste to fffsw 
off several thousand tropies in a ^y . 

Theiiik, the Cl^nese use i^r priniting, kmaidte 
in ^ peculiar nmnner ; and is^dilfet^mt from tfieir 
^common sort, whidi 4k€y rcfl in dbbng sticks ^or 

After an edition of a book is pi^ited oiff, '&t 
plates, or carved boards, ^ire collected together $ 
•and, it is g^ieraUy ^nentimed in the pie&ce, ^ivi^eFe 
4i]£y are deposited, in case a «ec^id edition tlioiMi 
j^ /wanted. 

The paper they use for printing, is not siaed fey 
any glutincHis liquid ; it is too thin and weak to 
areceive distinct impressions on both sides ; there- 
/f(He, no more than im^ side is p^ted. ¥&ritii& 
Tea^on, the printed dieets, when they are ^to be 
l)ound ^nto books, are taken s<^arately4tf)d doubled^ 
the blank sides touching each other ; and, they are 
iblded so exactly, as to make the extremities of ggg 
page correspond with those of the other, as is the 
qnethod with our bookbinders ; but, contrary to cwr 
mode of bindkig, all the single edge S2ffe pkced so 
as to form the back of the bode ; the folds make 
the front, and are never cut. Their books are, gen- 
erally, covered with neatly manu&ctnred, colored 
jpasteboard. Those who wish to have them done 
«ut of the common way, cover the pasteboard with 

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rich and elegant foicy colored sOk, or satin; and, 
sometimes, wiA gold and silver brocade, &c. The 
iblded edges of the leaves are left'plain. 

It has been thought by printers in Europe, and 
oAers, that moveable types would answer a bettor 
fmrpose for the Chinese, than their method of carv- 
ing characters on wooden plates, or blocks ; but, 
until they invent somediing like an alphabet, of 
v^ch thdr words, or characters, may be composed, 
moveable types cannot be of great use to them. 
They are not without the knowledge of separate 
types ; though such as they use are cut in wood ; 
and, when the same characters frequently occur, as is 
often the case in the Calendars and Gazettes, they 
occasionally insert those separate types, in places 
fitted to receive them in the wooden plates, on which 
the other part of the Gazette, Calendar, &c. is carv- 
ed; or, otherwise, fix them for the purpose for 
which tiiey are wanted. They have no alphabet, 
from which they can form words as we do. Their 
words are represented by characters; and, these 
characters have been usually said to be 80,000 in 
number ; but, from the Dictionary which was made 
by the emperor Cam Hi, who lived in the time of 
king Charles II, of England, it appears, that their 
characters do actually amount to the number of 

* This &ct has been ascertiSned by doctor Benjamin Car- 
ter, son of John Carter, esq. of Pnmdence, Rhodeidand ; 
who, having been some time in China, acquired a knowledge 
of the Chinese knguagf, and brought one ^fi^am Hi*s diction* 
aries over with him. 

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A compositor, in our printing houses, easily 
distinguishes the various letters, &c. of an alpha- 
betic language; he at once sees wh^r© ^ch 
be found in the type cases before him; he distin- 
guishes them at a glance ; his ha^ds ev^i acquire 
the habit of reaching them rapidly without looking 
for them, as the fingers learn to touch the keys of a 
harpsichord, without turning the eyes toward them ; 
were there many thousands of such keys, it is ob» 
vious that no such habit could be acquired ; nor 
could the keyis be within reach.''* It would be 
equally inconvenient to print with an hundred and 
twenty thousand different characters ; especially, as 
many types or characters of the same denomination 
would be wanted, which would increase them to a 
prodigious number. It has not, it seems, occurred 
to the Chinese artists to make moveable and separate 
types for parts of characters, which, when placed 
togetiier, would form whole characters, as is the 
practice of European founders^ with their types for 
music. But this mode would be attended with 
greater difficulty, in a printing house, than casts of 
whole characters ; because, a great increase of num- 
bers would be necessary ; and, consequently^ the 
labor and inconveniences of a compositor would be 
augmented. He could not use them with the same 
facility that a Chinese carver of characters forms 
them on wooden plates. It is admitted, that sepa- 
rate types, cast for the wh^, or the parts of char- 
acters, would answer for any work until worn 

• Stavm^n's Embassy toChiaa, Vol. 2. p. 895,Lond<ai 4t(K 

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^ IN CHlHA. 79 

down ; but, it must be considered, that they would 
be much more expensive tihan the carved, or en- 
graved plates which are now used. Hence it 
appears, diat, unless the Chinese fonn an alphabet, 
and substitute it for their characters, they cannot 
prosfecute the business of Printing with more ease 
and expedition, or with less expense, than by the 
process they have adopted, and practised for centu- 
ries past. 

Winterbotham mentions, that a work which is 
printed and published every three months, in Pekin, 
intitled, " The State of China," is altered, or cor- 
rected, at each time of publication, by means of 
moveable wooden characters, in the mode before 
described. He adds, that some " very small works 
are printed in the same manner."* 

As we have so little information respecting that 
interesting country, where strangers cannot travel, 
but by permission, which is obtained with great 
difficulty, all authentic intelligence respecting it 
— ^particularly the state of its arts, and, above all, 
the art of Printing, cannot fail to excite attention. 
For this reason, I will here insert a few passages 
from Authors of the highest reputation, respecting 
Chinese publications. 

Like the capital cities of European kingdoms, 
" Pekin the capital of the Chinese empire, is fur- 
nished with a Gazette, which circulates into the re- 
motest provinces, and which is even considered, by 
die administration, as an essential part of the politi- 
c^ constitution. It is printed daily ; and, contains 

* View of the Chinese empire. P. 4 1 5 . 

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anaccountof aU those objects to which the atten* 
tion of administrsktion is directed. In this Gazette^ 
may be seen the names of all those delinquents who 
are punished with death, and of the officers appoint- 
ed to fill the places of the disgraced mandarins;*^ 
the relief g^ven by government; and the expenses 
incurred by administration^ for the subsistence of 
the troopd, supplying the wants of the people, re- 
pairing, or erecting, public works ; and, lastly, the 
remonstrances made to the sovereign by the superi- 
or tribunals^ either with regard to his public divis- 
ions or f»ivate conduct; and, sometimes, even 
with relation to both. Nothing, however, is con- 
tained in this Gazette, which has not immediately 
come from the emperor, or been submitted to his 
inspection ; and, immediate death would be the 
consequence of inserting a falsehood in this minis^ 
terial paper."* 

" Gazettes are frequently published in Pckin, 
under the authority <rf govenunent. The various 
^pcuntments throughout the empire, the favors 
granted by the emperor, all his public acts, his re«* 
mission of taxes to districts suffering by dearth, or 
other general calamity ; his recompenses of extra- 
ordinary services ; the embassies sent, and the trib- 
ute paid to him, form a considerable part of the 
public news. The domestic details of his house- 
hold, or of his private life, are seldom, if ever^ 
mentioned. Singular ev^its, instances of loi^vi- 
ty, sometimes the puni^mients of offences, com- 
mitted by mandarins, are tliere recorded. £ven, 

* Encfclq;>edia9 Ameriun ^Uqb. Vol. rr. p. $76* 

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ts cniVAs 81 

Mttietiflrn^ instances of tib& adukeiy €f womeni 
VfidA is apanLdsibkv tbom^ not a capital offenee ; 
arc occasionally published, perhaps, by w^ of de* 
teiriag otibcrs firom doe coninasskHt of the like en* 
0niiitie& While Cldaa waa at war^ its Tictoriesy 
as well as llie aappressioii of rebdliona, were ait* 
aoanccd^ In dl odier cases the world, in point of 
intelligence, is confined taCfaina» Beside the classic 
waAs of Ae Cfamese, of wliich the multiplication 
by Printing b prodigious ; tiie lighter Itteratiire of 
the caisntty gives no inconsiderable occupati^i to 

** Notwichstandmg the vigilant police of the 
Chinese magbstraces, books disapproved by them» 
one, in rarious ins^uices, privatdy printed and dis- 
semiipated in China. It is not easy to prevent, cur 
even^always to detect,, the operations of a trade^ 
lidiicb, beside p^qper and ink, vccpurea litde more 
tkan some pieces of board,, and a knife to cut the 
diaracters upaa thenu The boQks thus pubiCshed^ 
^vately, are chiefly those which are oSfensive Xo 
decency, and mflame the imaginations of youtlu 
It is not said, that any are levelled agaiast the gov-^ 
emment. The political^ moral, and historical works 
of the Chinese, contain no abstract ideas of liberty, 
wUch might lead them to the assertion of ind^pen* 

" The art of Printing, has been the mean of 
diffusing, universally, and estobiii^ing anuxng all 
r^iks of meut certsun fixed principles of rigKt, and 
rules of mofsl rectitude, which fierv^ as so vskmy 
djrkes, or baniers, i^nst die tunuilt of husMUt 
passsoRS, cmd fe^tnmi thepropeisskies of conquerors 

1 L 

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in the plenitude of powen At every change in the 
governments of the neighboring countri^, not so 
circumstanced, success, like a torrent, sweeps be- 
fore it, and levels all former arrangements of soci- 
ety ; but, in China, institutions and opinions, sur- 
vive the wreck of revolutions. The sovereign may 
be removed^ his whole family cut off; but, the 
manners and conditions of the people remain the 
same. The throne itself is supported by maxims 
from the press ^ the virtues of its possessor are bla- 
zoned by it to all his subjects. It gives him the 
vast advantage of directing their sentiments as he 
thinks fit. His palaces, his gardens, his magnifi- 
cence, create no envy toward a prince represented 
to be endowed with the most transcendent qualities ; 
and to be employed, without intermission^ iikpro- 
moting the happiness of his people.''* | 

Dictionaries, almanacks, and novels which are^ 
generally, simple and interesting, are allowed to be 
published in China ; and, permission has been given 
to the Christian missionaries, who visited that coun- 
try, to publish several religious works in the Chi- 
nese language.'^ 

Dr. Ducarel, commissary general of the city 
and diocese of Canterbury, keeper of Lambeth 
library, &c. had a collection of specimens of Chi- 
nese ingenuity, among which, Nichols,! in 1776, 

* Staunton's Embassy. Vol. 3. * 

t Nichols's Orig. of Printing, p. 300. Bowyer and Nich- 
ols were two eminent printers in London, whose account of 
Printing was introduced into the Encyclopedia. As many writ- 
ers on PrinUng will, be mentioned in the course of this work, 

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IN Cfi^NA. S3 

saw a Chinese book, in which all the miracles re- 
cordect in the New Testament, are exhibited, printed 
from wocxlen blocks*; our Savior, the apostles, and 
all persons therein mentioned, are dressed in Chi- 
nese habits. The Jesuit missionary, probably, gave 
the Chinese block cutter an Eur(^)ean book, with 
prints, for him to copy ; and directed him to dress 
the figures in the fashion of his country, as being 
most pleasing to its inhabitants* 

I will make the reader acquainted with some of them who are 
modem, viz. — ^Dr. Conyers Middieton, keeper of the public li- 
brary at Cambridge^ in England, was celebrated for his learn- 
ings and acquaintance with ancient typography. — ^The Rey. Mr. 
liCwis, an English author, who has written much on the sub- 
ject— -Joseph Ames, esq. fellow of the Royal Society, and sec- 
retary to the Antiquarian Society, who, in 1749, published a 
large quarto volume of The History of Printing in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and has given more particular and mi- 
nute details of English typographical antiquities, than any other 
author.— Andrew Coltee Ducarel, l.l.d. commissary general 
of the city and diocese of Canterbury, andr.n.A.s. of Eng- 
land.— -Mr. Palmer, who wrote a history of Printing in Eu- 
rope. — M. Midttaire, a very respectable French writer, and 
author of Annales Typographic!. — ^John Enchedi, a well edu- 
cated printer, in Holland, who made great researches to ascer- 
tain the origin of the art in Europe, and published a treatise on 
the subject.— P. Luckombe, m.t. a. author of The History and 
Art of Printing in England.— C. Stowers, author of The Print- 
er's Grammar, -and History of Printing, lately published in 
England ; a work which may be very serviceable, not only to 
master printers, but to journeymen and apprentices.-— Gerard 
Meerman, mentioned p. 68; who, when in England in 1759, 
received the degree of doctor of civil law at the university of 

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In tibe curbus mi extensiMe ci^otioa ^ 
Geor^ Parjr, Esq. f . a. s* ia £nsibiMly va^ a 
number <s( admkahle ^pf^hwias i^ ChuK^ i^rat- 
«Qg, whkh ^emoasti^te the aeal md the ^eaiu9 Qi 
the jesuks. Among those e^ciffiiens ^hvm h l)Mk 
intttled^ ^^ Siminua Sdentia Politk)o---M<HBli3, a P. 
Frospero Intocretta^ siculo^ SacieUtas Jesu, iafo- 
cem editu." Fait of the foodc was piinted at Can- 
ton, and the other part at Goa. The license of ih^ 
vice provincial of the order is dated " In urbe Quam 
Cheu metrepoli Sinensi provinciae Quam turn, dje 
51, mensis Julii^ anni, 1667." After a preface, 
{printed at Goa, wiUi Roinan type$, th^e ifiafiecaad 
^tle, viz. *^. SoienEtaa Sincae Uber ^ecnudits. Chnm 
medium, Yfim tjonstanter tenenriem Varsao Ktem- 
iis.^ Then fdiow twelve double leaves in Chinese 
jcharacters, with a Latin version, in Roman charac^ 
ter&, all cut in blocks in the Chinese manner, printed 
sA Canton ; ^id fourte^i sia^ leaves in the £ura- 
'^peoQ manner, printed at Groa. Jn the tranBlatioii'of^ 
tMs latter pert, both the Chinese and Ls^ are fMint- 
ed with separate tjrpes. The Roman t3rpcs are of 
metal coarsely cast ; and, those of the Chinese, are 
cut on wood. The volume closts with the life of 
Confucius, in Latin, with several Chinese woi^ ia« 
ter^)ersed; and, an additional licesose.^ 

♦ Nichob'« Origin ofPrinting) p. 386; 

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DtA^O)^ md JPri>gress of Pritawg. 

IF we consider the remote periods In which the 
arts and sciences began to flourish in Europe, we 
shall think it remarkable, that, previous tp the ££. 
te^rth century, no method of multiplying copies of 
the works of the learned, or of communicating past 
and present evj^ts^ should have been practised, ex- 
cept by the slow operati<m of the pen of the scribe, 
&e pencil of the painter, or the chisel of the sculp- 
tor ; especially, as China, where the art of Printing 
has been practised for a thousand years, was nc^ 
imknown to Europe* 

Bacon says, Ibmo natura minister et vnterpreSf 
Umtumjhcit et intelligUy guantum de nature ordine^ 
re J vel mente observaverit : nee ampHus scit^ out 
potest. Perhaps the Euxqpean world was influenced 
by this maxim; or, otba: sufficient reasons mi^ 
be ^ven for the slow progress o^lhis discovery. la 
ancient times^ we may believe, tl^re were not many 
readers of books, although the number who pur. 
chased them was not small ; and, it was a business, 
a trade, to copy them. 

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The scribes formed a numerous fraternity ; and, 
were much interested in preventing the introduction 
of any new practice, 6r art,'^ch would take from 
them theu- bread. They had brought their art to 
great perfection ; and no one, who is not acquainted 
with ancient manuscripts, can have a just idea of 
the neatness of their performances. The forms and 
sizes of the types for Printing, were taken from the 
letters as written by the scribes, just as the copper- 
pkte engravers now eng^ve from written copies. 
In short, Printing, for a considerable length of time, 
as has been observed by a British writer, was " as 
much the counterfeit, as it Was the substitute of 
writing ;*' being the Jac simile of the hand writing 
of the most approved scribes. 

Should we even admit, that some method of 
printing was known in ancient times, we cannot 
wonder that the common use of the art met with 
successful opposition. That, at least, a partial 
knowledge of the art existed many centuries ago, 
is probable. Seals, or signets, must have been in 
common use before the time of Moses, for they are 
mentioned very familiarly ; and, directions are given 
for engraving precious stones. We find, that Beza- 
leel, and Aholiab an engraver and a cunning work- 
man^^wrought onyx stones inchsed in ouches of 


the names of the children of Israel.^ We further 
find, that they w^e in the habit of engraving the 
sardius, topaz, carbuncle, emerald, sapphire, ligure, 
agate, amethyst, beryl, jasper; and, the diamond, 

• Exodus, xxxir. 6. 14. 

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IN £UROF£« 87 

(which, it seems, no one can now ei^frave ;) fof it 
is said, that these stones were according to the names 
of the children of Israel^ twelve^ according to their 
namesy like the engravings of a signet ^ every one 
vnth his name, according to the twelve tribes. Hence 
it is evident, that engravings were made in stones 
as well as metal ; and, we may suppose, therefore^ 
impressions were taken from the engravings, and, 
consequently, the first principles of printing known^ 
evai in those early ages. 

Homer is called the most ancient author of all the 
heathen world ; and from his writings, particularly 
from his description of the shield of Achilles, it is 
sufficiently evident, that the art of engraving and 
embossing was carried to ^ very great degree of 
perfection in his time. Had he never seen engrav- 
ii^gs in metal, it is next to impossible that he could 
have given a description, so exact in ail its proper- 
tions, as is that of which we are speaking. In the 
centre^of tibe shidd, he describes the earth, with the 
sun revolving jround it — ^the fvdl moon—the signs 
erf the zodia^>^with several of the constellations. 
Round that picture he describes twelve others, in 
twelve separate compartments, rq)resenting, first, 
a marriage ; second, an assembly of the people ; 
third, a senate ; fourth, a beleagUred town, with a 
sally of the besieged; fifth, shepherds and their 
flocks fallen into an ambuscade ; sixth, a batde ; 
seventh, tillage ; eighth, a harvest ; ninth, a vin- 
tage ; tenth, lions and herds of cattle ; eleventh, 
sheep ; twelfth, the dance ; and, round the whole, 
he repres^ited the ocean.* As most of the poets 

• Homer's Iliad. B. 1«. 

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toclk their bnages fimmi the Ubocs of the |>abitetii^ 
scvifiom^ &Cr t(^ nay ^oadsde Homer did iim 
sme» JEfideody from his own words k an^untt^tQi 
zwrtmAf'r fer ho adcaowkdgss^ that hb jiqnre^ 
sentatioaof the daai^ on tbe ahscU, ib stmflar tor 
one made at Gnossus^ faj the re^wn^d CbedahiS|i 

in fike nsannery. if we esamine the IdstodoBs mi 
poets, of afi sii^ceediog ages^ we ahatt find natenaim 
to justify the opinion^ that the art of engraving: haep 
been known £rom Afne immemorial;, ami^ that al- 
tikongh Maso Finignttrra^ and the other Ftoverttsie 
engravers, niade sotte kmovatiom and in^rave^ 
ments in the a3rt>.the3r wete, by no means^ deinv^Bk 
ttirs of jt ; and^ we may reas(»iably betssve^ that 
thongkthe art c^ Printing wasnotbiooglit taaiqr 
great degree of maturity^ the means for perforaia^ 
It were not entirely nnkuQwit:; ei^eeialLy^a&itiarsa 
nearty allied to engmving; 

UIphila% who flottrished about die year of Gbriat 
370, became the apostle of ^ Gode^ andaanverted 
many of tJbemtoChristianity^ At thai period^ tbo 
Goths used the Runic efaoracters;. but^ as diosot 
characters had been uaed in magic incantations^ 
Ulphik^ would not employ them in the cause of 
Chrietiainty; fae^ dievefore, invented new charac* 
ters, which were called die Moeso Gothic y and into 
that language 1^ translated die BiUe. A large {»fft 
of diis identical version of UiphHas^ was founds 
many years 2^, in the abbey oE Werden, in West- 
phalia« It was carrkd from that place to Prague,, 
where it was discovered by the Swedes, in 1648, who 
conveyed it to their queen, Christiana ; and, it is 

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WW *^Qttte4 h tl» Ubmry ^ the university pf 
Up«^^ Tb^ Swedish Hfrtiqu^ian, {hre, whp has 
jH^distodi m ^ti^ of the remAms of this mcient 
work, gives it as his opinion, that tjie letters in th© 
^gsiaal wer^ na^e by hot metal tjrpes, in the man- 
am' Urn b»ek3 of book^ are lettered ; for tlie letters^^ 
cxiai^t the inkials, fre ail of silver ; and thence the 
W0rk is eaUed tl^ Codfpc Argf7%teu9--rAb!t initials are 
of goW^ CaiT, who exaijained this book, suppose^ 
tbf fetters w^i« made by tlie pencil ; which, proba* 
bty, wm the faijt; although, it i^ not iijapqssible 
t^t ^Fpes, of ^me sojrt, were known in the days of 
^phlJa^ ; bpt, in the d^k ages which succeeded, 
th^ knpH^kdge might have been obscured, ot ex- 
tinguished, [li] We cm^not, lK)wever, he certaia 
that th^ Putch and Gmnan printers, tp whpm we 
ascribe tl>e merit of the invention, \pA not a knowJ- 
^ge of t^ work ^Ulph|las ; <;w*ev€i> of ^e e^ist- 
^»De of some k|nd of types } ajc4^ of the Chine^ 
mei^Qd ^f piifrting, which had existed from 500 to 
700 years at least, before the time of Laurentius or 

Jf daie Putch and German jHinters did make a 
n^^Wf and a ^cmd discoveiiy of the art, it is strange 
tjbuit the meehanicaj aiup^agemei;^ of the busiiie$S| 
should have been exactly ^ same as had been sp 
Ipng known rand praqtlped in China. It js not im- 
pQi^sobl^ tii^^ieart ojf Priirtiag, on tfce European 
coiMtA&ept, should hav-c been di^pover^ by accident. 
This has been asserted by all writers on the subject, 
a^xept^g livpse to whom th^ qpedit of the inveation 
i^ ^ven> til^ey have said but little ^ei^pecting it; 
ao0 s«9»e d9i4>ts wilj ^bvays jpcvm^ m^ the mind, 

1 M 

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whether some information concerning the Chinese 
method of printing, had not been communicated ta 
him who first, as is commonly supposed, attempted 
the business in Europe. 

Great disputes have arisen, respecting the place 
where the art was first discovered and practised, in 
Europe; and, who made the discovery. Almost 
as many cities have contested the honor of the 
invention, as ever contended for being the birth 
place of Homer. Didymus, it is said, wrote hun- 
dreds of volumes, chiefly with a view to determine 
that question ; and, perhaps, his works may be 
outnumbered before the true origin of Printing is 
ascertained. In the midst of this uncertainty, how- 
ever, I proceed to state such facts, as are the result 
of accurate disquisitions on this well canvassed sub- 
ject ; those that are admitted, are as follow. 

1. That the cities of Hacrlem, in Holland, and 
Mentz and Strasburg, in Germany, all claim the 
honor of being the birth place of the art of Print- 

2. That Laurentius, sometimes called Coster, 
Koster, or Kustos, has the best claim to the honor 
of the discovery, which was made about the year 
1429 ; or, as several writers state, not earlier than 
1422, nor later than 1436. 

3. That he lived at Haerlem, was a man of large 
property, had a lucrative office under the govern- 
ment, and there practised printing in its original 
rude state. 

4. T^t Laurentius, for some time after he 
began printing, used wooden blocks, or plates, on 
which he engraved, or carved, in pages, &c. the 

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words for several small works ; in some of which 
were pictures, cut in the blocks with the wwds* 
These h^ printed only on one side of vellum, or 
paper, and doubled and pasted the leaves together, 
thus forming them into books. After practising 
this way for a few years, he invented and used sep- 
arate wooden types, but never attempted to cut or 
cast types in metal. 

5. That Laurentius employed several servants 
in his business ; among whom was John Geins- 
fleiche, senior. There were two brothers of that 
name — ^the younger was sometimes distinguished 
by the name of Guttemburg. He was an ingen- 
ious artist, and lived at Strasburg. 

d. That John Geinsfleiche, senior, communi- 
cated, first, the theory of the art ; and, afterward 
the practice of it, to his younger brother ; whom, 
for the sake of distinction, I shall, hereafter, call 
Guttemburg. "^ 

7. That Laurentius followed printing during 
the remaimier of his life ; and that, after his death, 
the business was continued in his family at Haerr 
lem, for many years. 

8. That John Geinsfleiche, the servant of Lau- 
rentius, about the time that his master died, with 
the aid of a fellow servant who was his accomplice, 
took an opportunity, on a festival, to steal a con- 
siderable part of his master's wooden types, with 
other parts of his printing apparatus, and abscond- 
ed ; and having conveyed his plunder toMentz, his 
native plajce, he there commenced printing, about 
the year 1440, with the types he had stolen from 
his master. 

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9^ Ti^t after Geinsieiche setded 9A Mentfe, ht 
WES assbted ^ith tooGCy^ &c# bjr Joho Fu^, alia^ 
Faust, alias Faustus^ a rich and veiy res^ectid:)le 
mah; who^ conseqiieotly, shared the profits witli 
Gein^iche* Fust and Gemsfiek^ afterward f(xin4 
ed a company, and £Klmitted as a partner John Mei^ 
denbacfaiiis^ with some (^er peivons^ 

10. That Guttemburg, the younger Inpdier of 
Geinsfleiche, continu)ed at Strasbnrg till 1444, and 
was in rarious employinents ; but he made great 
efibrts toward attaining the art of Printing with cut 
indtal types. He could not, however, bring the 
art to any degree of perfection. It is believed by 
some, that he, and the partners with whom he wa* 
cxMicemed, printed a few very small works* Their 
l^arformances^ have all disappeared; and^ as £0* 
as is known, have been entii^ly destroyed. Al* 
diough, whilst at Strasburg, Guttemburg had madd 
considerable progress in improving the art; jt% 
having quarrelled with his partnei^ and being in- 
volved in law suits, he quitted diat city, and joined 
his brother at Mentz. 

11, The two brothers had the management of 
the printing business at Ment2 ; and they united 
their aideavors to form a fount of metal types, with 
cut faoes. Their meliiod of making these types 
was, first to east the i^anks, or bodies, to a suitabte 
size, and afterward to engrave, w oat, the letters on 
them.* After a lafcor of several years, they accom^ 
plished the undertaking ; and in 1450 a part af tSie 

♦ Pblydotie Vi%a mention*, tliat irtetiltypes,iriikhic«t liaseB, 
were first thought of in 1442. 

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Bible 0ppbsatd from thek pra»$i whioh 5FIB piinted 
urith thwse types* The sarnie year, m^.y^xy jsoon 
after tlu^ begsm to wodi with those types, tl^ p«i1> 
oerajiip between the brothers, Fixst, and oompwy, 
was dissolved ; and a connexion betweai Fust tsmi 
Guttenibiirg commenced { but a diflfisrence between 
them arising) an action at law was instituted by 
Fust, for money advanced to Guttemburg; and, 
their joint concern in business ended in 1455* Af.^ 
ter this, Guttemburg was assisted by Conrad Hu« 
mery, syndic of Mentz, and others ; and, this new 
compimy qpened anodier printing hoiise in dmt city* 
Fust also continued ^ business ; and took into 
partnership one of his servants, called Peter Schoef* 
fer ; an ingenious man, who had become very skil* 
fttl in the printing business, 

12. That Schoe&r, in 1456, completed the in- 
voition of metallic tfpes, by casdi^ them widi 
faces. " He privately cut matrices for the whole al- 
phabet ; and, when he ^ewed his master the types 
cast from these matrices. Fust was so much pleaa<-^ 
ed tfiat he gave SchoeflSsr his <Mily daughter in mar- 
riage.'* There were, at first, many difficulties with 
these types as there had been with those of wood, 
and those that were cut on metal. One was owing 
to the softness of the metal, which would nsot bear 
furcible pressing ; but this defect, as well as some 
<ifdi»rs, was aoon remedied* The first book printed 
with the improved tjrpes was Ditrandi Rationale. It 
was not finished till 1459. 

These facts give us a clear idea of the rise and 
|H*Qgre3s of the art, until it was, in a great measure^ . 
Ilrott^ to perfection, by the invention and use kX 
metal types, cast with faces. 

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It <tsrai hdiv be pn^r to make some further in* 
quiry freSpetit&ig the mamter in which the art-tras 
discovered r iaridi the claims of the cities of Haarlem^ 
Mentz aftd Strasburg, to the honor of having made 
the discov^aiy. 

- Hadrian Junius* ascribes the invention of Print- 
ing to Laurentius. Some have controverted his au- 
thority ; but, it has been, eventually, very generally 
admitted to be indisputable. This Junius relates, 
that Laurentius was the son of John Laurentius, 
who held the reputable office of Custos, or edituus, 
of the cathedral church in Haerlem ; which circum- 
stance occasioned the epithet of Custos or Koster, 
to be added to his name. Others mention Lau^ 
rentius the younger, merely by the additament of 
Koster. Junius explained— That he received this 
inforrhaiion from his schoolmaJster, Nicholas Galius, 
aaid, from Quirinius Talesius,t his acquaintance 

'-)'"■' ' ■ 

♦ In his Batavia. p. 253. ed. Ludg. 1588. Hadrian Junius 
was bcM-n at Horn, in Holland, in 1511. He was at first rector 
of the Latin school, and teacher of natural philosophy at Haer* 
lem, where he composed a Greek and Latin Lexicon, to which 
he addpd 6500 words : — Hip wrote also Animadversa et de Co- 
ma Commentarius, which was greatly applauded. His history 
of Holland is written in elegant Latin. He was the author of 
many other works ; became a learned physician ; and prac- 
tised for some time with much reputation in England, where 
Jie was esteemed a man of great integrity and impartiality. 
Vide Biographic Generale des Pays Bas. Art. Jun.-^Encyc 
vol. 9. &c. 

t Quirinius was many years amanuensis to the learned 
Erasmus, as appears by his epistle dated July 23, 1529. Opera. 
Tom* iii. p. 1222. In 1537) he was scabinus \ and consul in 

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and correspondent; both of whom were men of 
respectable characters,— -That Galius had his testi- 
mony immediately from Cornelius, who was a fel- 
low servant with the elder Geinsfleiche and others, 
to Lanrentius the younger, when he practised the 
art of Printing. — This Cornelius, after the death of 
his master, Laurentius, was bookbinder to the ca- 
thedral of Haerlem ; a branch of bVisine^s ' wMch 
had, long before, been performed by the Franciscan 
friars ; — that he lived to a great age ; and, accord- 
ing to the register of that cathedral, died in 1515 ; 
—-and, that he was a very conscientious man, and 
often spoke with sorrow of the loss his master had 
sustained by the roguery of Geinsfleiche, his fellow 
servant, associate and bed fellow. 

The account they gave of the discovery of Print- 
ing, is as follows^— -" Laurentius went to walk in a 
wood near the city (as the citizens of opulence used 
to do) and when there, he began at first to cut some 
letters upon the rind of a beech tree, which for fan- 
cy^s sake he afterwards set and ranked in order, and 
put with their heels upward upon paper, and so im- 
pressed or printed on paper, one or two copies, as 
specimens for his grandchildren (the sons of his 
daughter) to follow in writing. This havmg hap- 
pily succeeded, he meditated greater things, as he 
was a man of ingenuity and judgment ; and, first of 
all, with his son in law Thomas Pieter, invented a 
more glutinous ink, because he found the common 
ink sink and spread, and then formed whole pages 

1552. He lived during the troubles in the Low Countries; 
and was killed by the Spamsh soldiers in 1573. Some have 
^n*itten his name Salesius. 

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M RisTORr cnr vxurriKG 

of wood with letters cut upon them ; of which sort 
I have seen some essays m an ancHi]rmoas woric 
printed only on one side, in which it is remarkidDle 
that in the mfency of printing (as nothing is com*' 
jrfete at its first invention) the back sides of the pagev 
were pasted together,* that they might not by thdr 
nake^ess betray their drformity* This book was 
entitled Speculum nostra salutu*^^ 

Jumus then goes on to mention Gerard Thomas^ 
whom he knew, a person of great reputation, and % 
great grandson to Laurentius, who gave him a sim« 
iar account c^ the invention of juinting tq that 
wiiich he had received from Galius. Junius ob« 
serves, " A new invention never fails to engage cu** 
riosity ; and, when a commodity, which was uncom- 
mon, excited purchasers, to the advantage of the 
inventor, the admiration of the art increased ; de- 
pendants, woiicmen and servants were muitipliedi^ 
the first calamitous incident ; among diem wai one 
John, unfaithful and unlucky to his master. Thist 
man, bound by oath to keep the secret of Printing j 
when he thou^t he had learned the art of joining 
the letters, the method of making the types and 
other things of that nature, taking the most con- 
venient time that was possible, oa a Ctuistmas eve^ 
when every one was customarily emjdoycd in lust* 
ral sacrifices, seizes a collection of types, and other 
implements of printing, and, with one accomplice, 
marches oflf to Amsterdam, frcrni thence to Cdbgne, 
and at last settled at M^itz, as at an assylum of se< 

• This account of the first printmg in Europe, proves the; 
metiiod to be similar to that practised bj the Chinese. 

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tn tmtonu 97. 

etuf^^ Yi)i»e he miglit go to vmk with the toolt 
lie had stxdeiu* It as certain that in a year's time, 
viz. in 1442, the Doctrinale of Alexander GaUus, a 
gramsnar which was much used at that time, togeth^ 
er with tihe Tracts of Peter of Spain, came fordi 
Aene also, irom the same tjrpes that Laurmtius had 
madeoseof at Haeiinn." Thb is die substance of 
the account which Junius tells us he received from 
Ntchfdas Galius, to whom it was related by Cor- 
nelius ; and fiom Quirinus Talesius his intimate 

Petrus Scnverius, an early writ^ on the dis- 
covery of Printing, gives an account substantially 
^ same as that of Cornelius. He says ; ** Lau-* 
rentius walkii^ in the wood, picked up a small 
bough of a beech, or rather of an oak tree, which 
had been broken off by the wind* He sat down 
and amused himself widi cutting some ktters on it; 
and wrapped up, in paper, the part he had thus en- 
graven. He afterward fell asleep, and when he 
awaked, he perceived that tl^ paper, having been 
mobtened by a shower of rain, or some other acci- 
dent, had received an impression from the letters 
he had engraven; which induced him to pursue 
the accidental discovery.^' 

No cme but Laurentius himself could tell how 
he discovered the art ; and, it is probable, he gave 

* ^< It ia not to b€ supposed tint Geinsflekhe carried 
^the whde printing apparatus of his master ; but a part of 
bis t]rpeS| and such things as were necessary for specimBns 
to form others by,* &c. Nichols's Orig, Print 

t MaarmaBL Qilgu Priat 
I If 

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the accounts, related by Junius and Soiverina^ to 
his friends and servants ; but let this matter be as 
it may, the truth of his being the first who made 
use of it in Europe, must have been known to 
many. The fact is weU supported by abundance 
of testimony produced by Gerard Meerman, in hb 
Origines Typographica ; and, by other credible 

Respecting the claim of Mentz to the inventkni 
of Printing, it is agreed by the best writers that it 
cannot be admitted. But the invention of metal 
types, both with cut and cast feces, is certainly due 
to that city ; and this is, unquestionably, the most 
important of all the branches connected with the 
typographical art ; for all the subsequent improve- 
ments are of ininor importance.. 

In regard to the claim of Strasburg to the inven- 
tion of metal types, I cannot agree, altogether, with 
Meerman and others who assert, that it is entirdy 
without foundation. It is admitted by those who 
oppose the pretensions of Strasburg, that Guttem- 
burg, the brother of Greinsfleiche, was, for several 
years, employed in endeavoring to attain the art of 
Printing ; and, it could not be meant simply print- 
ing from wooden blocks; for it is proved, that 
Guttemburg and his partners were at such great ex- 
pense of time and money, in attempting the 
business, that they became bankrupts. It appears 
from an authentic record oS a judicial decree of the 
senate of Strasburg in 1439, that Guttemburg and 
his associates engaged in the business about the year 
143&; and European writers admit, tliat Guttem- 
burg persevered in his endeavors to become mas- 

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ter of the art, until he Icift Strasburg in 1444, when 
he joined his brother at Mentz* They all allow that 
metal types were the invention of the two broth- 
ers Geinsfleiche and Guttembui^. Th^ further 
admit, that Guttemburg was more ingenious than 
.Geinsfleiche in the mechanical arts ; but they are 
silent as to which of the two invented the cut face 
. metal types. Geinsfleiche did not use metal types 
till after his brother joined him at Mentz ; it is, 
therefore, as some writers mention, highly probable 
that Guttemburg was employed, at Strasburg, in 
endeavoring to complete the cut face metal types ; 
but timt f(»* want of a more accurate knowledge oi 
the art of Printing, which he could only obtain 
from his brother, he failed in his attempts till he 
joined Geindieiche at Mentz ; where, by their 
united endeavors, they became successful. So 
that, although Guttemburg did not accomplish what 
he had long^ labored to complete at Strasburg; yet, 
it is almost certsun, that he performed some printing, 
either from blocks, or moveable wooden types, or 
firom those of metal with engraved faces, in the 
course of several years that it appears he was em- 
ployed in that business, before^ he removed to 
Mentz. No proof to the contrary has been pro- 
duced. And, as he was engaged in cutting metal 
types long before any thing was printed at Mentz, 
this circumstance may, in some measure, justify 
the claim of Strasburg to the invention of metallic 
types; and, even her pretensions that the art of 
Printing was practised in thatacity before it was 
known at Mentz* 

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100 Rt$Toiiy 01 Tuinrtvc 

The claims of the titfte ditite ha^e^ hcmcvttf 
been determined^ and arrtng^ bf Mearmim, Nidb*' 
<A^f &G« as f<rilow--4he didcoveiy^ and first rudi^ 
menis of the art^ are aUotttd to Lmif^i^s of 
Haeiiem ;«-«*4he invention and im{nrovtmcnt of ^ 
moveable^ cut face» metal types by Geinsfieicbdi 
toiior^ and fats brother Gutten^xu^y and the com^ 
pletionof thebiisiness by the invention of metd 
types, cast iivSth facts, by Scho€tter*^--4o which Cfv 
crations John Fust, or Faust^ had the hcmor <^ con«- 
tlibiitkig by his libendity^-'^the merit of this is giv«* 
en to Mentz ^-^ut the ckim of Strasburgy they 
set aside, as altogether nnsnpported, and unsi^ 

It is not strange that the origm of an art i^4nch 
1ms given light to all other arts, should be invdved 
in obscurity ; when we Consider what has been ob** 
served by Meerman, Maiitaire, and many others, 
who have written on the subject, viz. " that Print* 
ing was invented as a more expeditious method of 
multiplying books than by writing, which it was at 
first designed to counterfeit ;'' and, consequently, 
was concealed from motives of private interest^ 
rather than revealed to the honor of the fir^ in« 
ventor ; and the advantage of the public 

The Psalter, printed by Fust and Schoeflb*, at 
Ment2, in 1457, is cdebrated ibr the beauty of its 
Qrpograi^y ; and, ahhou^ it b difficult to believe, 
diatanart, so complicated, could be brought to so 
high a degr^.of perfection in the course of fifteen 
or sixteen years^ from so rude a begimiing ; yet» 
such is the facU 

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Ill tmL0TM4 ' lOik 

1 win Bere remariL, Aat ^ Psalter of Fwt and 
SclK)effery is the first bode to wfaachmjr prteMii 
put tfidr names, or iriiicb is known to have a gen^ 
nine dote i but, .from diat time^ it became commoia 
fi^r printers to aactttain the works they printed by 
putting their names, and the date when the woril 
was extcuiiedi in an imprint at the end of the vol- 

Having stated the fiu:ts respecting the discoverf 
of die art of Printing in Europe^ as diey are re* 
lated by die best authon ; and given an account of 
Frintii]^ through its several stages, from woodw 
Uocks, to separate wooden types ; and from cut fiioe 
wooden and metal types, to its completion with 
metal types cast with &ces ; I will now i»tx:eed 
with an account of the eaiiiest pinters ; taking 
them in tlie order of time in which they arose. 


JOHANNES LAURENTIUS; alias LAOmairss ZAittiam 
alias C01TXR9 alias KoiTUSf or KosTasy alias Law- 
HxxTz Xam KoBTxa; <if Hjexlem. 

THIS is the person to whom the writers on the 
origin of Printing give the credit of first discover*^ 
ing the art in £urq>e. His real name is said to be 
Johannes Laurentius; and, as I have before re- 
marked, the addition of Coster, Kostus, &c. is a 
mere title of o£Sice, which was givm to lus fether ; 

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who was, by the citizens of Haeriem, db<^^ their 
edituus or custos, accocdii^ to a ^vilege granted 
to them hy count Albot of Bavaria. In a diploma 
fiigned by ecmnt Albert, in 1390, the father (^ L^u^ 
rentius is mentioned by the name (^ Jdhannes Lau- 
rentii filius.^ 

Laiirentius, the printer, was bom at Hs^rlem, 
about the year 1370, from an ille^timate branch c£ 
the Gens ifeederodia. He was edituus, or custos, 
after his father, and was, at di&rent times, appoint* 
ed to several departn^nts of the m^stracy. His 
offices are said to have been very lucrative. He 
was religious ; a man of great property ; and, lived 
in a splendid style,t in a &shionable house, at Haer- 
lem, in the market place, opposite the royal palac^ 
now the town house. 

I have already related the manner in which, it is 
said, he made the important discovery that led to 
die art of Printing. According to the best accounts 
given of him, he must then have been about fifty 
nine years of age. He practised the art eleven years ; 
and, during that time, he made great improve- 
ment in it. The precise date of the discovery, can- 
not be determined ; but, it is believed to be about 
the year 1429. Scriverius, whose testimony has 
not been disputed, when mentioning the year in 
which Laurentius died, i. e. 1440, observes, that 
his discovery was made about ten or twelve years 
b^re that period. He further mentions, that soon 
after Laurentius had developed the first principles <rf 
the art, he exhibited some rude ^^ecimens of his 

♦ Meerman's Orig. Typog. flbW* 

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in Eu&ops. 105 

performances. Junius ^es a mace particular ac* 
count, which was derived from tite servant of Lau^ 
rentius; and, afterward, describes some of' those 
specimens, which he saw. Oi^ of them was the 

Motc modem writers infortn us of some of the 
eaiiy productions of Laurentius's invention, seen by 
them. Among the manuscripts relating to Haer- 
lem, in St. John's college, Oxford, is a letter from 
John Laughton, esq. an English gentleman, who 
viated Holland in 1699, which is dated Amster- 
dam, June 23, 1699. Its contents are as fdlow. 
** I made some stay at Haerlem, and visited the 
learned antiquary Van Dalen ; he received me with 
abundance of humanity, and shewed me all his col- 
lecti(His of antiquities, which are very numerous, 
and many extremely curious. He introduced me 
to a young lady there, bom deaf and dumb, yet 
taught to speak and read,, very intelligibly, both 
Dut(A and Latin. Her preceptor is Dr. Amand, 
a German ; she is the only child of a very rich mer- 
chant. I was very desirous of seeing the first book 
printed here by Coster, of which we have had many 
false accounts in England. It is kept in a chest in 
the Sta^thouse ; and the masters keep the key, 
which we prociu-ed, and found the book to be a 
Dutch piece of theology, with cuts, printed on only 
one side of the paper. We saw, also, c«ie leaf of 
Latin, intitled, * Liber vitae Alexandri Magni,' that 
seems to be monkish Latin. These, the Dutch 
say, were printed 1430, the year he invented the 
art. There is bound up in the same volume an- 
other Dutch piece, said to be printed by Coster in 

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104 HisTomr ojp rmirTiiia 

1438* The time when b^ inveaited the ifft» md the 
yenrs when those small works were printed. Is $%9 
niSed, not on them, but in an inscription under his 
piQture in the roomi where the books- «^,'* 

Mr. ElliS) in the Philosophical Transa^ons^ 
published in England, gives an account of small 
itrticles said to be printed by Coster, or Laurentius, 
as early as 1430 or 1432| but they are all witbcmt a 
prin^ date« 

I have been informed, that some specimens of 
veiy ancient and imskilful printing are preserved in 
the Bodleian library at Oxford ; in that of Bennet's 
college; and, also in the library of the king of Eng^ 
}and; they are said to be samples o£ some i^ihQ 
first essays of Laurentius in the art of Printing, im^ 
pressed from wooden blocks before he had acquired 
the art of making ink suitable for the purpose i 
and, like some other samples, before mentionedt 
9IC print^ only on one side of the pap^, which 
is doubled, and the pages pasted tpgethen At 
many frauds have been practised by the artful 
venders of ancient books ; and, as specimens of the 
printing of Laurentius are very rare, thcare is no 
possibility of ascertaining whether these relics arc, 
or are not genuine. If no fraud has beoi practised, 
doubtiess, these fragments must be allowed to be- 
long to that period when the art of Printing was 
first attempted.^ 

'^ Notwithstanding the European vh*taoii haire been able to 
make very considen^ile coUectiims of ancient printed bookst 
yet, such is the scarcity of articles from the pres3 of Lauren* 
tiusi that in all the curious libraries and cabiuets of antiquitie«| 

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As no tmoc or dat)$ ^tppeared with the books of 
Laurentina, to shew that they were from his press, 
only ^ following c^ be ascertained to h^ve been 
[M'inted by him. 

ffararium. Mentioned before ; supposed to have 
been impressed in X430 or 1431. 

De dpieffd ^Mzt IBthottiinqt. it was 

printed from wooden typei^ made separately, and 
executed in it supericM- manner to the Horarium ; 
—it, howevej", bears evident features of the in- 
fancy of Printing. In thi^ work are pictures, im- 
{Massed from wooden blocks on which they were 
cut ; they are the first that are known to have been 
introduced into any book, or letter press work* 
De Spiegel is one of the book^ described by Had- 
rian Junius I mentioned by Ellis, and by many oth- 
ers, A copy of it has been carefully preserved a$ 
Haerlem, and from time to time shewn to the curi- 
ous* It was seen by Mr. Laughton, in 1699 ; and, 
since by Meerman, who has given a fac simile 
of one of its pages, among other specimens of the 
printing erf" Laurentius, in his Origines Typograph-* 
icae. From the best accounts, it appears to have 
been printed in X432* 

Grammatica Jhnatu Commonly called Zhna^^ 
tus. Some fragments of a copy of this book, printed 
on parchment, were, near thiiee hundred years after 
the death of Laurentius, discovered by Jdm Es- 

to which Meerman extended his researches, he could find only 
two or three works that were entire and some fragments of 
others, which were genuine. But he discovered many facts, 
and detected many errors and impositions, relative to the in- 
ventim a^d jfS9ffW^ of piiatiii|; iji f^tupp^* 
1 o 

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chedi, an ingenious printer in Haerlem. Eschedi 
had purchased, at a low price, some remains of an 
ancient library ; among which was a very old Dutch 
Psalter, that excited his curiosity. On examining 
the binding of the Psalter, he found, to his surprise, 
pasted to the cover, part of a copy of this identical 
edition of Donatus.* 

Liber Vita Alexandri Magni, 

Speculum Belgium. Printed about 1438, with 
moveable wooden types. 

Speculum nostra Salutis. This was generally 
called Speculum. It was a Latin version of the 
Spiegel Onser Behoedingey and said to be printed in 
1440, with moveable wooden types. 

Grammatica Danati. A second edition, of a 
smaller size than the first ; and, is supposed to have 
been issued from the press in 1440. 

It is believed that he printed many other books, 
biit I do not find that any mention has been made 
of them by his biographers. All the editions of his 
works were printed part on vellum and part on 
parchment. His press was shaped like the common 
wine presses. He^ied in 1440, aged 70 years. 

It does not appear that Laurentius had any son ; 
but he had one daughter, whose name was Lucia. 
She was married to Thomas Pieter, alias Peter 
Thomas, who, in company with his sons, succeeded 
Laurentius at Haerlem. 

Dr. Wallist relates that, in the time of Hege- 
nitz, the house in which Laurentius lived, was still 

* Seiz's Treatise. Published 1740. 
t Inquiry into the Origin of Printing. 

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' IK EUROPE. 107 

Standing in the market place at Haerlem, with an 
inscription, in golden letters, over the door, of which 
the following is a copy. 

" Memoria Sacrum. 

Typographicae Ars, artium Conservatrix, his pri- 

mum inventa circa, Ann. M.CCCC.XXX. 

Vana quid Archetypos, et Praela Moguntia jactas, 
Haerlemi Archetypos, Praelaque nata scias. 

Extulit hie, monstrante Deo, Laurentius artem ; 
Dissimulare virum hunc, dissimulare Deum est." 

THOMAS PIETER and SONS, of Haerlem. 

Thomas Pieter son in law of Laurentius, 
is mentioned by Cornelius, as being concerned with 
Laurentius in bringing the art of Printing to that 
-degree of perfection, which it attained in his days. 

It is said, that Pieter, with his three sons, Peter> 
Andrew and Thomas, were the successors of Lau- 
rentius, and carried on the business several years* 
Cornelius continued in the family some time after 
the death of his master ; and, assisted Pieter and his 
sons. Only a few of the books they printed can 
be identified ; as, like Laurentius, they printed for 
profit, not for fame. They neither put thieir names 
to the books, nor added the date when, nor the place 
where, they were printed. It is, however,^ agreed^ 
that the sons of Pieter printed new editions of the 
Donatus and the Speculum ; and, afterwards reprint- 
ed the Speculum witli a Latin translation ; in the 
execution of which work, they used their grand- 

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!W58 HISTOtT or S»M3TTIW« 

father'^ wooden pietui^ ; and printed the book 
pax^ on wooden Uocks and pardy on wooden sep- 
arate types. This was done between die yedts 
1442 and 1450L* After Ihattimethey printed sev- 
eral editions of 'die S^cuhiniy bodi m Latw and 
t)utch. • Copies of &mr editions of 'dais book are 
now to be seen in Ha^em.f 

The grandsons of La^rentius printed with wood- 
en, separate types, the fdlowing books ; ^pedmeas 
of which are given by Meerman, viz. j 

Historic Alexandri Magnu New edition. 
Flavii Fedatiiy for Vegetii, Renati epitome de re 
Militari^ And, 

Opera Fariuy Thomas a Keinpis. In 1^72. 
Thomas a Kempis is suDposed to be the last 
book which was issued fronTOie press of Lailtenti- 
iis's descendants ; whose industry hi improvfeg the 
art of Printing is sufficiently manifested by the neat-> 
ness 6f the editions- of their works. Thqy, «oon 
-after printing Kenipis, disposed of their printing ap- 
paratus ; this nught be owi^ig to the invention and 
^general use of metal types. 

Jimius mentions, that the threie grandsmis of 
Laurentius attained the consular dignity. Pe$er 
and Andrew fell m the civil war of 1492. 

♦ M^^rman, Vol. l.p. 150. tHiW, 

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Mr £irmaPK« 100 

JOHN OEINSFLEICHEi the Elder, of Mg»n* 

IHAVEt)rfore related, that ifns JohnGeins- 
fleidhe -was accused by Ccnuelius, Hadrian Junius, 
&c. of ka'mg stdien a part of the wooden printing 
^types of his Boaster. 

Several credible writa^, sowe of whom lived 
-before Junius, and others his cotemporaries, bear 
testimony to the fact*-— that Geinsfleiche robbed Lau- 
Tentius of his t3rpes, and fled with them to Mentz. 
They give to Laureittius the merit (Shaving dis- 
covered the art df Printing ; and, confirm the ac- 
count which has been given t^ Junius, that Corne- 
lius and Geinsfleiche were servants, at the same time, 
to "Laurentius, The following writers, who cor- 
roborate this material part of our history, appear to 
have derived their information through different 


1. Ulric 2ell, almost coeval with Cornelius, was 
« German* He attained ^e rudiments of the^art, 
dt Mentz, by officiating, as corrector of the press, 
under Fust and Guttemburg ; and was afterwaixis 
tiie first who practised Printing at Cologne. Zell 

* Mentz was, at the period of which I am treating, an i]](i- 
peri^ ci^. It was afterward subjected to the crown of Fi^anoi^^ 

t Meennao's Documents, x,xxxx««a.xxxrr. 

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published the Chronicon of Cologne, a work writt^ 
under his own inspection ; in which he is profess- 
edly an advocate in favor of Mentz ; but, he admits, 
that the foundation of the art was laid at Haerlem, 

2. " Zurenus, in Joannis van Zuyren reliquiae, 
ex opusculo de perdito cui tit. Zurenus junior, 
sive de prima, et inaudita hactenus vulgo, et veri- 
ore tamen artis typographicae inventione dialogus, . 
nunc primum conscriptus, autore Joan. Zureno, 
Harlemeo, ad amplissimum virum N. N. asservatae 
—a Petr. Scriverio in Laurea Laurentjiana, c. ii." 

3. *^ Theodorus Volckardi Coomhertius ifi 
dedicatione praemissa versioni Belgicae Oificiorum 
Ciceronis, edit. Harlem. 1561, atque inscripta con- 
sulibus, Scabinis, et Senatoribus ejusdem urbis*" 

4. " Henricus Pantaleon, Lib. de viris illustri- 
bus Germaniae, part. ii. Ed. Basil." He mentions 
two circumstances worthy of notice ; one, of the 
manner of hiding the types when they were stolen, 
" eos literas in sacculis clausis secum in officinas 
tulisse, atque abeuntes abstulisse." The other re- 
lates to the honor paid to the first artists.* 

* Meennan mentions, that to follow any other manual pro- 
fession than printing, was accounted a derogation to nobility ; 
but, that this art conferred honor on its professors. Hence it 
was very eariy practised by many who were of noble fiimilies, 
and even by eminent ecclesiastics. " John Guttemburg was, 
in 1465, received inter aulicoa by the elector Adolphus ; and 
the emperor Frederic 3d, permitted printers to wear gold and 
silver ; and both Tyfio^rafilui and Tyfiotheta were honored by 
him with the privilege of wearing coats of arms." — ^^ Typo- 
thetis scil. aquilae,typographis autem gryphi,pede altero pilam 
tinctoriam, unguibus tenentis, scutum donavit, cum aperta ga- 
lea, et superimposita ei corpi;i2^" Vol. 1, p. 47, 48 ^ 

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5. " Ludovicus Guicciardinus, Descrizzionc di 
tutti i Paesi Bassi. Edita Antwerpiae, typis Gul. 
Sylvii^ in descriptioue urbis Harlemi." 

Geinsfleiche was bom at Mentz ; and, that he 
was the first who attempted printing there, is a fact 
which is not disputed. • It is said his family had 
been distinguished by the honor of knighthood; 
but, being reduced to poverty, that circumstance 
obliged him and his brother to seek a livelihood in 
a foreign country. Meerman says, that he was 
called Geinsfleiche k»tx i^oxfiy* 

He fled to Mentz, with his types, about the year 
1440 ; but did not publish any thing till two years 
. after his arrival there. During the interval he was 
employed in making preparations for business. 

Before he left'Haerlem, his younger brother was 
engaged in attempts to execute printing at Stras- 
burg; but, being unsuccessful, and learning that 
his elder brother, by the assistance of John Fust, 
John M eidenbachius, and others, had established 
himself in the printing business, and performed it in 
a house hired for that purpose, and which from that 
circumstance was called ^Utlt lUltflCll^* he left 
Strasburg, and went and joined this company at 
Mentz, in 1444. As they were all connected to- 
gether some years, it may be proper, in this place, 
to give some account of the younger Geinsfleiche 
and Fust. 

* This house ever after retained the name of the Printing 

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JOHN GEINSFLEICHE, the Younger, alias QUTTEM^ 
BURO9 of StnASsvxG. 

It has been observed by those who have written 
concemmg the two Geinsfleiches, that it was not 
uncommon, in the age in which they livedo, to caU 
two brothers by the same christian name ; to which 
other names were, occasionally, added by way of 
distinction. Upon this principle the younger Geins-^ 
fleiche took the addition of Guttemburg — ^by which 
name I shall designate him in the course of this 

Guttemburg was bom at Meirtz ; but he livedo 
several years, at Strasbiu*g. At that place he had 
several partners, who were employed in various 
branches of business ; particularly, in attempting to 
improve the art of Printing* Originally they were 
lapid^ies, looking glass makers, &c. 

Guttemburg is supposed to have had a knowl- 
edge of the art, as it was practised at Haerlem ; 
which, it is thought, he acquired by visiting his 
brother, who was in the service of Laurentius ; and^ 
it is probable, that when Geinsfleiche fled from Hol- 
land to Mentz, he visited Guttembui^ at Strasburg, 
and gaye him some farther information respecting 
the business. At that time, it is believed, they pro- 
jected the Cut metal types ; about which Guttem- 
burg was, afterward, much employed, without be- 
ing able to bring them to perfection, before he went 
to Mentz, He is represented as being more skilful 

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iir Eirft^BR. 119 

in mechanic arts than his brother, but, it is said, 
failed in completing the types from the want of a 
more cpmpeteK knowkdgp of the art of Printiag^ 

The author of a very curious treatise on engrav- 
ing, which was published at Leipsic in 1771, men- 
tiona» that Crttttemburg fell diort of the completion 
cS hfe dmgn^ from his not being able to form hi$ 
whole cdlectkm of types of a uniform height. 
Whatri^ar wa» tJie csuae of his Mure, he neariy 
iTttkifid himself and hia ftssociaiss at Strasburg, bjr 
Usprojecta. He diibred with those p^rtaars,who6e 
names were Andrew Drizehen, Andrew Heilmann, 
and John Riff; and he wis invdved in three law- 
suits with them,^ as appeam by an authentic judi- 
eidl decrei^ d^the aenate of Btrasl^g, in 1430^ after 
the deMdiof Dria^^* That unfi^rtunate man died 
ia 1438 ; jind» on his deatii bed, mentioned tp hb 
confessor, that his corniexion with Guttemburg, in 
m attempt to acquire the art of Printbig, had ex- 
po^ him to vast expenses, of which a sin^ ebQ- 
his had never been remunerated. 

Guttemburg became overwhelmed with debts ; 
hmI« being harraased with bw suits, he was obliged 
to sdl ev«^ thing ho possessed at Strasburg, and 
to quit that cii|r. 

He had entered into ai marriage contract with 
Anna^ " a noble girl of The Iron Gate,^^ but refus- 
ed to fulfil the contact, until he was compelled, by 
a Judicial decree. They Uyed unhsq?pUy ;--«o4» 
when he went to Meutsi;» he de»ert#^ h^. 

•Orig.Tniag. Vrt. 1.^163. 
1 p 

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JOHN FUST, alias FAUST, aUas FAUSTUS, of Msirrz. 

When Geinsfleiche arrived at Mentz, about the 
year 1440, he entered into a connexion with Fust, 
who was rich, and became the patron of die art of 
Printing. He supplied the funds upon which Geins- 
fleiche conducted the business. In 1442, Fust and 
Geinsfleiche published the first productions from 
their press, viz. 

Alexandri Galli Doctrinale, and 

Petri Hispani Tractatus. 

These books were much used in schools ; and 
it was thought they produced a handsome profit for 
the printers ; as they issued several editions of them 
from their separate wooden ty]fts. 

John* Meidenbachius, and others, became part- 
ners in this concern in 1443 ; and, in 1444, they 
were joined by Guttembxirg. 

This company soon zealously engaged in the 
attempt to bring forward the invention of cut face 
metal types ; which was a work of great magnitude, 
and required so much labor and attention, that it 
was not brought to any degree of maturity till about 

* Many of the earliest printers had this prenomen, as Lau- 
rentius, Geinsfleiche, Guttemburg, Fust, Meidenbachius, Pe- 
tershemius, 8cc. This circumstance led the printers at Leip- 
sic to choose St. John as their tutelar saint ; and to commem- 
orate the festival of St. John the baptist. . Jo. Stoyius. Wolfius, 
Monumen. Tjpog. Tom. ii. 

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• IN'lTTRCfPE, 115 

seventeen years after the first discovery of Printing ; 
and, they were busily employed two years in com- 
pleting a sufficient quantity to begin an edition of 
part of the Bible. 

During the time the metal types were prepar- 
ing, they printed several books from wooden blocks, 
and moveable wooden types, among which were, 

The Catholicon. 

Tabula Alphabetical 

Donati Grammatica. 

The Con/essionalia. 

The Decretals of Gregory IX. And some 

Pictures from wooden cuts. 
' In 1450, an edition of part of the Bible appear- 
cd fh>m the metal types with cut faces. 

This was the second great era of the 


A disagreement among the partners produced a 
dissolution of the company, before the end of the 
year 1450. How Geinsfleiche was employed after 
this time, does not appear. He was much advanced 
in years, and had nearly lost his sight, when he quit- 
ted this connexion. He died in 1462. 

FUST and GUTTEMBURG, of Mtmz. 

After the partnership of Fust, Geinsfleiche, &c. 
was dissolved, Fust and Guttemburg formed a new 
engagement, and continued together till 1455, when 
many difficulties arose ; the partnership was dis- 

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116 RISTOitT or FmiKTING 

solved^ sind anacticHi) brougbk bjr Fust i^;aitttGttt« 
temburg, for monies advanced^ tcntntnabed in fa?nir 

Fust, when he separated frcan Gutttsiibttfgi 
hept poaaemicm of the piiirtiiig mateiials> bj agree- 
ment, and took, as h partner, the ingenioua Peter 
Schoeffisr ; who, as the aervairt of Filfiti had been 
instructed and employed in priatitig by Geittfifleiche 
and Guttemburg. 

Guttemburg procured aome peeuttiary assist- 
ance from Conrad Humery^ ayndic of Metitz, and 
other friends^ ; by means whereof, he fumtdied him- 
self with cut face metal types, ami opened another 
printing house in Meniz ; where^ in 1460, he pub- 
lished, without his name, the CkthoHcfm ofJaeobus fh 
J&nuaj winch was printed in a irery handsome Style. 
He worked with wooden, or cut face metal types, 
till tl^ year 1462* In 1465, he was admitted inter 
mdico^j as has been mentkmed, with a pension ; altd 
died in February, 1468« 

Atthe<kath of Guttemburg^ Coaotad Humery 
took possession of his printmg materials, under an 
engagement to the archbishop Addjdius, that ht 
never would sell them to any one but a citizen of 
Mentz ; they were, however, soon after disposed of 
to Nicholas Bechtermuntze, of Altavilla ; who, in 
1469, published Focabularium Latino Teutonicum^ 
printed with the same types on which Guttemburg 
printed the Catholicon. 

There w^s, formerly, in the front of the house 
where Guttemburg lived at Mentz, the following 
inscription, which was placed there amio 1507. 

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^Jmmni Chittembef^enHJUbguntinOf qua primus 
mmkm Uwrn art Imprimendas invenit, hoc Aru 
iitrbetotobtnemermH: YvoVrntigen^Mhoe Scac^ 

FUST and SCHOEFFER, of Msifrz. 

BsGAN business together inl455 ; and, in 1457, 
published what was dien called a ^^ magnificent edi« 
tion'' of the Psalter* It was in the press four years; 
and) fw those times^ was uncommonly el^;ant# 
As it was published in ei^teen months after the 
retreat of Guttemburg, he must be allowed the 
credit of having had a considerable share in the per« 
formance* This Psalter is said to have been prints 
ed with anew fount of cut face metal types; and, 
is the first book known to have a genuine date, and 
the names of die print^is^ 

Schoeflfer turned his attention to an important 
improvement in the art~4hat of casting Q^pes with 
faoe8« He kept the scheme secret, till he became 
perfect in the business* 

This maybe called th£ thied gaeat era 

Hie first bodk which was printed with these 
new invented ^pes wtis, 

Durandi Rationale^ in 1459. Afterward, 
The £ible^ in 1462^ some say 1460. 

* Luckombe« Hist. Print. 

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Ttdhf^s Officesy which was several years in the 
press, and completed in 1465->-a second editm 
was wcH-ked off in 1466, acc<»rding to some, but 
this is contradicted by Mait^ure, in his Annal^*^ 

Afterwards, a second edition of the Psalter, on 
cut metal types. This edition was not equal to the 
first. JMbny other books were printed by Fust aiid 

The edition of the Bible, just mentioned, was 
a very expensive work. It was five years in the 
press ; and, it was calculated that the expense 
amounted to 4000 florins, before they had printed 
the twelfth sheet. The work was admirably exe- 
cuted. It was this edition oS the Bible, as some 
auttK>rs say, of which Fust took a number of cop- 
ies to Paris, where he sold them, first for six, then 
for five hundred crowns each, which were the 
prices commonly given to the scribes for very ele- 
gant copies of the Scriptures. He afterwards, by 
degrees, reduced the price to thirty crowns. It is 
said, that the purchasers were ignorant that these 
copies were printed ; and, that it was the policy of 
Fust to make them believe they were written. 
They were an exact imitation of the best manu- 
soipts. As he lowered his price, his sales increas- 
ed ; and, people were astonished by his producing 
copies as fast as they were called for. When he 
lessened his price to thirty crowns, all Paris was 
perplexed and agitated, both on account of the 

* Malt. Annal. Typog. 1719, Vol. i. p. 60 ; but Meerman 
observes that, on examination, it was found there were tw# 

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'IN EUROPI* 119 

number of books produced, and the unifimnity 
of them* It was believed, that he had made a 
league with the devil ; and, he was accused of be- 
ing a magician. His lodgings were searched, hj 
the officers of police ; — ^several Bibles were found — 
and the red ink with which the illuminators had 
made the great capitals at the beginning of each 
chapter, was pronounced to be his blood. Fust 
fled, and escaped the death which awaited such 
hapless victims of superstition as, in those days, 
were suspected of being necromancers. From this 
event, originated the story of " The Devil and Dr. 

At the commencement of their business. Fust 
and Schoeffer printed, chiefly, on parchment ; but, 
a multiplicity of copies occasioned a scarcity of that 
article, and they printed afterward on paper, with 
the exception of a few copies, which were printed 
on vellum for the purpose of being elegantly illu- 

Fust had the surname of (fl^Uttttftn^ or Good- 
man, given to him ; on account of his beneficence, 
and the good he did, by employing so many 
people;* but, notwithstanding his eminence, and 
the fame he acquired, no one has handed down to us 
an account of the period at which he died. It is 
believed he did not live longer than the year 1470. 
He is called Fust, Faust and Faustus, by different 

* Vide tha Chronicle of Jo. Carion* 

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Completion of the Invention of Ptintinff. 

The colisummation of the^art, is, of course, dat- 
ed firom the time when SchoefFer finished his inven- 
tion of metal types with cast faces ; the credit oi 
which belongs exclusively to him, although they 
were used during the time of his coparti^rship with 
Fust This was, as I observed before, a new era 
in the art of Printmg ; and, it is from this period 
that many of the Europeans date the invention of 
the art in Europe. 

It is said, that Laurentius, Geinsfleiche and 
Guttemburg, who used blocks and wooden types, 
were classed, by the Germans, among the TBXttl^ 
in&ICttff so called, who punted playing cards on 
paper, and pictures on both paper and parchment 
But, after the discovery of the method of impress- 
ing the languages on those substances, by means of 
SchoefFer's cast metal types, the Dutch made use of 
the verb UPttntCtlt to express the manner in which 
that kind of impressions were made, or taken, md 
hence was derived the term Printing, [c] 

Cutting the types in wood or metal, was a 
tedious and expensive process, and retarded the 
progress of the art ; but, the invention of Schoeffer 

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IK EUROPE* 1:21 

vdaeved it from those diffijcultks wldch confined it 
to Haerlem, IVfenftz or Strasburg ; and, in a short 
period^ it was csuried to almost all the capital cities 
of £urc^. It has since been spread into Africa, 
Aiaericih-^-and even to the " thrilUng regions of 
thick ribb'd ice/' in the northern parts of Europe*^ 
Qot excepting Icekmd. 

While Fust was in partnership, with Geins. 
fleiche and GuttenJ^rg, Peter Schoeffer of Gems- 
heim, who was his servant, learned from them the 
art of Printing. Schoeffer, on account of his inge-r 
nuily and industry, became the partner of his mas- 
ter, and had the management of the business, after 
Geinsfleiche and Guttemburg separated from Fust* 
Several of the performances of Fust and Schoefier, 
have already been mentioned. 

From the superior genius, and inventive fecuL- 
ties, of Schoefier, he soon excelled both Geinsfleiche 
and Guttemburg in the printing business. Not 
long after his connexion with Fust, he, by repeated 
trials, arrived at the object his active mind had con- 
ceived-~-an object which established his fortune— 
and will hand his fame down from age to age, as 
long as tlie art shall endure. 

When Schx)effer had finished a few of his metal 
types, cast with faces, he shewed them to Fust, who 
was so overjoyed by the discovery, tliat he promis- 
ed Schoeffer his only daughter Christiana, or, as 
others say, S!)?!!^^ [Dinali] in. marriage-r-which 
promise he soon fulfilled. 

At first, many difficulties attended these types, 
as wett as those which were cut. To c^st them all 
e;cactly of a height ; to make the faces range in a 

1 (t 

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line, and to compound the metal so as to be fusible 
and make the cast clear, yet of such firmness, whent 
cast, as to stand the necessary pressure, &c. were 
objects not accomplished in a moment, but which 
it was indispensably necessary to attain, before the 
types could be useful. These difficulties, and all 
others, were overcome by the perseverance and in- 
genuity of Schoefier. 

The art of manufacturing these types was con- 
cealed, by administering an oath of secresy to all 
with whom they entrusted the discovery, and env- 
ployed m their foundery and printing house, till the 
year 1462 ; when, through the sacking of Mentz, 
by Adolphus, the workmen were driven into other 
countries ; and, as they practised the art as a mean 
of subsistence, the secret soon became known in all 
the places to which they fled. ^ 

A clear account of the means used by Schoeffer 
in making his types, is given by Trithemius,* who 
had it from Schoeffer himself, in 1484 ; to which 
may be added the testimonies published by Jo. 
Frid. Faustus of Aschaffenburg, a descendant of 
Fust, from papers which had been preserved in the 
family ; and, the evidence of John Schoeffer, the son 
of Peter SchoefFer.f 

Schoeffer is said to have been one of the first 
engravers on copper ; he was so, as respects en- 

* Annales Hirsaugiens. Tom. II. ad ann. 1450. p. 421. 

t In a colofihon to an edition oiBreviarium Trithemi* John 
Schoeffer succeeded his father as a printer. Meerman Orig. 
Typog. vol. ii. p. 144. Wolfius Mon. Typog. vol. l.p, 468. 

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ogle ^ 

. tV EUROPE. 123 

gracing the moulds for casting types ;* but the art 
of engraving on that metal was known and practised 
long before his time. 

In 1468, Schoeffer printed an edition of Justin- 
ian's Institutes, to which was added the following, 
with other lines in praise of printing, and of those 
who, in Mentz, had made improvements in that art, 

" Natio quaeque suum poterit reperire charagma 
Secum ; nempe stylo praeminet omnigeno." 

The same versifier writes thus, respecting the 
invention of cast metal types. 

" Hos dedit eximios sculpendi in arte magistros, 

Cui placet in mactos arte sagire viros, 
Quos genuit ambos urbs Moguntina Johannes,! 

Librorum insignes protocharagmaticos, 
Cuip quibus optatum Petrus venit ad Polyandrum, 

Cursor posterior, introeundo prior ; 
Quippe quibus praestat sculpendi lege, sagitus 

A solo dante lumen et ingenium."t 

In 1471, after the death of Fust, we find Schoef- 
fer in partnership with Conrad Henliflf, a kinsman 

* Jo. Fiid. Faustus, says, that Schoeffer, « by the good 

providence of God, Ibund out the method of cutting incidendi^ 

the faces of the characters in a matrix^ that the letters might 

be singly cast ;" and, that « he privately cut matrices for the 

4 whole alphabet.'* 

t By amboa Joannesy Meerman is of opinion that the poet 
refers to the two Johns, Geinsfleiche and Guttemburg j the 
firrt inventors of metal types with cast &ces. 

X A translation of the above, which appears to be a mixture 
of several languages, rendered more difficult by technical 

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of Fust; bttt, bow long tfiis cosittesaeai jiasted, has 
not been ascertmned. Schoefier contibued the print- 
ing business till 1490, and published many books. 
The last book known to be {|»i:inted fcy him was 
an edition cf the Psalter. He pri]]^ed tforty eight 
books, in various sizes, asqsientioBfiMdibyScfaiisirt* 
aius.* Meerman has increased the number ; iftrt^ 
probably, he included the works of the society of 
Fust and Schoeffer. 

Peter Schoeffer was succeeded in the printing 
business by his son Jdm, to \diom the exclusive 
privilege of printing Livy, was gran^dt)jri(he'em« 
peror Maximilian. 

terms, is not attempted ; but the following lineS) presented hf 
a friend, may, perhaps, pass for an imitation. 

The nation which all others would excel, 

Like him must learn the art of printii\g well. * 

Whoever would in arts resplendent shine. 

Let him pursue the sculptor's art divine ; 

Following the two — of science the bright mom— 

The JOHNS renown'd, who in fam'd Mentz were bom. 

Or He,|| the husband of the gn^hic arts— - 

Old Gemshiem's pride — the man of various parts. 

Great was his fame I — 'his well eam'd honor nior9 

Than that of all the men who rose before ! 

He holy writ fulfils— ^for though the l.ast. 

His fame transcends all those of ag0s ps^ I 

The typographic art he made secure. 

By laws, and i>kill, and light, which shall endure 

From age to agC) till types shall be no inpre* 

I) Schoeffer, 
*^Schwartzius, Primar, Docum. de Orig. Typogr. par, ii. p. i. 

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Hamg tfaced the art of Prilling in Europe, 
fiiQim its conusarencement ^y Laurentius, in Haer* 
lem, to the consummation of the discovery, bj^ 
Scfaoefer, at Mentis ; and, having briefly stated th^ 
claims and pretensions of Haerleni, Strasburg and 
Mentz, to the honor of the original invention — ^by 
vliich it appe^ors that, as nearly as can be determine 
ad bj th© most diligent and minute investigation, 
die art was first discovered at Haerlem, about 
i429, or 1430, carried to Mentz in 1440, and at- 
tempted at Strasburg about the same period ; but, 
tiiat after Guttemburg removed from Strasburg, it • 
was confined to Haerlem and Mentz, till the year 
1462 ; — ^I will now give a concise account of what is 
esdfed ** its dis^)ersion" into other parts of Europe. 

Upon the taking and sacking of Mentz, the 
Workmen of Schoeffer were scattered abroad ; and, 
thuis the art ci Printing was spread to the distant 
cities where they fixed their abode. Chiefly by 
their means the art became known at Strasburg, 
Boulogne, Tours, and Paris ;— where it was prac- 
tised, as well as in several other cities, before it was 
kijToduced into England. 


IN regard to England, a voluminous controversy 
has existed whether the first press was set up in 
Westaninster, or at Oxfwd ; which question never 
has been, and perhaps never will be fully and satb- 
factorily settled. 

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The celebrated William Caxton had, for nearly 
two hundred years, the credit of being the first who 
transplanted the art into Greatbritain. He was a 
mercer, and citizen of London, but went to the con- 
tinent on his own business, and was employed in it, 
as well as in public afiairs, for several years, in Hol- 
land, Flanders, Germany, &c. While abroad, he 
was commissioned, jointly with Richard Whitehill, 
esq. to negotiate and conclude a treaty of com- 
merce between his sovereign king Edward IV, and 
the brother in law of that monarch, the Duke of 
Burgimdy, who,^ at that period, held the sovereignty 
of Flanders. When Caxton was in Germany, the 
knowledge of Printing had pervaded a cMisiderable 
part of Europe. He acquired a proper imderstand- 
ing of the business ; furnished himself with a print- 
ing apparatus ; and, for three years, practised the 
art at Cologne, where he was patronised by the 
duke and dutchess of Burgundy. 

About the year 1473, he returned to England, 
and set up a press in Westminster Abbey ;^ and, 
there he continued to print till he died. He receiv- 
ed the patronage of the nobility, the royal family, 
and particular encouragement from the abbot of 

• Newcourt, in his Refiertonum^ torn. 1. p. 721, differs, 
though not materially, from this account. He says, " St. 
Anne's, an old chapel, over ags^st which the lady Margaret, 
mother to king Henry VI, erected an almshouse for poor 
women. The place whereon this chapel and almshouse stood, 
was called the eleemosynary or almonry, as the alms of the 
abbey were there distributed to the poor ; in which the abbot 
of Westminster erected the first printing press put up in Eng- 
land for William Caxton, citizen and mercer," 

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<Ecpfecit <jpuo tnagiflri toil 
beb^i^ l^ett)oot>e^t»percon^ 
fHtac5ttcgp txmincialc6 tot 5eo 





♦ ♦ 




'*^<^ ^J^ojoa^ Ja Mmimd^ 

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Westminster. The fact, that he was the first who 
introduced the art into England, is justified and 
confirmed by many piifadic and private records; 
and, by chronologei^ and almanack makers, who 
mentioned him as the first printer, from time to 
time, and from year to year, without contradiction, 
till about 1660. 

A dispute arose, in 1642, between some per- 
sons who printed by virtue of a patent from the 
crown, and jdie company of stationers, respecting 
the patents. A petition was presented to parliament 
for a law to enforce a better regulation of the art of 
Printing; and to recal several patents. A com- 
mittee was appointed, who heard counsel for and 
against the petitioners ;-*-and, in the course of the 
pleadings, Caxton was acknowledged as indisputa- 
bly the first printer in England. No other printer 
was mentioned; or, perhaps, ever thought of, at 
that time, as having a primogenial claim. 

But at length a book was taken notice of by 
some curious antiquarians, bearing the date of its 
impression at Oxford in 1468. This book was 
first discovered in the public library at Cambridge ; 
and afterwards found in other ancient libraries. It 
was a small volume of forty one quarto leaves, with 
this title, Exposicio Sancti Jeronimi in Simboliim 
Apostolorum ad Papam Laureneium ;^ and, at the 
end. Explicit exposition &c- Impressa Oxonie et 

♦ The types with which this book was printed, it is said, 
were made after the manner of those used 1^ Laurentius ; 
that is, on wood, separately and moveable. See the spedmens 
annexed, No. I. and II. 

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^iifte AnnaDomim M.CCCC.lxviij. xvij— <&i)»w 
vefnbm* As the date of thb book was fair, and 
bore no appearance of fmud, it, at once, robbed 
Caxton of the fame which had so long been attach- 
ed to his memory, and created a strong doubt of his 
being justly considped as the father oi printing 'vx 
England. His partizans, however, soon raised ob- 
jections, one of which was, that this exposition was 
antedated, either by accident or carelessness, by the 
omission of an X ; which, added, would make it 
1478, the period which had ever been assigned to 
the establishment of the first press tit Oxford* As 
there are many proofs that mi^akes like this had 
occurred, the fame of Caxton began to revive ; but 
ill 1664, Richard Atkyns, esq. who claimed some 
exclusive privilege in jointing, under tlie roy^ pa- 
tents, and who had then, as appears, a law suit widi^ 
the company of stationers, respecting a book, to 
the copy of which he had a patent right ;-^ublish- 
ed a pamphlet, intitled, " The Original and Growth 
of Printing, collected out of History, and the Rec- 
ordes of the Kingdome, wherein it is demont^ated 
that Printing appertameth to the Prerogative Royal, 
and is a Flower oi the Crown of England." The 
design of this pamphlet was to give the right and 
title of Printing to the crown ; and, by that mean, 
to ascertain the validity of the patents granted by 
the crown. To support this argument, it was stated 
that an ancient manuscript record was discovered 
at Lambeth House, in the registry of the see of 
Canterbury, the purport of which is as follows, viz. 
— That, " as soon as the art of Printing made some 
noise in Europe, Thomas Bourchier, archbishop of 

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6F SUROPE. 12^ 

CanteriWuy, moved king Henry VI, to use all pos- 
dble means for procuring a " Printing Mould,^^ for 
so it was then caSed, to be brought to England. 
The king tsdcing advice how to effect his design, 
concluded it could not be brought about, without 
great secresy, and a considerable sum of money 
given to some person who should draw off some ci 
^ workmen from Haerlem, in HoU^id, where it 
was invented. The king furnished Robert Tur- 
nour, then mastdr of the robes, wdth a thousand 
marks, and Tumour took to his assi^taijce William 
Caxton, a citiaen of good abilities, who traded 
much to Holland, and, on that account, fc^med a 
good pretence for going and tarrying in the Low 
Countries tx) ^tain the art. Tumour ^vas in dis- 
guise — ^had his beard shaven off, &c. but Caxton 
aj^eared in public, being known. They went to 
Amsterdam, then to Leyden, not daring to enter 
Haerlem itself; for the town was very jealous, and 
had imprisoned divers persons who came from oth- 
er parts with the same intention. They spent all 
their mc«iey, and the king sent them five hundred 
marks more. At lengdi, a bai^n was struck be- 
tween Caxton and Toimier and two Hollanders, for 
brin^g off one of the under workmen, named 
Frederick Coiiseillis, who, late one night, stole from 
his fellows, in disguise, into a vessel prepared for 
his reception — and he arrived safe in London. By 
means of the archbishop, who was appointed chan- 
cellor of the universaty, Corseillis was carried by a 
-guard to Oxfordj it beir^ thought impmdent to set 
him to wok m London ; which guard constantly 
watched to prevent Corseillis from any possible es- 

1 R 

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cape till he had made good his promise in teaching 
them how to print- So that, at Oxford, Printing 
was first set up in England, before there was any 
printing in France,* Spain, Italy or Germany, ex- 
cept the city of Mentz, which claims the priority in 
printing even over Haerlem itself, calling her city 
Urbem Moguntinam artis typographic^ inventricam 
primum ; though it is known to be otherwise, that 
city having received the art by the brother of one oi 
the workmen of Haerlem, who had learned it at 
home of his brother, and afterward set up for him- 
self at Mentz." 

The pamphlet then goes on to state that, " This 
Oxon press was at least ten years before there M^as 
any printing in Europe, except at Haerlem, and at 
Mentz, where it was but new bom. This press at 
Oxford was afterward found inconvenient to be the 
sole printing press of England, as being too far from 
London and the sea ; wherefore, the king set up a 
press at St. Albans, and another at Westminster, 
where they printed books of divinity and physic, as 
the king, for reasons best known to himself and 
council, permitted, then, no law book to be printed; 
nor did any printer exercise that art, but only such 
as were the king's sworn servants ; the king himself 
having the price and emolument for printing books. 
By these means the art grew so famous that anno 
primp Richard 3. c. 9^ when an act of parliament 

* This is an error, for before what is supposed to be the 
spurious date of the book printed at Oxford [1468] there was 
a press at Boulogne. It was established there as early as 
1462 ; there was also one at Paris in 1464, and ^mother in 
Rome in 1466, &c. 

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Was made for restraining aliens from using any 
handcrafts here, except as servants to natives, a 
special proviso was inserted, that strangers might 
bring in printed or written books to sell at their 
pleaiftire, and exercise the arts of Printing, illumi- 
nating and writing, notwithstanding the acts — so 
that in the space of fifty years, by the mdulgence 
of Edward 4th, Edward 5th, Richard 3d, Henry 
7th, and king Henry the 8th, the English proved so 
good proficients in Printing, and grew so numer- 
ous, as to ftimish the kingdom with books ; and so 
skilful as to print them, as well as any beyond the 
seas ; as appears by the act of 25 Henry 8th, cap. 
15, which abrogates said proviso for that reason ; 
and it was enacted in said statute, that if any person 
bought foreign booksj^ound, he should pay 6s. 8d. 
per book ; and further, if any printer or seller of 
books were unreasoifeble in their prices, they should 
be moderated by the lord chancellor, lord treasurer, 
the two lords justices, or any two of them, who also 
had power to fine them 3s. 4d. for every book the 
price whereof should be enhanced ; but when they 
were by charter incorporated with bookbinders, 
bookselkrs, and founders of types, and called the 
Company of Stationers ; they kickt against the pow- 
er that gave them life, &c. Queen Elizabeth gave 
the sole privilege of printing all books that touch 
the law, or concern the common law of England, to 
Tottel, a servant to her majesty ; and after his death, 
Yest Weirt, another servant to her majesty ; and 
after them, king James granted the same privilege 
to More, of the signet, which grant continues to 
this day," &c. &q. 


by Google 


The year following, 1465, the house ai com^ 
mons tlKmght proper to inquire into the right of 
the king's prerogative respecting Printing ; at which 
time, it is said, the Lambeth House record was 
examined by a committee of the housed appdoited 
to draw up a bill relating to the exercise of the art ; 
and that this committee borrowed the record for 
that purpose, but did not make use of it^ and never 
returned it ; and, the record has not been seen or 
heard of since. The advocates for the authenticity 
of the record observe, that as sir John Berkenheady 
whom they menticai as the borrower of it for the use 
of the committee, did not return it to its prqper 
keeper, it was probably destroyed in 1666> in the 
great fire which consumed upwards (rf 13,000 houses 
in the city of London, and ^ almost infinite num- 
ber ot literary productions. 

The late discoveries of the learned Meerman^ ia 
his researches after ancient Printing, were puUished 
at Amsterdam in 1762. He estaWished beyond 
controversy the claim of Haerlem to the discoveiy 
of Printing by Laurentius ; and he, as well as some 
other good writers on the subject, are decidedly c£ 
opinion that the Oxford press was the first ^et up in 
England ; and that, at this press, wooden types were 
used. They allow Caxton to be the first who 
printed with metal types ; and, as the full discovery 
of tlie art should be dated from the invention of those; 
types, Caxton may be called "the first English 
printer." Those, in tlie opposition, will not allow 
there was any press m the kingdom t^ Caxtcai es- 
tablished his, and most of the best English writers 
on Printing, appear to be of that opini(»i, [cTJ 

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IV £UKOPi« 133 

WILUAM CAXTON, of WEsmissrsu. 

Hte was bora in the county of Kent, England, 
and served an apfw^nticeship to Robert Large, a 
mercer, who was sheriff and afterward lord mayor 
of London. Large died in 1441, and left by mH 
** xxxiiii* marks t6 his apprentice William Cax- 
ton;'^ which being a considerable sum in those 
days, we may consider it as a strong proof of his 
iesteem for the integrity and good character of Cax- 
ton.f When young, he went to Holland, &c. as a 
factor fOT the company of mercers, in London, and 
spears to have been proud of his business, and of 
Ms country ; for even at the court of the duke of 
Bui^ndy in 1470, he stiled himself " citizen and 
mercer of the city rf London.'* In 1464, he was 
employed, with Richard Whitehill, esq. as has been 
already mentioned, by Edward IV, to negotiate a 
treaty of commerce with the duke of Burgundy.; 
The commission styled them, " Ambassiatores, 
Procuratores, Nuncios, et Duputos speciales," and 
gave them full power jointly and severally to treat, 
&c. It was during his residence at the court of the 
duke of Burgundy, between 1466 and 1472, that 
he turned his attention to the practice of Printing. 

When he arrived in England, the novelty and 
usefulness of Printing, attracted particular notice, 

* A mark is 13s. 4d. sterling. 

t Ames's Typographical Antiquities^ 

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not only of the learned, but of the great men of the 
kingdom.* Many of his books were printed at 
their expense. Several of diem were dedicated to 
Edward IV ; to the king's brother, the duke of 
Clarence ; and, to his sister, the dutchess of Bur- 
gundy, in whose service Caxton had been employed 
several years, while he was absent from England. 
He printed various books by order oi Henry VH, 
and his son, prince Arthur. 

The biographers of Caxton, do not mention the 
particulai' year in which he was bom ; nor do they 
give his exact age. But it appears, from various 
accounts, that he was about thirty one years old 
when his master and patron died. Soon after that 
event he went to Holland to manage the concerns of 
the company of mercers, having previou3ly been 
made a member of that body. By his own state- 
ments, given in the prologues and colophons of the 
books he first printed, we fipdthat he remained 
abroad thirty two years ; and returned to England 
with a press and types in 1473, when he must have 
been sixty three years of age. He died in 1491, 
aged eighty one years ; and was buried in St. Mar- 
garet's church, Westminster. This fact is proved 
by a record of the church warden's account for 
1491, in \^hich there is this item, " Atte bure3aig 
of William Caxton, for iiii. torchys vi $• viii d." 

* Caxton began Printing, in Engird, in a room belonging 
to Westminster Abbey ; in consequence of which, a printing 
house, when certain ceremonies are performed by the work- 
men to sanction the nam^9 has, down to the present period, 
been called a Chapel, 

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IK lUROPE. 135 

There is another record of his death, in the follow- 
ing words, " Of youre charitee pray for the. Sowle 
of Mayster Wylljram Caxton, that in hys tyme was 
a man of moche ornate and moche renommed wys- 
dome and connyng, and decessed full crystenly in 
the yere of our Lord m cccc lxxxxi. 

Moder of merei shyld hym from thorribul fynd 
And bryng hym to lyflFetemall that neuyr hadi ynd.'* 

He followed the printing business as long as he 
lived ; and, published some works of considerable 
magnitude. Among them was The Canterbury 
Tales of Geoffrey Chaucer, which Mr, Ames sup- 
poses he completed in 1475, or 1476. This work 
he printed from a very imperfect copy ; and, as his 
candor does honor to his heart, I will give, in his 
own words, his reasons for undertaking a second 
edition ; presuming it will be agreeable to the read- 
er to see the identical language which was spoken 
and written by the Father of English Printing. 
When Caxton was informed of the imperfections in 
his first edition of The Canterbury Tales, he says he 
undertook a second, to satisfy the author, M^hereas 
before by ignorance he had erred, in hurting and 
defaming liis book ;~" whyche book I have dyly- 
gently oversen, and duly examyned, to thende that * 
it be made accordyng unto his owen makyng ; for 
I fynde n^any of the sayd bookes, whyche wiyters 
have abrydgyd it, and many thynges left out. And 
in some places have sette certayn versys that he 
never made ne sette in hys booke ; of which bookes, 
so incorecte, was one brought to me vi. yere passyd, 
whyche I supposed had ben veray true and corecte. 

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and aGC(Mxlyiig to die same I d}rde do enptyate a 
certayu nomber of them, whyche anon were sc4d to 
many and dyu«^ g^f^tyl men, of whom one gentyl* 
man cam to me^ and sayd that this book was not 
according in mai^ places unto the book that Gef- 
ferey Chaucer had made. To whom I answered, 
that I had made it accordyng to my copye, and by 
me was nothyng added ne mynusshyd. Thenne he 
sayd he knewe a book whyche hys fader had and 
moche louyd, that was very trewe, and accordyng 
tinto hys owen first book by hym made ; and sayd 
mcM^, yf I wold enpiynte it agayn he wold gete me 
the same book for a copye. How be it he wyst 
well, th^t his fader wdd not ^adly departe fro iU 
To whom I said, in caas that he coude gete me 
suche a book, trewe mid correcte, yet I wold ones 
endeuoyre me to enprynte it agayn, for to satisfy 
thauctour, where as to fore, by ygnoraunce, I arryd 
in hurtyng and dyffamyng his book in dyuerce pla- 
ces, in setting in somme thyiiges that he neuer sayd 
ne made, and leuing out many thynges that he 
made, whyche ben requysite to be sette in it. And 
thus we fyll at accord, and he ful gentylly gate of 
hys fader the said book, and delyuered it to me, by 
whyche I have corrected my book, as heere after 
• alle alonge, by thayde of almyghty God, shal folowc, 
whom I humbly beseche,*' &c. 

In addition to the other evidences and conjee- 
tures, adduced to prove that Caxton was the father 
of Printing in England, I might have added that of 
the famous antiquary, Joh. Leland, who was nearly- 
contemporary with Caxton ; part of his works hav- 
ing been written about forty years after Caxton 


by Google 

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^^Itciterpoftcio ranetilcvonimim 
fvmboU) apoftoiotumaopapzwTvlauii 
cnim JiuprtlTa <S);:ome C^t fimta /5tn 
notiomini. AV-* tcct*ijnonj» j^Vbic 
bccembtts ♦ 





vS a. 

^ ^ o 


•JV(4z: sMJXYjJb tum7j({ 

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tv £VftoPt4 137 

died. This Leiand was library keeper to king 
Heoiy Vm ; aad was employed bf the king about 
twelve years, to examine the Ubraries of the diflfer- 
ent monasteries in thf^ IskkgAosx^ «iid to collect 
whatever was curious thereia. He wrote an ac- 
coimt of his discoveries, which he called his Itinera* 
rium. In a* wprk of'lus, entitled, De arte amandi^ 
written befocp lie undertook his Itinerary in 1540, 
he speaks tbus of Caxton, Ctuli&lmum Cmxodunum 
hominem nee indiligentemj nee indoetunif et quern 
constat primum Londini ariem exercukse ttfpograph'^ 
icam^ &c. In another work of Leiand,^ he ex« 
pressly calls Caxton " the first printer of England.*^ 
In an appendix, I shall insert several of the cdo« 
^oas, ttc. to Caxton's books, which may prove 

In most of them he 
; of the chapters, for the 
^ capitals according to 
s, used large two line 
ich wOTe called " Anglo 

* De Script. Brit. p. 480.— The celebrated Henry Whar* 
ton alto affirms, <<that Caxton was the first who imported 
Printing into England." 

t For specimens of Caxton's types and printing, see the 
plates annexed to this work ; ihtj are copied from Aniestg 
English Typographical Antiquities^ 

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WYNKYN I>E WORDE, of WgsfMiifsnM. 

De Worde succeeded Caxton at Westmin- 
ster. He had been apprentice to him in Burgundy, 
emigrated to England with him, and remained witiii 
him as long as he lived. He styled himself " Prynt- 
er to Margarate, &c. the Kinges Grandame.'^ Most 
of the writers who mention him, say that he was 
very skilful in his profession. He printed acts of 
parliament, &c. after his master's death. Hig first 
care was to furnish himself with a new set of 
punches, and new cl^ts of types, with handsomer 
faces than those used by Caxton. The faces of the 
types made by De Worde, are the same as those of 
the IBIttCitflt of the present day. He introduced 
Roman letters, and was the first who used them in 
England ; but they were only for emphatical words, 
in the manner we now use Italics. 

De Wcwde did much business, was in great 
repute, and, like his master Caxton, was learned, 
accomplished and pious. He died about the year 
1535. De Worde carried on the business six or 
seven years in the printing house which had been 
occupied by Caxton. At the end of the first work 
he executed, he printed these lines, viz. 
" Infynyte laude, with thankynges many folde, 

I yielde to God, me socouryng vnih his grace 
This boke to finyshe, which that ye beholde, 

Scale of perfeccion calde in gvery place ; 

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IK Eiriopx, 139 

Wh^ieof ithauctour Walter Hilton was, 
And Wjmkyn de Worde this hath sett in pryntst 

In William Caxston's hows, so fyll the case, 
God rest his soule. In joye tl^r mot it stynt. 

Impressus, anno salutis m cccc Lxxxxiiii," 

As a conclusion of this brief account of the in- 
troduction of Printing into England, I will give an 
extract from the last will and testament of one of the 
ancient English printers, viz. the abovementioned 
Wynkyn de Worde, successor of Caxton. 

He commends his soul to God and the blessed 
St. Mary ;* and, his body to be buried in the paro- 
chial church of St. Brides, in Fleet street, before the 
Wgh altar of St. Katherine.-^^* Item. For tythes 
foi^tten, 6 s. 8 d. To the Fraternity of our Lady, 
of which I am a Brother, 10 s. to pray for my soul. 
To my maid, 3 1. in books. To Agnes Tidder, 
widow, 40 s. in books. To Robert Derby, 3 1. in 
printed books. To John Barbanson, 60 s. in books, 
and ten marks. To Hector, my servant, five marks, 
sterling, in books. To Wislin, 20 s. in printed 
books. To every of my apprentices, 3 1. in printed 
books. To my servant James Ganer, twenty marks 
in books— and forgive John Badil, stationer, all the 
money he owes me, for executing this my will with 
James Ganer ; and that they, with the consent of 
the wardeAs of the parish of St* Brides, purchase at 
least 20 s. a year, in or near the city, to pray for my 
soul and say mass. To Henry PepweU, stationer, 

• At this time our ancestors in England were, chiefly, Ro- 
man catholics. 

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4 1. in bodks. To John Gouge, for^ve what he 
ovnes me, and 4 L To Robert Cqiland, ten marks, 
andtoAlard,bodcUnder, myservant^SL 156* 4dL" 

There was no press m London, till the year 
1480, when two foreigners, supposed to have been 
brought over to England by Caxton, whose names 
were John Lettou and William Macklinia, or Mac- 
lyn, followed the printing business, sometimes in 
partnersMp, and sometimes separately. 

After the year 1470, the briowledge and practice 
of Printing, was rapidly difiiised over Europe, To 
give a particular account of the introduction rfit 
into each country and city, Would be tedious and 
uninteresting. An alphabetical list of the cities and 
towns, the names of the persons by whom, and the 
dates when, it vsras first introduced, will be thought 
sufficient. Such a catalogue I have extracted from 
M^ttau-e's Annales Typographici, tom. primi, pars 
posterior, Amster. 1733 ; Nichols's Origin of Print* 
ing ; Meerman's Origines Typographicae ; Middle- 
ton's Dissertation on the Origin of Printing, 8cc, 
This catalogue I have enlarged and completed from 
various other authorities-*-added tiie places in 
America, where Printing first made its appearance ; 
and, arranged it in the order following, viz. 


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sir mvMtZy 8cc. 141 


- dtiet. JVbmt of Printers. %^, 

meviUe, ^'^^^^^'"'l I486' 

Albans^ St. Anonymous, 1480 

Alcala di Henarcx^ ^ 

\Complutum in V Anonymous, 1494 

SpainJ^ 3 

AkaKrlla^ Itahfy Nicdlas Bichtennuntee, 1469 

AnAergy Anonymous, 1471 

Angersy J<An Atexander, 1498 

Angotdesmey Anwiymous, 1493 

Antwerpy jAnoi^mous, 1479 

^' i Gerard Leeu, 1480 

Afuila,mAbrunm, Adam de Rotwil, 1482 

Augsburghy JohnBemler, 1466 

Ao^non, Nicholas Lepe, 1497 

Austria, ^ty of,* Gerard of Flanders, 1480 

Barcehruiy Anonymous, 1473 

^ This is avery vague account Bf the city of Austria, 
perhaps Vienna yiZA meant. By Gerard of Flanders we may 
jprobably understand Gerard de Leeu, or Leen, of Antwerp, 
whom Luckombe places at Gouge in 1479, and Bowyer and 
Nichols at Antwerp in 1480. Perhaps he removed to Vienna, 
or some other city of Austria, the same year. It is prbbabte 
by Gouge was meant Ghent, or, as the French call it, Gand, 

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C Anonymous, 
^ Bernard Richel, 

Balthazar Azoguidus. 

C Anonymous, 
^ Frederick Alemanus, 
Henry of Cologne, Sta- 

Colard Mansion, 1475 or 1476 



Bois Le Due, 



^"^""w^&pf^" ] Anonymous, 
Brusselst Anonymous, 

Buda, Andrew Hess, 

Burgdorf, Anonymous, 

Caen, Jacobus Durand» 

Caragossa, [&zra- C Anonymous, 
gossa^ \ Pablo Hurus, 

CoUe, Bcmus Gallus, 

Cologne, John Koelhoff, 

Constance, Anonymous, 

Constantinople, Anonymous, 

Convent of Regu- 1 

lars at Schoermo- > Anonymous, 

ven, 3 

Cosenza, Octavius Salmonius, 

Cracow, Anonymous, 

Cremona^ Bernard de Misintis, 

J)evenier,in Over- ^ Anonymous, 

yssel, ^ Richard Pafroit, 

Del/i, Jacob Jacobs, 

Dijon, Ammymous, 

Dole, John HeberUis, 








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tn lURopE, 8cc. 


Esslingeriy [^Stiubia] 



Ghent y \ 


GentiiffylQ. Ghent?'] 


St. CHacomo de Ru ^ 
noUy [a monaste- > 
ry at Florence'] ) 

Gouday \ 


Haguenauy \ 

Haerlemy \ 


JHeidelbergy < 

Hooluniy Icelandy 

Michael Reisser, 
Eiias fils Ellas, 
Conrad Fyner, 
Andrew Gallus, 
Bernard & Dominick 


Arend de Keysere, 
Jacobus Amollet, 
Matthew Moravus, 
Anonymous supposed 
as early as 

Dom. de Pistoria, 


Gerard Leeu, 



John de Garlandia, 

Henry Gran, 


John Pieter & Sons, 

Jacobus Begaard, 



Jacobus Knoblocker, 

Jbhn Mathieson, 










* In the book whence this adjective was orig^Uy taken, 
it was, probably, preceded bjr a «u6»tantive, indicating some 
^ace of the C^vennM. C. D. M. 

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Letria^ or Lyrut 
Ijcwisj Q. 

I^nitZy [^Liffiis] 














Peter Appian,* 14d3 

i^Aok Casney, 1499 

C Anonymous, 1481 

^ Marcus Brandt, 1484 

Anonymous, 1494 

Anonymous, 1479 

Anon}rmous, 1497 

AjMmymous, 1481 

Peter AaseBn, 1500 

Afionymous, 1491 

Anoi^ncnous, 1481 

WiU. de Macklinia, 1481 

John Lettou 1481 

Richard Pynson, 1493 

Nic(^ Le Conte, 1494 

Julianus, [Notaire] & 

i. Barbier, 1498 

Jo. de Westphalia, 1473 

Lucas Brandiz, Disde ^ | . ,-• 

deSchafz, J ^^^^ 

John Luce, 1493 

Bartholomew Buyer, 1477 

Anonymous, 1494 

Anonymous, 148$ 

Anonymous, as early as 1590 

Tho. Septemcastrensis ? \ai2 

& Socii, 3 

S Anonymous, 1483 

C Albert Kune, 1490 

CGeinsfleiche, 1442 

\ Fust and Guttembm-g 14S0 

C Fust and Schoeffer, / 1455 

K William Scenberger, 1486 

\ Andrew de Brugis, 1497 

Anthony Zarot, 1470 

« He ^as an astrologer ; and the emperor Charlea V$ 
presented him with fire thousfoid crowns. 

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IV KUAOPi, 8te« 












Mrandtda, Anonymous, ^ 1496 

Modenay Baltfaazsir de Struciis, 1477 

«^ » r. cf •/ T Dominick de Nivaldis 7 

Monfrealey[mStcuy} ^ g^.. J- 

Mmte MoHOckarufih John S^isenschmidt, 
^ Ivan Basilewitz, 
C Peter Timofioffom, 
Jc^ Limburgus, 
Stephen Larcher, ' 
Sixtus Riessenger, 
Jo. de Westphalia, 
Anthony Coburger, 
Judssi Soncinates^ 
Jdbn Caesar, 
"Anonymous, [Q. Cor 

Thomas Hunte, an 
Englishman who 
is supposed to 
have been taught 
by Caxton, 
T.R. fdoubtlessThe- 

odorick Rood.! 

^Thcodorick Rood, 

^Bartholomew de Val- V . .^-. 

I dezochio, ^^^^ 

Andrew de Wormacia, 1477 

William de Brocario, 1496 

'UlricGering, Martin 

Crantz, andMicha- 

el Friburger, 

I Anonymous, 

I Stephen Corallus, 

C Jacobus, de Sancto Pe- 

l tro, 

J. Rosembach, 




1 1560 









Paris, lQ.U64r] 







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Provence \in ^ 
Champagne^ 3 






Stephen Ams, 
Sigismond Rodt, 
Jo. Peter de Ferratis, 
Jacobus de Rubeis, 
C Anonymous, 
\ Gregory de Gente, 

John Peter, 
f Anonytnous, in ^dibus ^ 
J Canonici Ecdesicey 
1 B. Hilarii, > 

LJohn de Mamef, 

William Tabemier, 

5 Prosp. Odoardus, Alb. 
\ Maguli, 

John Averbach, 


C Conrad Sweynheim, 
\ Arnold Pannartz,* 



* They printed several years ; and after having produced 
a great number of beautiful and correct editions of books, these 
ingenious printers were reduced to the most necessitous cir- 
cumstances. Their learned patron, the bishop of Aleria, pre- 
sented a petition to pope Sixtus IV, in 1471, in their behalf, 
in which he takes notice of their great merit, and represents 
tlieir misery in the most pathetic terms ; and, declares their 
readiness to part with their whole stock for subsistence. 
They say, " We were the first of the Germans who introduced 
this art, with vast labor and expense, into the territories of 
your holiness, in the time of your predecessor ; and encour- 
aged, by our example, other printers to do the same* If you 
peruse the catalogue of the works printed by us, you will ad- 
mire how and where we could procure a sufficient quandty of 
paper, or even rags, for such a number of volumes. The total 
of these books amount in number to 13,475 volumes ; a pro- 

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IN ECKorE, &c. 147 

SPresbyteri et Clerici^ 

Congregationis db-V 1476 
mus viridis hortiy j 

Moueriy John Le Bourgeois,* 1488 

Salamanca^ Anonymous, 1495 

Sahnichiy Anonymous, 1493 

Scandianij Peregrine Pascal, 1495 

Schoenhaven, \ Anonymous, in Con^ 7 ^^ 

^ ventu Megulanutny 5 

Schiedam^ Sedanl, } ^ ^.^^ 

Sedan, ^^ Anonymous, 1498 

SeviUey Paul de Colonia, 1491 

Sienna, Sigismund Rodt, 1489 

S Anonymous, 1484 
Abraham filius Rabbi 

Hhajim, 1488 

SortenMonasterium, Anonymous, 1478 

Spire, Petrus Drach, 1477 

Stockholm, John Faber, 1495 

J John Guttemburg, f 1441 

Hen,yEgges«to, i\^* 

digious heap, and intolerable to us, your holiness's printers, by 
reason of those unsold. We are no longer able to bear the 
great expense of housekeeping for want of buyers ; of which 
there cannot be a more flagrant proof, than that our house, 
though otherwise spacious enough, is fullof books, in quires, 
but void of every necessary of lifipf" [See P?dmer's Hist. Print, 
p. 130.] Those printers first attempted the Roman types, 
now in use, anno 1466 ; but, they were not brought to perfec- 
tion till many years afterwJ^rd. 

> litis probal;)lc that he was the inventor of that description 
of types, whicbis ^till called after him. Bourgeois. 

t I take notice of Guttemburg as a printer at Strasburg, 
although historians do not allow that he brought any work to 
perfection there. He certainly made many attempts at print-' 
ing in that city. 

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HisTOKY or raiNTiNe 

C Anonymous, 













Vienne [Dauphine\ 

i John Teller, 



William Le Rouge, 

Girard de Lisa de 

Fred. Meynbcrger, 
^ John Fabri, and Jo. de 
X Petro, 

Anonjrmous, in dotno 
GuKdmi Archiep. 


Alphonsus de Orta, 


Joh. de Spiraj 
- Joh. & Vmdelin de 
^ Spira, 

Nicolaus Jenson, 

Christo. Baldarferj 
^Zaccaria Calliergo,t 

Jo. Nicolai filius, 
C Hermanns Levilapis, 
X or Lichtenstein, 


Peter Schenck, 










* Some write Subiaco; but, probably, it should be Subbiaro* 

t Calliergo was bom in Crete. He was a learned man ; 
and skilful in printing Greek. He was many jr6ars«ttt Venice. 
In 1 5 15, under the patronage of pope Leo X, he^^t up a press 
in the house, and at the expense of the learned Agostino at 
Rome ; where he printed a fine quarto edition of the works of 
Kndar. This was the first (Sreek book which was printed 9t 

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John Zeiner, 

^ Nicholas Ketzlaer, 7 
^ Gerard de Lumpt, 3 
C William Caxton, 
\ Wynkyn de Worde, 







Spanish Provinces* 

Lima^JPeruj Anonymous, about 1590 

British Colonies^ now the United States^ 

Cambridge J Massa- C Stephen Daye, 1639 

chusettsy \ Samuel Green, 1649 

Boston, do. John Foster, 1674 

Philadelphia C««ir ? wiUiam Bradford, 1687 

tOyj Fennsytvamaj ^ ' 

Philadelphia, do. do. 1689 

S William Bradford, who 
removed from Phila- 
delphia, 1693 

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NevMn^Connec. ? Thomas Short, 1709 

Ah^^ Shodeisl- ?ja,nesFwiklin, 1732 

Annapolis, Maryland^ William Parks, 1726 

^"""^ ( napoUs, 17529 

,froodbridge,NewJer. ) g^^^j p^^ ^^52 

JVervbem, ^Torthca. } j^^^ j^^^^ ^755 

rohnay ^ ' 

Portsmouth, ^^w- J p^^j p^^l j^^g 

nampsntre, j 

Savannahy Georgia, James Johnson, 1762 

OrA<?r Colonies and Islands. 

C Bartholomew Green, 
Halifax y JVbvascotiay < the younger, 
/ John Bushell, ' 
C William Brown, and ' 
< Gilmore, 

QuebeCy Canada, 

Kingstony Jamaicay 
Brmgetown, Barba- 

Bassaterrey St. Chris- 

St. John, Antigtuiy 
Roseau, Dominica, 
St. Georgestoxvn, 


( partners, 

^ David Harry, 
( Samuel Keimer, 

^ Thomas Howe, 

Benjamin Mecom, 
William Smith, 

> William Wayland, 







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IVl ETTEOPE, &C* 151 

The city of Venice was greatly celebrated for 
near a century, on account of the elegance and cor- 
rectness of the printing performed there. Aide 
Manuzio, or Aldus Manutius, his son, and grand- 
son, were three of the most ingenious and learned 
printers of the age in which they lived. They are 
not mentioned in the preceding list, because they 
were not among the first who spread abroad the 
knowledge of the art. They did not flourish till the 
sixteenth century — ^but I am unwilling to pass by 
such eminent professors of the art ; and, for that 
reason, introduce them here. 

Aldus Manutius^ bom at Bassano, in Italy, print- 
ed at Venice, in 1513, the works of Plato, and ded- 
icated them to pope Leo X ; the Greek types which 
he made for this book were much superior to any 
that had been cast before. He was the inventor of 
that description of types called the cursive, or Italic. 
The pope granted him the exclusive privilege, for 
fifteen years, of reprinting and publishing all the 
Greek and Latin books which he had already print- 
ed, or might afterwards print from types invented 
or improved by himself. This privilege was se- 
cured by a denunciation, of heavy penalties, and 
the terrors of excommunication against all such as 
i^ould invade it. At the same time, it was recom- 
mended to Aldus, or Aldo, to sell his books at a 
reasonable price ; and the pope expressed his con- 
fidence in the integrity and obedience of the printer.* 
Manutius was an accomplished scholar ; and died 
in 1516. 

• Ro3coe*8 Leo X. Vol. ii. 

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Fottbis Manutiusy son of Aldus, succeeded his 
lather, at Venice, and it is said that he excelled him 
inkaming^ He removed to Rome; where pope 
Pius ly , put him at the head of the apostolic press, 
and committed the lilxary of the Vatican to his care. 
He died anno 1574. 

Mbis Manutius, the son of Paulus, was esteem, 
ed the greatest genius, and the most learned man of 
his time. Pope Clement VIH, made him director 
of the Vatican printing house. The profits of that 
establishment were but small ; and he was obliged 
toaccept the chair of the professor of rhetoric. Still 
he was poor, and was obliged, as a mean of subsist- 
ence, to sell the excellent library which had been 
collected by his father, his uncle, and his great 
imcle, with extraordinaxy care and expense. It 
was reported that it contained 80,000 volumes. He 
died at Rome in 1597. 

These three great men were all celebrated as 
authors, and eminent as translators. 

Having ^ven this account of these excellent 
Venetian printers, I cannot forbear making some 
menticm of the highly renowned Stephanie of Paris. 

Henry Stephens^ the first of these distinguished 
men, was bom in France, soon after the discovery 
of printing, i. e. about 1465. He setded at Paris, 
and there published a number of books in Latin, 
printed with Roman letter, which was well made 
for that period. He died about the year 1520; and 
left three sons, Francis, Robert and Charles ; who 
were all printers, and two of them became very eel- 
ebrated authors. The widow of Henry married 
Simon de Colines ; and she put him in possession 

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tUf E0RO1»E, &C* 153 

of Stephens's printing house ; 6f which he remain- 
ed ftiaster tiH he died. 

Robert Stephens^ the second son, was bom in 
1503. He made so great proficiency in the Latlh, 
Greek and Hebrew languages, that at the age of 
nineteen, his father in law, De Colines, intrusted 
him willi the management of his press. He mar- 
ried Perette, the daughter of Jodocus Badius, who 
was a printer, and an author. She was a learned 
woman> and well acquainted with Latin. In 1539, 
Francils I, made him his printer, dftd ordered a new 
set of elegant types to be founded for him. Robert 
published several editions of the New Testament ; 
Ae annotations to which gave great offence to the 
doctors of the Sorbonne ; who became so trouble- 
some to him, that, notwidistanding he was patronis- 
ed by the French king, Henry II, he abandoned his 
country, and went to Geneva. It was he who first 
dfivided the New Testament into verses, during a 
journey between Paris and Lyons. The advantages 
of this alteration, are fully coimterbalanced, say tlie 
editors of the Encyclopedia, by its defects ;-*— " it has 
destroyed the unity of the books, and induced many 
commentators to consider ^very verse as a distinct 
and independent aphorism ; and, to tWs, in a great 
measure, is to be ascribed the many absurd inter- 
pretations that have been forced out of that book.'^ 
But Robert Stephens arrived at an honor, the like of 
which no printer, or learned man beside himself, ever 
attmned ; for he made a collection .of manuscripts 
of the New Testament, and from all those which 
he collated, he formed the Gredk text of the New 
Testament which is now in use among us ; and 
1 u 

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from which our present translation was made. The 
learned dr* Richard Bentley speaks of this perform- 
ance in these terms. — " The present text," of the 
N#w Testament, " was first settled almost two him- 
dred [now near three hundred] years ago, out of 
several MSS. by Robert Stephens, a printer and 
bookseller at Paris ; whose beautiful, and, gener- 
ally speaking, accurate edition, has been ever since 
counted the standard, and followed by all the rest."* 

The bodes of which he was the author, editor 
and publisher, Mmrc said to amount to three hun- 
dred and sixty. Among them was a Greek Testa- 
ment, with the Latin translations of Erasmus and 
Veteris on each side, which formed three columns 
on a page^ There is nothing very remarkable in 
the Latin, but the Greek types were as elegant and 
as well executed, as any that were ever used in a 
press. The paper for that work was also remarka- 
bly fine ; perhaps, superior to any which is now 
made. Robert, like hi& father, left three sons, who 
were all printers. 

I have a copy of Xllicero's Orations^ printed by 
this R. Stephens, from the cursive type, in 1544, 
which has in the title page the device, or mark, 
which he put to all his books, of " a branched fruit 
tree," mider which is a man looking and pointing up 
to it. Some of the smaller branches are represent- 
cd as having been cut, and are falling to the ground. 
On a label displayed from a lower branch of the 
tree, are these words — JVoli Altum Sapere. 

• Bentley's Remarks, p. 68. 

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Charles J the third son of Henry, was a printer, 
a physician, and an author. He wrote thirty trea- 
tises on various subjects ; particularly, on botany, 
anatomy and history. His printing 'was distin-' 
guished by the neatness and elegance of it He 
lived in Paris,^and died anno 1564. 

Robert y the grandson of Henry, remained in 
Paris, where he was printer to the king. His types 
were uncommonly handsome- He died about 1589 ; 
and was succeeded by Francis, his brother, who 
had been a printer in Geneva. 

Henry ^ the third son of Robert, was bom at 
Paris in 1528. He was a printer and an astrono- 
mer ; and, was the most learned, and the most re- 
nowned, of all the family. He travelled to Rome, 
Naples, &c. in the service of the French govern- 
ment. He wrote and printed the Thesaurus Lin- 
gua Graces ; which, considering the wretched ma« 
terials that more ancient dictionaries furnished, and 
the size and perfection whereto he brought his 
work, may be considered as the greatest undertak- 
ing of the kind that ever was executed by one man. 
It was carried on at a greater expense than he could 
support ; and he was not ren^imerated by the sale 
of the book. His own servMit, John Scapula, ex- 
tracted from his manuscripts whatever he thought 
would be serviceable to $tudents, and anticipated 
the publication of Steplj^ns's work. By this act of 
treachery Henry Stephens was reduced to poverty. 
He was in favor with his sovereign, Henry HI, of 
France ; and frequently resided at court. The civil 
war prevented the king from doing what he intend- 
ed for Stephens \ and, in consequencq of his dis- 

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tressed situation, his mind became unsettled-— he 
imbibed a distaste for books — again travelled ; and, 
idled at Lyons in 1598, aged 70, Jt is said of hipn 
that he cpmposed and pven wrote poetiy on horse* 
hack, during his travels. His works were numer 
rous, and some pf them elaborate — his publications 
of other authors were manifold ; a great proportion 
of them were Greek, some Latin, and a f^w k^ 
the oriental languages, IJe printed most of the 
Greek classics, which were remarkably correct. 

Paul J the son of the last mentioned Henry Ste- 
phens, and great grandson of the first, setded at 
Geneva. He, also, was a man of learning ; trans- 
lated several books ; and, published a number erf 
the ancient classics. His editions were not equal 
to those of his father, in point of elegance. He sold 
his types to one Chowet, a printer, and soon affar 
died, in 1620, aged 60. 

Anthony Stephens, the last printer of the family, 
the son of Paul, and great great grandson of the first 
Henry, was bom in Geneva, He apostatised from 
the protestant religion, went to France, the country 
of his ancestors, and became printer to the king ; 
but, as he mismanaged his afiairs, he was reduced 
to poverty, retired to an hospital, becanie blind, 
and died in miserable circumstances, anno 1674j 
aged 80. 

There are no certain records to ascertain the pe- 
riods at wliich the art of Printing was introduce 
into Scotland and Ireland, The earliest book from 
the press in Scotland that has been discovered, is a 
Breviary of the Church at Aberdeen, printed at 

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Edinburgh in 1509, thirty six years after the estab- 
lishment of the press at Westminster by Caxton. 
The first printers known in Scotland, Ireland, and 
even in London, were from Germany. 

Printing was introduced into Russia, anno 1560 ; 
it was early practised in Spanish America,, as well 
as at Goa, Manilla ; on the coast of Coromandel, at 
Tranquebar,* and in the cold regions of Iceland. 
Dr. Van Troil, m hk Letters on Icdand, mentions, 
that a press was established at Hoolum, or Hola, in 
the north part ofthe island in 1530; and, the Icelandic 
Bible printed there in 1584. Mr. Bryant, also, writes 
that it was early practised there ; he observes, that 
" Anjigrim Jones was bom amidst the snows of Ice- 
land ; yet, as much jwejudiced in favor of his coun- 
tiy, as those who are natives of a happier climate ; 
this is visible in his Crymogaa, but more particu* 
larly in his Anatome Blefkiniana. I have in my 
possession that curious little treatise, written in 
Latin, in his own country, and printed Typis Ho- 
l^sibus in Islandid Borealiy anno 1612. Hola is 
placed in some maps within the arctic circle, and is, 
certsdnly, not far removed from it. I believe 'the 
arts and sciences have never travelled f;Mther north 
in any part of the world. ''f 

* A book, entitled, " Novum Testamentum Malebaricum, 
a Ziigenbalg & Grundler," in quarto, printed at Tranquebar, 
in 1619, is now in the library of Harvard college. 

t Observations and Inquiries relating to various Parts of 
ancient History. Published in IT67 ; p. "^77. The first book 
printed at Hoolum, was the Breviarium Ni^arosiense. Ma- 
thieson, the printer, was frpm Swedep. 

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On Printers and Printing. 

AFTER Printing was introduced into the Eu- 
ropean world, the scribes used their utmost endeav- 
ors to excel, in order to preserve their stations in 
society ; but they were soon obliged to give way 
to the press, as the works performed by it were sold 
much cheaper than those of the scribes could possi- 
bly be afforded. 

In the early stages of Printing, the name of the 
printer, his place of residence, and the date of the 
performance, were put at the end of each book ; 
and, generally, accompanied by some pious ejacula- 
tiop, or doxology, in prose or verse.* 

• In the edition of " The Pragmatic Sanction," printed by 
Andrew Bocard at Paris, 1507, the following curious couplet 
is to be found. 

<* Stat, liber, hie donee fluctus formica marinos 

Exhibat ; et totum testudo perambulet orbem.** 



May this volume continue in motion. 

And its pages each day be unfurl'd, 
*Till an ant to the dregs drinks the ocean* 

Or a tortobe has crawl'd round the world. 

[See AppeQdix, for ancient colophons, SccJ 

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Ancient printers did not divide wofds at the end 
of lines by hyphens. In order to avoid that, they 
used to " get in,'* according to the technical phrase ; 
or, toflpeak more intelligibly, they made use of 
vowels with a mark of abbreviation, which denoted 
that one or more letters were omitted in the syllable 
where it was placed ; e. g. copose, compose ; cople- 
tio, completion, &c. The great number and vari- 
ety of abbreviations that were introduced in the 
course of time, at length created no trifling obsta- 
cles for the reader to overcome. 

For many years the printing done in England 
was inferior to that executed on the neighboring 
continent. After the art was generally practised 
throughout Europe, it greatly degenerated. Res- 
pecting England, John Nichols, an experienced 
printer of London, observes, that " Caxton and 
Rood were indifferently good printers. De Worde 
and Pynson were worse, and those that followed 
them, most abominable." 

In punctuation, no points were used except 
the colon and full point ; but, after some time, an 
oblique stroke thus / was introduced, in the place 
of which the comma was afterward substituted. 

The orthography of those times was various, 
often arbitrary ; and, syntax was disregarded. Cap- 
itals were not used according to our present rules. 
Proper names and sentences, were often begun 
with small letters, as well as the beginning of lines 
in poetry. 

Except some of the first essays of Laurentius, 
most printed books were of the folio or quarto sizes ; 

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and this practice continued a long time after the art 
was introduced into England. 

The first essay at printing Greek was made by 
Fust and Schoeffer, in TuUy's Offices^ anno 1465* 
They used only a few characters^ and those were 
very rude. Some were made and introduced intd 
Lactantius's Institutes^ printed the same year at ft 
monastery in the kingdom of Naples, which were 
much better executed than those of Fust and Schoef* 
fer. The Italian printers made use of very decent 
Greek types about the year 1470 ; and th^ wei^ 
brought to a high degree of perfection by the Ste- 
phani in Paris, before tjie year 1540. 

About the year 1465, types of. a kind of semu 
Gothic character, far more elegant than the old Ger* 
man, or the blfiC&jBf nsed at the present time, were 
introduced at Venice. They, in ^pe, appro^^hed 
near to the Roman types, which, in less than twd . 
years after, were invented and used at Rome# 

The Roman type, which is now, and for nearly 
two centuries has been, in general use in Italy, 
France, England, Spain, Portugal, and America^ 
made its first appearance in the capital of his holi- 
ness the pope, in an edition of Cicero's Epistolae 
Familiares, printed by the brothers Sweynheim and 
Arnold Pannartz, in 1466. This type was improv* 
ed in Italy, and brought to nearly its present degree 
of perfection, as early as the year 1490. 

The Italic character, anciently called by somis 
cursive, and by others Aldincj was invented by Aldo 
Manuzio, at Venice, about the year 1505. 

Printing with Hebrew characters, appjsars to 
have been first performed at Soncino, in the dutchy 

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of M9tti, JSMtio 14e2> ^d tit lil^^tes ^mrno tm^. 
l%e €i«t )(;(^^6^ pSttH^A vf^ ^6m Were, ^ ^Uta- 

ets in 1486. The Hagfeg^plia 'in 1487; tlie 

Tbfe 'I'Abte %e^ ^ i&e ffebriew iBeriptui^s, was 
pi^t^ in ^e Veliime folio, m 1488, «t Soiicmo, by 
Akftiimi Sea Stfibbi Hliajiin> 

Stereotype Printings 

T^% ittddteActf|)rii«iag, sit Ais'^fme, is, ^n- 
WftBly, tte same as it was form6% ; for sithoiigh 
smie Miplt)4^€^!ient5 liave been made, very few of 
A^m 'tave been tn-ougbt feto common psadtice ; 
mA^ ^;i4A'S€icti ^ have been intpoduced. It is certain 
liS^ tood^m printing ^does not mucai exceed 4hat 
d3gP6e of ^rfe<^ion to which the art arrived about 
ftfi^ years after it was discovered m Eiir(^. 

As I'hav^ >mentioned in ^nodier place, it ^vas 
&e^|ttineipal mm of ^ose \)(^o £r6t practised print- 
iiig, ^ jmilate) as neai'ly as possible, the beantiful 
s6r^, orimting, ^tiiescrfees; and, thdr object 

* Thtottticmis said by Sr. PisUet, who pi'^sented a cq^ 
Itf^t to Eton C^lbge librai^ iniEi^lfind, to coQtfdn many cu- 
laoos^eadkigs dUTerent £Eom all other printed copies, and con- 
trary to the Masora. It is naentioned, I believe, by Dr. Ken- 
nicott, diat this edition, excepting a few copies which happened 
to be saved, was destroyed. Dr. Pellet says. Hoc exemfilar 
^Mkum^et^/kmmiai^treftfum^ uti^ar at crethre, 

1 w 

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was not fame, but profit* ITie most valuable man-^^ 
uscript books commanded a high price ; and the 
inventors of Printing kept the art secret, in.order to 
obtain as much for iheir printed copies, as was paid 
for those which were written. 

They might have another reason for secrecy ; 
for every one must have observed, that if an inven- 
tion is calculated to lessen labor and dimini^ the 
number of laborers in any branch of art, pardeulariy 
in EuropCy such inventions, frequently, give rise to 
mobs and tumults, and put to lizard the lives of 
the inventors ; and, as the scribes were a very nu- 
merous body, the lives^ and property of those who 
had invented a method to destroy their business^ 
might have been endangered ; therefore, it was most 
prudent to conceal the discovery. A press was 
more than once set up at Constantinople^ but the 
scribes, it is said, had influence enough to suppress 
it ; and, I am told, it was not till about the year 1784, 
that Printing could be effectually introduced there. 

From the necessity the printers were under, 
both upoiiL prkiciples of interest and safety, to imi- 
tate the neatness of the ancient scribes^ we can ac- 
count for the beauty of the earliest printed bool^s^ 
This is, also, a suflicient reason why the discovery 
of the art in Europe, is involved in so much obscu- 
rity ; , and, why so much difliculty has been experi- 
enced in the attempts which have been made to as- 
certain who were the first inventors of Printing, and 
the place where the discovery was first made, * After 
printing became generally known, and Europe was 
furnished with a sufficient number of workmen, 
books were multiplied in so great a degree that 

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^urdbasers of them at the high prices they were thea 
sold for, could not be foutid. In ojder to promote 
Ae sale, cheap editions were made of inferior mate- 
rials, and by inferior workmen ; and, in this way, 
we can readUy conceive that; the art of Printing de- 

It may appear strange, that after the art had 
been brought, as it were, to perfection, the profess- 
ors of it should again revert to first principles, aod 
ccmsider the original plan as an improvement on 
modem pmctice ; yet, this appears to have been the 
case, in respect to those who have introduced stere- 
otype printing ; or, the method of printing from 
metal blocks, instead of moveable types. By those 
who are not better informed, this mode of book- 
making is considered as a modem invention. The 
friends of the celebrated Dldot, in Paris, have as- 
cribed it to him ; others have given it to British 
artists of the present day. The truth is, that it is 
more than a century since printing from metal plates, 
or blocks, was practised in Holland. This will ap- 
pear by the following extract from a work printed 
in 1798.* 

" About a hundr^ years ago, the Dutch were 
in possession of the art of printing with solid or 
fixed types, which, in every respect, was superior 
to that of Didot's stereotype. It may, however, be 
readily comprehended, that these letters were not 
cut in so elegant a manner, especially when we re- 

* << 0Mb SOfiWim Utom m tmt HM." 1798. N. 933. 
Vide Philosophical Mag. Edited by Alexander TiUoch, esq, 
VqI. X, published im London. 

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fte^t Gthike progress iidboeh typographfp has. main 
^nce ^Ist j^t'iod; Sanmeland J. Lcuchmiaqry boiokM 
selft^s die Leydi^i, have dfQt ki tlbir ppsde^s^ t|Mi 
£bn¥te ^a qustttaBibill) wM^h W^^ cdi^tmK^ted 10 
this ii^g^cvui^ maMf^r^ Maiiy tftioudaiid iiiifi!ew< 
ions were thrown ofiF, which are in every bodf^ 
kmds, aj^ fhn fett^t^ are stfll good. Th^ kvclitor 
of tibis laseful ibrt was |. Van dier M^^ itstihet of tbe 
\rea known p^idier €# that iiaisi$« AbMt the cml 
df the sixtfeefttii c^ncurf^ he reskled al heydmx^ 
Wiih ti^ a68k>tance of MuHer, the cksfgymm ct tibQ 
Germmi congFegation i^rt^ wllo carefolfy supef»k 
fi^tdL ^ CDrrectk)fi> he |»re|iared wd cast itie 
^la«es for tbe above mentioned q«iarto l^bte* This 
Bi&fe he published also m fofio, wkh lafg6 mm^os^ 
ornament with figures, the fom»» of wbich are 
still in the hands of Elfwe, booksetter at AtnateirdBiii % 
tSs&Oy an Englii^ New Testament, and Sdiiaaf '» %r^ 
iac ifietionary, the form& of wluch were mdted 
down ; 2sAy likewise, a $in^ Greek Testsuooeitt in 
ISrao. As far as is known, Van der Mey priced 
nothing else \ti this mannar ; and the art ^ {x^par^ 
ing solid blocks was lost at his death ; or, at least, 
was not afterwards employed'^ 

The next person who printed in tMs way, was 
William Ged, an ingenious goldamith in l&dm^ 
burgh. He began to prosecute tlus business about 
the year 1725* His ifeethod was, to s^ up.oommoti. 
types into pages of the work intended to be printed;. 
and, from those pages to form moulds to cast the 
blocks ; whidKi wiien? cast, w^ie fitted fer th<^ press« 
He removed ifoan Edinlxirgh to Londoi^ and &xtxi^ 
ed a partnership with Thomas James, then the most 

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aaAfWth WiXmm F^»Ker^ a steticMocF, wtK> W9^ to 
fufloidi raooe^f^ oa condition tbot he sho^ receive 
cms half o£lbe pvefits^i la 1730, these partners a|K 
plkdtothei^versiQrcf C$mbridge» Englandt for 
Ac pi?)v%g!9ofims^g^Bi]pk^ and Frayer Books, 
m Aisiysny r and obttki^ it. They expended large 
stuns {^msmy Intatt^n^ts to bring their plan to per-* 
fibottoBr. They eompl^ed the Prayer Book m 8vo« 
ajui in ISmo* aad had tib^ larger part of the Bible pre- 
pared cm blbcks, when dkey jreJSnquished the under* 
tdsing. It scemB th^ one of the partn/^rs became^ 
hostik tallieplian^ and, in connivance wi]di the work-^ 
meft^ contrived to have the work executed very er-» 
roneoisdy ; and; the , pressmra designedly battered 
the fiHTins. The bo(^9^ ia consequence, were sup^ 
pressed by authority, and the plajfees were spnt to the 
king's prinling house, and from thence to the found* 
ery^ where they wdr^ melted down. Ged returned 
ta Edinburgh, much disappointed, where he printed 
and pul^Kshed in 1736, by a subscription from his 
£tiends, an edition of SaUust from cast plates. He^ 
afterward^ manufactured plates for Scougal's " Life 
erf God in the Soul of Man,'' which was printed in 
12iiio« on a writing pot^ with this imprint^ ^* New- 
castle : Printed and sold by John White, from plates 
made by William Ged, Goldsmith in Edinburgh; 
1742." He died in 1749. His son, who was bred 
a pmter, published, in 1751, proposals for renewing " 
the stereotype printing ; but, not meeting with suc- 
cess, he went ta Jamaica, and died there. 

The ingenious and learned Alexander Tilloch, 
of Glasgow, when he tesided in that city about 

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thir^ years since, is said to have made a second ias* 
covery of the art of stereotype printing ; and, de- 
clared himself ignorant of its having been previ- 
ously practised, or even attempted. Until he had 
nearly completed the invention, he believed it wajJ 
entirely lus own, when he discovered, that, fifty 
years before, Ged had printed several works from 
stereotype plates; and, he further ascertained that, 
near fifty years befwe Ged, stereotype printing 
had been practised by Vander Mey, in Holland. 
^* A knowledge of these fiicts," says Tilloch, in a 
treatise he wrote on the subject, " lessened the value 
of the discovery so much in my estimation, that I 
felt but litde anxiety to be known as a second 
inventor.'* He, however, pursued the business. 
Foulis, printer to the university of Glasgow, assisted 
him. They printed two or three small woits from 
the plates wliich they made ; and, sold the editions 
to the trade, without any intimation of their being 
executed out of the common way. They then took 
,out patents for stereotype printing in England and 
Scotland; and, in 1783, thev printed Xenophon's 
Anabasis, in Greek, in that* way. They nearly 
completed the plates for several of the English po- 
ets ; but, that work was delayed by circumstances 
which induced them to set the business aside, and 
it never was resumed. 

Some years after this, Didot, a very celebrated 
printer at Paris, revived this art of founding pages ; 
and applied it, in tiie first instance, to logarithmic 
tables, for which it is well adapted. He then pro- 
ceeded to print some of the classics^ and other 


by Google 

IK XUK0P2* 167 

works, all of which do him much credit ; being ex- 
ecuted with great neatness and accuracy. 

About the same time^ lord Stanhope, a British 
nobleman, having received from Tilloch some in- 
f<Hination respecting the method of casting plates 
for letter press, undertook to revive, perfect and 
establish stereo^rpe printing in England. After 
two years of application, with the aid of Foulis c(f 
Glasgow, who had assisted Tilloch, and WilsOn, an 
ingenious printer in London, his lordship succeed** 
ed, not only in casting plates with facility; but, 
also, in the construction of a press more suitable for 
fttereoQrpe printing than that now in common use. 

Stereot3rping, as it is termed, is now adopted by 
many printers in Europe, for standard books which 
command an extensive sale; and which are not 
subject to alteration or amendment. The principal 
object accomplished by this innovation, is a saving 
in case work ; but, no advantage of any conse- 
quence can be made in bopks printed with letter of 
larger size than long primer. The benefit is de^ 
rived from heavy works, printed from bodies of 
bourgeois, brevier, and pearl. Large editions of the* 
Old and New Testament, and other books, in vari- 
ous languages, have been printed, in Europe, by 
this method, for the several societies for propagating 
the gospel in the Eastindies, and other countries. 
Part of a large edition of MorcU's abridgment of 
Ainsworth*s Latin Dictionary, was lately published 
in London from stereotype plates. 

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'^ HISTORY ^^ ^atl^TINC 

Jsogographic Frmting^ 

A MODE of|irinting with types of words, insteaJ 
oF single tetters, was sometime since introduced ia 
England, and much was sdui about " the logo* 
graphic press." This novelty, as is usual with new 
things, at^iFacted much CMStom for Iqgogrs^hic pub^ 
fications ; but it soon ceased, and we heard no mone 
of logographic Qrpography^ It was^set aside ^ foi^ 
like casting Chinese characters, to {>nnt the lan- 
guage of that coimtry, it would answer no valuable 
purpose. I ^eagerly cast my eyes on a book;, an* 
nounced t^y die title j)age, to be printed in Londm^ 
" logQgraphically ;'* I had not Bead twenty Jines be- 
fore I saw an inverted letter, and, further ^m, a trans^ 
position of tetters. A little further still, I found a 
word divided widi a^jpace; ^and, -notwitfastandii^ 
the declaration in 4fae title |>^ge, I was jsoen coo- 
orinoed that singte types were ge&era% usedia the 

^E^a;&i»^ iMu^ha^ 

A MACHINE t& miflti^fy^tt^l^iAf %iiacMS%&, 
or books of common size, was invented, in 1781, 
by the ingenious M. Rochon, afterwards direotor 
of the marine observatory at the port of ftrest. This 

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imel^ eiigmv«B, witfi great celerit]f' and correct- 
nesisydiepagesofabodit, oriiiimusc]r^,efta»inan7 
plisvtesofcof^ier.* The machine \v» sabmkted t^ 
^le insqsectioA of a committee ^f the poy^ aeadetnpf 
ef 8cJene€9$ wHIch committee made the ibttomng 
Wport reflpectiqg its utSkj, viz. 

*' This DMtchme appears to u» to unite 9eve»«I 
adYftntageSy 1. fingraved ed^iona of bodies may ht 
executed by this means superior to those Which can 
be tnc^ hf the hand of the ifngraYer, however skil- 
ful ; and these engraved origmais will be made with 
mtich more speed, and much less expense, 2. A$ 
^das maclune fe portable^ mid of no considerafefe 
bulk, it may become very useful in armies, fleets 
tend puUic offices, fior the impressioii of orders, 
instructions, Ike. S. It possesses the advantage 
which, in a variety of circumstances, is highly valu- 
able, of being capable of being used by any man of 
intelligence and skill, without requiring the assist- 
ance of a^y professional workman. And, lastly, it 
affcotLs the facility of waiting for the entire compo- 
sition and en^vings of a work, before any of the 
copies are printed off; the expense of plates, even 
for a work of consideva}:^ ma^iitude, being an ob- 
ject of little charge ; and the Bberty it aft)rds to 
ftudiors, may prove highly bei)e£dal in works of 
which die chief merit consists in the order, method 
and connexion of idea$*'^ 

• Tko mmmr frf Ae i^n»trwti<jr» mA op^m^n^tlis ^n* 
yariog ?nacbii)P, may be seeo iut;^e tbir^vpluo^ofti^si^ 
plement to the Encyclopedia, pubU3he4 sever^ years i^no^ ^ 
Philadelphia, ps^e 425. 

1 X 

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" Many well inf(Hined perscHis are (^ qpinkxi^ 
that the perfect equality which this machine for ei>. 
graring affords, in the formation of letters and si^s 
the most difficult to be imitated, might be the means 
of remedying the dangers of forgiatyf k is certain, 
that the perfcHinance exhibits a simple and striking 
character of precision, which is such, that persons 
of the least experience might flatter themsdves, in 
certain cases, to distinguish counterfeits from orig- 
inals. Lavoisier, whom the friends of science, -and 
of the arts, will not cease to regret^ made »mie ex- 
periments of this kind fcwr the Caisse d'Escompte, 
which were attended with perfect success. Artists, 
appointed for the purpose, endeavored in vainjto 
imitate a vignette, formed by the successive and 
equal mc^on of a character of ornament." 

Ancient Engraving. 

Nearly all the treatises whidi have been writ- 
ten concerning engraving, speak of it as an art 
which is of moder|j invention ; and the authors of 
them have considered M aso Finiguerra of Florence, 
as the father of this branch of designing. But I 
have already shewn, on the authority of scripture, 
and from other monuments <rf antiquity, that the 
art of engraving was known in very remote ages ; 
and abundance of other testimony might be ad- 

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ded, to wimt has already been produeed, on this 

Man is an imitative creature. According to 
Strabo, it was Homer's sublime descriptions of the 
gods which awakened the conceptions of the emi- 
nent statuaries among the Greeks, and led them to 
attempt the expreasion of his ideas in marble. 
Hence was derived that noble ^rformance, the Ju- 
piter of Phidias. This opinion may be carried much 
farther back ; and we may, on reasonable ground, 
conclude that men, in the earliest ages of the world, 
made sensible representations of the objects of their 
meditation, in various ways, and on different sub- 
stances. From this desire of imitating the figures 
of animated nature, that of man in particular, we 
may conclude arose the hieroglyphics, formerly 
used, which were some of the most ancient repre-f 
seirtations of things produced by the indefatigable 
ingenuity of man. Recundier, in his descriptions 
of Eg3rptian antiquities, gives an account of hiero- 
glyphics, seen by members of, the French national 
institute, which they supposed were several thous- 
and years old. Engraving, carving, statuary, and, 
we may presume, painting, and the various meth- 
ods of designing, were known when the Israelites 
were in Egypt; as they are forbidden, in the dec- 
alogue, to make any graven image, or other rep- 
resentations of things, which were used by ancient 
nations, in tiieir religious ceremonies— that engrav^ 
ing was practised by the children of Israel, has al- 
already been proved, by passages from the writings 
ofMoses^ / 

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Namfereok are tiae audiDcs who iolbm «as, lihtt 
among the Greeks, engraving is of great aoliqiiilir* 
bi prottTof thb fajct, maigr escainqpies umght be given^ 
beside dem«ndesBli>ea^ ThcnMt 

<nrk)«a iinicniMneiit ictf :^ 

tthaosfe^fHiMfter; awoikof iArt&eiaisQfPriaMv 
a&Atobeticffrintliepdbceof C^loona* T1mb«ii» 
giiiv^ is, like to tte ^i^ECTiptian >^^ 
-^Adiil^intanoasiOMEifaurt^^ inotieoflheini 
ift iidiiier, in a*dixir,aBtt6Bded bf raioms ttdtikmnt* 
iDd)Pep:peseHtaB(iDiis; and betuod dam is Time, and 
% female %are lepneacntaD^ the Wbdd, CDOwniog 
lorn with Itiirdw Beiieaih tlHstsnanportiaeat isihr 

04T£SEIAt»(mO£. Agnwip jbaom adyanc ttp g to 
sacrifice oa mi ritav ivhich k -befcKm fain:; «»4t 
beneath 1§iose %ttnes, are dcscripdnsis tof ^hemjii 
Gcieek capitalfr^IirnmA 1iOȣEt& IVsArai^kS* 

KciMmAM MDic ANnmfmmME wSDis jeoMit 

In lanodier port 4^ this performaaoe 3b an iascri{)fi<3D 
6figrQtvod,^s0 ini^ek^stpitafe, statk^thatotivif 
^ W0rk<if ArdkelaiisfoUkmiusdfBii^ A^nay 
ancient btiitt of iHkniier is ki ^tlie Fanneseixiiaceat 
Roise, ti^ith Iris ^me engraved on it, on tQi^ek *csip* 
ksiB. Of -ancient 'Grecian engravkigs, in metal, i 
shali ha^e occasion to sposik hereafter. 

31u(t die Romans posiiessed the art of (eng]»wii% 
ki '«k>ne/ttnd i^aetd, ie ^^adt we are well^icquainted 
tv^lli. The flomasi mommiestts wydh sitefit ^thk 
tfuth, aRe -as numerous as d^ose of the Greeks. We 
may presvnae'&ast engmviiig was practised in %Qmt 
as early as tlie time of Numa, from die circ^tmstanoe 
of the making of the Ancylicy by Veturius Ma- 

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miuvisu^ 'Hvam presenifeed m tj$.tmx^ curious 
sbidd to the Bomta»^ wU^ he pretended to hav« 
iecei¥ed finom the god Mm^ as a palladium of tb^ 
ekjr; and ia order to pneira^t its beii^ $t<^en^ a 
wward was offiared to my wc who could mafce $o 
exact ^1 imitatioci of it, as would deo^ve my peraoa 
wbo mk^ be dJspoaod to cany it off| as Ulysses 
fid <lie pfllbdium from Trof . Mamurius succeed* 
ed m making eleyien otbenB, so exactly like it, that 
the tmetfiiiyif could not bedtstiuguishedfixmtbe 

JfislciriaaB liave^ a2so, f;dated that the twdre 
tables of d>e Roman decemvirs were engraved tm 
bnssi l:yiit some of dtem hare mentaoned &2i, tiie 
deoenavirs sent their aodxtssadors to Greece, to col- 
lect ibc lows reowied on dbe tables m q^estion*^ 
oSsBkisja Gtr^cm leges ^^-^Al niay , therefore, be con- 
tended^ that those isdbles wiere engraved at Athen& 
But this cireumstanoewc»ddiiot invaKdate the feet 
I wish toeiEdaUish, itamd^^ ibat oigraving in metal 
waes practised in die time of the Roman decemvirs* 
Itais^be fiutha* objected, that diough Heinpec- 
aaais^ mainfetins that the twelve ts&les weise ciaereasf 
bmss, yet in the text of Fomponius we read eborea&, 
iicoiy; for which Scsdtger has substituted ro6or^aiv 

* Vk^ cames tht practice of esgravkig shieldS) higher 
than the time of which we are treating. Speaking of one of 
the kings wlio fought against Eneas, he ^ays, 

' Cly^peoq«& Insigni patenmim 

Cpslaun angu0S| dncta^Qdque gerit serpentibu^ hydrant. 


t Plutarch, in Vit Numa- * Hiit J. R, ^ i . No, U. 

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oak, or other hard wood.* To this it may be an- 
fiwered, that modem verbal criticisms camiot invali- 
date the evidence fw the existence of engraving, in 
ancient Rome, because Suetoniusf relates that three 
thousand brass plates, on which we^^ engraven the 
^cts of the Roman senate and people, had been de- 
posited in the capitol. As to the, twelve tables hav- 
ing been engraved at Athens, there is much reason 
to doubt that the Roman decemvirs ever sent mes- 
sengers there ; for Josephus, j: in speaking of a lata' 
period, observes, ** The city of Rome, that hath this 
long time been possessed of so much powo*, and 
hath perfcMined such great acticms in war, is yet 
never mentioned by Herodotus, nor by Thucydides, 
nor by any of their contemporaries ; and it is very^ 
late, and with great difficulty, that the Romans be- 
came acquainted "with the Greeks.'* Plutarch,^ also, 
in ^ving an account o£ the irruptioh of the GalK 
Senones, or Gauls, into Italy, says, ** Heradides of 
Pontiis, who lived not long after those times, in his: 
treatise concerning the soul^ relates that an army from 
the country of the Hyperbca'eans,^had taken a Greek 
city, called Rome, situated somewhere near the great 
sea." It is true, we are told, that befcM^ the pe- 
riod of which \vi are now speaking, the Romans 
had contended with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who, 
they thought, was king of all Greece; but they 
hardly seem to have known where his country was 

* B^mkershoek) p. 386. f In Vespasian^ c. S. 

I Contra Aploii. - Vol. 6, p. 208. Worcester edition of 
Whlston's translation. 


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I^ llTEOPl. 175 

^tuated. He invaded the Roman territory ais the 
ally of the Grecian colony of Tarentum ; and when 
be was beajten out of Italy, the Romans did not ap- 
pear to know ip^here he was gone-— in Graciam 
suam trans mare ac terras ftigato.^ 

I might write a volume concerning ancient eur 
gravings in wood, bricks, marble^ gems, and a 
vari^ety of materials, beside metals ; but that is un- 
necessary; because I can mention proofs of the 
antiquity of engraving, which are under almost 
every man's observation— I mean in the articles of 
medals and coins. 

We have not any certain data to determine the 
first inventk>n, of medals or coins ; they were known 
in ancient times among the nations of Asia. But it 
does not appear they were in use among the He- 
brews before the time of their kings. When Abra- 
ham paid for the cave of MachpelaK he weighed to 
Ephron the siher^ which he had named in the audi* 
ence. af the sons of Hethy four, hundred shekels of 
sihery current money with the merchant.^ Here it 
must be observed, that the word money is not found 
in the Hebrew ; nor is the word pieces^ used Gen. 
xxxvii. 28, in the original. It is probable that in 
the first of these texts ^her should have been in- 
serted ; and, shekels in the other ;— for as money 
was weighed by the shekel in those days, it is likely 
the Ishmaelites who bought Joseph, paid his bretili- 
ren twenty shekels of silver for him. From Gen. 
xliii. 21, we find that the sons of Jacob paid for then- 
com, in Egypt, in money by weight. When the 

• floruB, lib. 1, cap. 18. f Gkn. Ji%%> 16. 

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176 HISTOir 09 PftSNTlKG 

Isradstes left Egypt ibejhdaxmei of the "Rgyp^ 
tians jewels of silver and jewefe of gokl;?>-«-ted 
coined mopey been in use, they would, probai}^, 
have borrowed that also* The same argtiment w^ 
apply to the subscriptions, dr ofl^ings; §ot Ihe 
tabernacle, where we find bo$h nwHi ami women 
brought bracelets^ Ofid earrmffSj amirwgSy mdt^ 
letSf all jewels of gold. Had ci»ied nwMieybecA 
current among them, it is Ukely they would have 
presented that, and saved 1^^ mote costly jewcii^ 
With earrings Aaron made the golden calf, or ^fxty- 
bol <rf the Egyptian god Apis, or Serapis--^vlm/A^ 
received them at their hand^ and fashioned it 
WITH A GRAViMFG TOOL, qfUr he ho^ mdde itm 
molten calfl\ Cobs must have bem introduced 
among the Israelites after these times* 

It has been pretended that mcmey was first ecnn* 
cd by Phidon, king of Argos, about the year A. C* 
870 ; but it b certain diat money #as known in 
much earlier times. The Gi^eeks excelled ^ ha- 
tions in the beauty and delicacy of thdr coins* 
They had the skill cf expressing the veins and mus^ 
cles with such exquisite art, as the R<»nans never 
could imitate. Many &eek coins are extant which 
are older than the time erf* Alexander ; and there are 
Sicilian coins more ancient than those of the Gredks 
of Attica* 

There are extant two medals erf Hcms^, by 
Amastris ; also one struck at Smyrna, and anoth^ 

* Exedus xxxY. 32. The tablets, here xxientioiied, it if 
presumed were medals, or other engraved articles, but not 
current coin. 

t Exod. xxxii. 4> * 

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1)9. EmcMu . . ni 

alCbioGu^ 'rh8Qiiaiimtdallaiq)teii3tobe^^ 
anciop^ It vepresetKts tbse great pbet as sittings widt 
a bodi in his faaxld ; and tibe exergue has the repr^«4 
aentalkm of a centaul*. The letters oa it denote a 
tery eariy period of the Ckecian literature^ and read 
firom right to IdL We have no types which would 
justty describe tibienu Over the figure of Honfcr i^ 
aCMimaaiid over the ceiitaurNVnc^ reversed. The 
dii^ medals^^ire well exptcssed ; but the shape of 
llie M ^tffiers from that used in bter periods, and C 
oecufnes Ae place of £. 

Mmitj was generally stan^^ed, by the ancients, 
wkfe figures engraved in steel, or hardened copper ; 
and where engraving was unknown^ money could 
ndt be corned. This corned mc«iey is by Strabo 
es^ed pecunia signata, to distinguish it from articles 
exchanged by weight. According to. Pliny,* Ser- 
vkis Tullius first stamped brass coins among the 
Romans.-^*S(?n;m^ rex avium boumque effigie pfu 
mm ^s signcwif. These oxen, swine, &c. could not 
ha?i^ been formed without the art of the engraver. 
The same authcNr says, that silver was coined in 
Home, A. U. C. 484 ; five years preceding the first 
Punk war. The ases sextentario pondere ferieban- 
tUTy which the Romans coined when Hannibal was 
in Italy, were marked with a Janus <m one side, and 
the b^dL, or stem^ of a sh^ on the other. In the 
cabinets of antiquities, in Europe, are almost innu- 
iBtfiabie aneieat corns, and medals^ of the Roman 
trnperon; as wett as of en»iieut men, ki various 
cAer nations These are so many independent and 

* xxxviii. 8. 

1 Y 

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infallible testimonks erf the existence of engrav* 
ing in the times tl^ are past, and many of them^ev- 
idence thstt it was practised long before the Christian 
era. The earliest Rom^ coins were stamped with 
the peeusj whence cartve the term pectmia^ Some of 
their brass coins were stamped with a boat ; the sil- 
ver denarii had the fig;ures of wa^c«is'with two, ot 
four horses ; and on the reverse! the h^sid of Bnme 
with a helmet, Th^ rnctoriatiy had the image ^of 
victory ; the sestettiiy had the images of vict<Hy ,' and 
of Castor and Pollux, with the city op the reverse. 
The heads of the Roman emperors were engraved 
on their coins, with their names and titles roand 
them, in a similar maimer to that in which coins are 
now executed. Nothing can be more evident, there- - 
fore, than that the art of engraving, in metal, was 
known among the Romans ; for, without that art, 
they never could have made their stamps to fix the 
impressions on their coins.* 

Those who never had an opportunity to examine 
the accounts which are given of Ae more ancient 
Greek and Roman coins, may find evidence in st. 
Luke, sufficient to convince every Clmstian, of the 
truth, that Roman coins were well kno%vn when 
Christ wa;s on earth. It is clearly asserted, that Ae 
Roman denarius bore the image and superscription 
pf Cesar— ^/^A<?^^ image and superscription hath it ?t- 

* For the most valuable part of the above obsetvations on 
ancient coins and engravings, I am indebted to my /riend, Mc^ 
William Sheldon. Those who are desirous to see more pn^ 
these subjects, may consult Pinkerton on medals, &c. 

t Luke XX. 24. 

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IN EtTHaFE. 179 

The making' Ae letters round those mj^es of the em- 
jperors, and stamping them on the metal, were pro- 
cesses thit embraced the rudiments of printing ; and 
rend^tifie opinion of Ihre, that Ulphilas's version of 
the scriptures was impressed with hot metal types, 
somdwhat the less improbaWe. 

From tiie researches of the Englidi Asiatic So- 
ciety, we have full and unequivocal evidence^ that 
the art of jengraving on coj^^er and brass, was known 
in Hindostan, and other parts of Asia, in very remote 
periods of time. The Asiatic Researches contain 
some curious specimens ; among which is an ac- 
count of a royal grant of land, eng^ved on a copper 
plate, bearing date twenty three years before the 
Christian era, that is, eighteen hundred and thirty 
three years since. This plate was discovered among 
the ruins of Mongueer, in India. A copy of the 
grant was translated from the original Sanscrit, by 
Charies Wilkins, esq. in the year 1781, and pub- 
lished by sir William Jones.* 

The rev. Claudius Buchanan, l. l. d. who was 
sent from England, as a missionary, to the East 
Indies, and who, since his return, has published a 
a celebrated sermon, entitled, " The Star in the 
East;'' in the appendix to that performance, has 
^ven an account of various engraved plates of mix- 
ed metals, which were found among tlie Christtians 
of St. Thomas; at Malayala^ Malabar ; the largest of 
which contains an engraved page of thirteen by four 
inches ; and the writing engraved on four of them 

* See.Asiadq Researches jointed at Calcutta, 1788, iu six 
YOlmnesy quiorto^ with a^ en^aving of the plate. 

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ooaakfis eleysyi pages. The {aiabe I'q^ted to be the 
jQldest,iCoptains characters re^eintdfaig the P^^ cS 
PeraqpQ&y or ihc BibflQaibh letters. ** On die 
same plate there js mmthig in another character^ 
.which has no afiSsiky with any existing dniiacter in 
Hindostan." The nanaes of four ancient and esit^ 
m^t lews, who were witnesses to die guarantee of 
idle privilje^es which die engraving on die plates is 
said to. convey, appear written in very old Hebrew 
characters. These Christian tablets of Malayala, 
are a great curiosity, and, no doul^ may jusdy 
-claim a very high degree of antiquity. The Jews 
at Cochin have two brass tables, similar to diose of 
the Malayalans ; and the palm of priority is disputed 
by these peopk. The Jews have a Hebrew manu- 
script, stating that diey received a grant, which was 
recorded on brass tablets, in A. D. 379. [e] 

From the observations whkh bive been made, 
I presume jit is suffictendy evident, that the branch 
of designing, called engraving, may be considered 
as an invention, the auduH* of which is lost amidst 
the darkness of remote antiquity; and that the 
knowledge of it has existed from time immemoriaL 
When writers speak of the disqoveries of Finiguerra, 
and his cotemporaries at Florence, therefore, they 
cannot with prop-iety allude to any thing furdieri^ 
than the method of taking im{»*essions on paper, 
from engravii^ ; whic^ appears to have been near^ 
ly the esctent of the improvements they introduced^ 
into die art. It must, however, be admitted, durt 
although the art of engraving was well known to 
the ancients, and practised kg?' them in a style nearly 
approaching to perfection } yet, during the dark 

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IN EiTJioyjt* 181 

ixgoi of Godac baiiaantf emd monkish supcMtition, 
which obsatmd the figfat and g^oiy of Eurc^, 
much of the knowtedge of the fine arts was lost; 
and, peihaps, the clouds of ^notaace and obscurily 
Sett upon the bumiefis of the engraver ; go that, pos- 
sStAyj die Florentines had to explore the secrets 6£ 
the art lamong the rahhidb of antiquity ; and, in the 
oourse of their researdies ihejr accidentally disjday^ 
ed some new ideas, as was the case mdi Fuuguena. 
The progress and disocyyieries of the modem 
European engranrers, I wifl proceed to state under 
Ae head of 

Modern Engravings wi TToodf Copper^ &fc. 

A 900K published at Leipsic in 1771^ without 
the name of the author, and under the title of '^ Idee 
gen^rale d'unes Collection complette des Estampes ; 
avec une Dissertation sur I'Origine de la Gravure, 
et wr les premiers Livres d' Images," opposes, m 
9ome measure, the opinions of the best writers on 
the origin of Printing in Europe. The author's 
attention was particularly directed to engraving, and 
to an examination of wooden cuts in books of the 
earliest dates, which led, of course, to an investiga- 
tion of die printing of those books. This author 
traces the origin of cutting on wood, as far back as 
the year 1423, and he attributes it to artists employ- 
ed in making cards j which artists, he says, pro* 
needed from little pictures of saints, to small pieces 

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of history ; intended, for the instructicm of youth, 
and for purposes of devotion. This^ he thinks, 
gave the hint to Guttemburg, when he lived in 
Strasburg, of cutting single letters. . Like several 
German writers, he is not willing to allow the claim 
of Holland to the discovery of Printing ; or to ad- 
mit Laurentius, alias Coster, to be either a printer, 
engraver, or carver, and treats his. pretensions to the 
discovery as fictitious. But Meerman's investiga^ 
tions have setded this business, by producing full 
and ample testimony in favor of Laurentius. 

The anonymous writer, of Leipsic, states, that 
of all the modes of engraving for the press, the most 
ancient is, that on wood ; or, to speak more techni- 
cally, the fir$t impressions on paper were taken from 
carved wooden blocks. For this invention, he ob- 
serves, we are indebted to the {)t00f'nt&l0t09 or 
makers of playing cards, who practised the art in 
Germany in the 15th century. From the same 
source may, perhaps, be traced the first idea of 
moveable types, which appeared not many years af- 
ter; for then breef malers did not entirely confine 
themselves to the printing and painting of cards ; 
but produced, also, subjects of a more devout na- 
ture ; many of which, taken from holy writ, are 
still preserved in the different libraries in Germany, 
with tlie explanatory texts, facing the figures, the 
whole engraved rudely in wood. In this manner 
they even formed a species of books, such as His- 
toria sancti Johannis ejusque visiones apocalyptica ; 
Mstoria Veteris JS/bvi Testametiti, known by' the 
name of " The Poor Man's Bible.'' These short 
mementos were printed only on one side, and two 

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t^ zt^nofit. 183 

ofdiem, being pasted together, had the appearance 
of a single sheet or leaf. The andnymous writer 
then mentions, that the earliest date found on these 
wooden cuts is 1423. The subject is, St. Chrisio- 
p/ieTy carrying the infant Jesus aver the ^ea, which 
was preserved in a convent at Buxheim near Mem- 
mengen ; and, that " it is of a folio size, illuminated 
in the same manner as the playing cards ; and at tlic 
bottom is this inscription, Christoferij faciem die 
quacunque tueris. lUa nempe die morte mala non 
nwrieris. Millesimo CCCC'XX'^ tertio.''^ 

Mr. Bullet, in his researches into the history of 
Cards, printed at Lyons in 1757, supposes the in- 
vention of them to have taken place between the 
years 1367 and 1380 : Other authors make the 
year 1367 to be the epocha of the discovery ; but, 
do not allow that they were made from engraving, 
or carving, of any kind. They contend that the 
figures were painted upon thick paper; and con- 
tinued to be made by that method till after printing 
was invented. 

- * Upon the invention of moveable types, that 
branch of the breef malers business, which was 
connected with the making of that kind of books, 
mentioned by the Lcipsic author, was gradually dis- 
continued ; but the art of engraving on wood, was 
still practised and improved. Tx)ward the end of 
the 15th, or beginning of the 16th century, it be- 

* Later writers hare contradicted the statement of the 
Leipsic author, so far as it re^>ect& the date^ which2^ doubtless, 
is erroneous. The error arises from the omission by design, 
or accident of an L. The true date probably should stand thus : 
« MUlessimo CCCC°LXX« tertip/* 

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came customflrf for alnoos^ eycty one of the Geir« 

man engravers on o^yper, to engrave <ai wood sd$o« 
Among the GenoatiiSy the ^igfavinigs o£ Albert Dil« 
rcr, on Wood^ arc jusftly held m the highest estima' 
tion. Italy^ France and HdUkuuL produced mai^j 
capitad artbta in thisf line# 

One Hugade Ctrpi projected a scheme of cut- 
ting in wood, by means of which the prints appeared 
as if painted in cfnaro scvro* In order to effect this^ 
he niAde thuee kinds of stamps for .the same de^gn^ 
which were, dmwn after one anotheir through the 
press for the same print. They were^ so contrived 
as that o«c served f« the grand fights, a second fot 
the demi tints, and a third for the outliiises and deep 

The art cf engraving in wood, was carried to 
a high degree of perfection, in Europe^ two hun- 
dred years ago ; and^ for beauty of design^ mi^ht 
vie with that of engraving on cqpper,. It afterward 
much degenerated ; and, f<»* a kH^ period, wad 
neglected. Some years since, it was revived, but 
in a different style, to that which was practised at 
an earlier period. The best cutting in wood is now 
made to imitate, when im{»*essed^ the prints from 

Blocks of wood are still used in Europe, for 
cuts to be printed at letter press ; but in this coun* 
try, particularly in Newengland, type metal is sub-* 
stituted for wood. 

It is believed that Sehocffer was the first, m Eu- 
rope, who engraved on copper for the press; but, 
he went no further than to engrave matrices for the 
feces of metal types, before he had discovered the 

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IK SVROPfi. 185 

art of cutting steel punches to impress thenu The 
modem art of taking im^rcssions of pictures, &c* 
from engravings, is said to have taken its rise not 
much earlier than the middle of the 15th century^ 
One Maso Finiguerra, a goldsmith of Florence, has 
the credit of the discovery of copperplate printing in 
the year 1440 ; he had poured some melted brim- 
etone on an engraved plate ; and, when the brim- 
stc«ie was cdd, he found thereon the exact impres- 
sion c^ the engraving, marked black with the mat- 
ter taken out of the strokes, by the liquid sulphur.* 
He then atten^ted to do the same with wet paper 
on silver plates, by passing a roller smoothly and 
forcibly over it, and succeeded. Prints, from en- 
graved co]^rplates made their first appearance 
about 1450, in Germany. Stoltzhirs is said to be 
the first who both engraved and printed from cop- 
perplates.t He produced several pieces, or speci- 
m^is, of tills kind of work. * 

Printing Presses. 

A PARTICULAR description of the presses first 
used in printing, has not come under my observation ; 
but early writers mention that they were con- 
structed like common wine presses ; and that Gut- 
temburg, before he quitted Strasburg, had one made, 

* ♦ Sculptura, Historico Technica, p. 2. 

t Strutt's Hist, of Engraving. 
1 z 

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better adapted to the purpose for which k was in- 
tended, than that used by Laurentius, at Haeilem. 

The ingeaiious artists, who first printed at Ve- 
nice, it is probable, made improvements on those 
used by Fust and Geinsfleiche, at Meiitz. Luck- 
ombe informs us, that the presses used in Europe, 
before the seventeenth century, were *^ a make shifi, 
slovenly contrivance ;'* and others mention, that 
they were, in many respects, highly inc<Miveniant. 

Willianx Jansen Blaew, was bied a joiner in 
Amsterdam. About the year 1620, he made sev- 
eral improvements in the presses used before, and at 
that time ; and, these improvements were soon gen- 
erally adopted by the printers in Hollaml, and after- 
w^ard by those in England, &c. Blaew, after hav- 
ing served out his apprenticeship, travelled to Den- 
mark, and there was employed by Tycho Brahe, 
the celebrated mathematician and astronomer, in 
making mathematical instruments, by which means 
Blaew appears to have become a favorite with Ty- 
cho, who instructed him in mathematics, and gave 
him copies of his celestial observations before they 
appeared in public. With these, Blaew returned to 
Amsterdam, and there practised making globes 
itgreeably to Tycho's astronomical tables. He traded 
also in maps and geographical books ; his business 
increased ; and, he commenced printing. Discov- 
ering many inconveniences in the structure of the 
old presses, he contrived to remove them, and made 
a new one, which he found to answer his purpose ; 
he, therefore, caused eight more, for himself and 
others, to be constructed in the same manner, and' 
called each one, by the name of one of the muses. 

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Presses, on Blaew's models with few alterations 
in tiieir construction, some of which were made by 
the ingenious Baskerville, printer and type founder 
o[ Birmingham, England, have continued in com- 
mon use in Europe and America, till within a few 
years past. 

An improvement was made in the presses in the 
kte French king^s printing house at Paiis, by M. 
Anisson, who wrote a treatise on the construction of 
those machines, and gave a description of a new 
press made for the service of his most Christian 
Majesty. This treatise, a late English writer ob- 
serves,* must have afforded many useful hints to 
his countryman, earl Stanhope, in the formation of 
his iron press for. stereotype printing ; which press, 
this writer says, " is constructed on the true 
principles of mechanism, with much simplicity and 
harmony of parts." The common press was found 
inadequate to the pressure required for the heavy 
forms of stereotype. After many expensive and 
laborious experiments, his lordship, with the aid of 
a very skilful mechanician, succeeded in the com- 
pletion of a press, which fully answered all the pur- 
poses of stereotyping. The superiority of this press, 
which bears the name of its projector, over those jn 
common use, is, that it affords a great accession of 
power to the pressure of hea\y forms of small letter, 
and with rnuch less labor than is required at other 
presses. Stowers asserts, that " the Stanhope press 
is capable of ten times tlie force of the common 

♦ C. Stowers ; from, whose worK I have extracted the 
greater part of what follows relating to Uie Stanhope sterco- 
* type press. 

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presS) with perhaps, a tenth part of the labor ;** 
and, that the presisure b so equal, that '^ nothui^^ 13 
left to the judgment of the pressmen but the beat* 
ing ;" or supplying the typ^ with ink. 

That part of the machinoy of this preset which 
produces the power, has been applied to the com- 
mon press ; but nrt with the success that was ex- 
pected. The wooden psuts of the common press^ 
were found too we^ to he9r the pressure produce^ 
by the machinery of the Stanhope press ; the accel* 
erated power is produced^ i»incq>^y, " by the ar» 
rangement of its bar and spindle." A press, how- 
ever, has been constructed, embracing, in a consid- 
erable degree, the advantages of the Stanhqie pc^ess^ 
and is used in mai^ printii^ houses in London. 

In the course of the last fi% years, several at- 
jtemi^ have been made to improve the machinery 
of printing presses. In one of these innavatioosii 
the power of the press was c<»iununicated by a cyl- 
inder turned by a crank ; in another, by a lever, 
without a screw ; and, in a third, by a wheel and 
weight* As these presses were not so convenient as 
those in comnnm use, they were, most of them, soon 
set aside* I shall, hereafter, give an account of a 
cylindrical press, which was constructed by Nichols, 
in London, and might, I conceive, be used to adr 
vantage, at least in large editions of ordinary work. 
It is calculated to produce some saving in both labor 
and time. 

^ ii^ 

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THE art of Printing was first introduced into 
Spanish America, as nearly as can be ascertained, at 
the close of the sixtecsndi century. The histo- 
rians, whose works I have consulted, are all silent, 
as to the time when it was first practised on.the 
American continent ; but, the knowledge we have 
of the Spanish tenritorks, especially of Mexico and 
Peru, is so circumscribed, that we cannot fix on 
any precise date as the period of its commence- 
ment; but, it is certailQ, that Printing was exe- 
cuted both in Mexico and Peru, before it made its 
sqppearance in the British North American colonies*^ 
I do not mean to assert, however, that it is impos- 
^ble to ascertain the place where, and the date 
when, the first printing was performed in the exten- 
sive provinces belongii^ to Spain ; but, as respects 
myself, I have found that an insurmountable dif- 
ficulty has attended the inquiry. 
. I have ascertained that there was a press 
established in the capital of Mexico, as ^iliM\ 

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Chevillicr, who, I believe, wrote in the be- 
^nning of the seventeenth century, refers hb r«d- 
crs to some books printed early at Lima, the capi* 

Luckombe writes,t that ^ Printing was extend- 
ed to Africa and America, not indeed at the invita- 
tion of the natives, especi^y of America, but by 
means of the Europeans ; and, particularly, of the 
Spanish missionaries, who carried it to the latter for 
their ends ; accordingly, we find that several print- 
ing houses were erected verv early in the city of 
Lima, and in several cities of me kingdom of Mex- 

The religion of the Spaniards has suffered very 
little, if any innovation ; and many of the books 
they have printed in America, are on religious sub- 
jects. Copies of these, together with those of va- 
rious histories of the old world, and of the discovery 
and settlement of America, which have, from time 
to time, issued from the Mexican and Peruvian 
presses, are, it is said, preserved in the colleges of 
the capital cities in those provinces, together with 
many heavy folio volumes in manuscript, respecting 
that country, and written there. In this age of rev- 
olutions, those, and the other provinces of Spain, 
may experience some convulsions of the revo- 
lutionary tornado, by which their parent state- is 
desolated, in common with the other European 
kingdoms. The time may not be far distant when 

♦ Chcvillier, a French writer, was library keeper at tht 

t History and art of Printing, P. 41. 

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a sfaxk of £"€6(1001 and a consciousness of their own 
strength, may lead ttfe pec^le of the south to follow 
the example of their northern neighbors, and estab- 
lish their independance ; when th^t time shall arrive, 
strangers, may be permitted to explore their country 
without difficulty or restraint. 


The books published both in English and Span- 
ish America, till within the last fifty years, were, 
principally, on religious subjects. Perhaps those 
produced in the British colonies, anterior to the 
revolution, exceed, in number, those published in 
Mexico and Peru ; but, from the best information 
I have been enabled to obtain, it appears they were 
inferior, in point of magnitude, to the many large 
and voluminous labca^ of the monks, on subjects of 
devotion and scholastic theolc^, that have been 
printed in the Spanish part of the continent. Be- 
side books on religious and devotional concerns, 
many large historical work§, a variety of dictiona- 
ries, grammars, &c. have been produced by tlie 
^)resses of Spanish America. 

Notwithstanding the press in Spanish America 
is under severe restrictions, yet the books allowed 
Jo be printed, together with the works necessary 
for the purposes of government, have afforded it 
much employment ; and, from the best information 

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192 HfdTdftr orinttKTivG. 

I can {NTocm^, it appears diaftlhe Qrp(^;ra{>fa]cal per> 
formances, both in Mexico aiiedFI&rai hxvt nbt been 
badty executed. 

Gazettes have, for many yeat^ been poblidied 
in that country ; some say they wa« pmted bdbre 
the end of the seventeenth century j liial^they were 
so, in the cities of Mexico and Lima, is not improb- 
able. Dr. Robertson, in his WstOTy of America, 
mentions his being furnished with the " Gazeta de 
Mexico'' for the years I7S8, 172$, and 1730, print- 
ed in quarto. Having examined the contents, he 
observes,* " The Gazette of Mexico is filled al- ^ 
most entirely with accounts of religious functions, 
with descriptions of processions, consecrations of 
churches, beatifications of saints, festivals, aut6s de 
ffe, &c. Civil, or commercial' al^rs, and even tfie 
transactions of Europe, occupy but a smd33l comes 
of this monthly magazine of intelligence.*' He 
mentions, also, that the titles of new books were 
regularly inserted in the Gazette ; whence it ap- 
peared that two thirds of them were tteatises on re- 

As the press is under the absolute control 6f 
government, we might expect to find tte cata*- 
logue of Spanish American publications confined 
within narrow limits ; but, the fact is, that the 
works which treat of religion, history, morals, and 
classical books, which, in that country, are permitted' 
to be printed, are numerous. Even the dictionaries 
and grammars, for the use of the various nations of 
aborigines in the Mexican provinces only, excite 

• Robertson's Amer. yol. 3, p. 401. Ed. 7. Lend. 

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mr Mfpmc; Of tfarae the Abbi Ckvigext>,t thie 
Usiixfeti) liumijeaft five Mexican dictionaries^ tetA 
twmty MeKican gramitiarsu Tterte Otomee dk« 
ifonarieS) and four grammars* Ttra Tarasooil 
dieiaoaamii, and tfarM graitimmiSi One Zapbttcatt 
dlotitmary^ and one grammar* Obe Mistecw gfam- 
«Q»r<. Three Ma3^dictiotiari^,tt(!id three grammars 
T\ft> Tott^^aca^ dgMionama^ and two gratntn^uHi. 
Om Popolu^axi dietkmaiy^ iknA one gtu^f^af^ 
One Matlazincan diottonarjr, and one gi'aitUfiigD'. 
Two Huaxtecan dictionaries^ and two grammars; 
One Mixe dictionary, and one grammar* One 
Cakciquel dictionary, and one grammar. One Ta- 
raumaran dictionary^ ao4 two g^Mcimars. One Te« 
pehuanan dictionary, and three grammars. 

Clavigero also mentions eighty six authors held 
in high estimation by the learned ; thirty three of 
whom were Creoks,. " who have written on the 
doctrines of Christianity^ and on Morality, in th^ 
languages of New SpainJ^ Their works, and the 
dictionaries and grammars before mentioned, were, 
Ui»]uesticmably, printed in the provinces of Mexico ; 
wadf it is not improbable, that many books, of the 
like kind, have been published in the extensive 
provmces c£ Peru^ in Soutii America. 

Dr. Robertson {prefixed to the seventh edition of 
lus history^ a Ikt of Spufush books aend manuscrq)ts, 
which he consrolted for that work. I have extract- 
ed firom his list^ the titles of those which were 

t A lotmect native of New Spain, who published the his- 
tory of tttcient Mexico, and the col&ques^ of it> bf the Spaiiir 
iards, in two large voliimes, qjiarto. 

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printed in Mexico and Lima, and have added to 
jthem, some others printed in those cities ; they aU 
relate solely to the history and ccmquest of the coun- 
try. Among those of which I have thus cdkcted 
die titles, the reader will see that the earliest printed 
book is from a Mexican press in 1606. I'have 
heard of a work, but cannot procure its tide, printed 
in the capital of New Spain in«1604 ; — there can be 
but little doubt that Printing was introduced tho^ 
some years before that period. 

Mexican Editions. 

Martinez [^ArigoJ History of New Spain. 
Folio. Printed at Mexico, 1606. In this work, 
according to Clavigero, are astronomical and phys- 
ical observations, which are of importance to the 
geography and natural history of that country. 

Cisneros, [Diego] Sitio Naturaleza y Proprie- 
dades de la Giudad de Mexico. Quarto. Printed 
at Mexico, 1618. 

Villalobos [Arrias] History of Mexico. Writ- 
ten inverse. Folio. Mexico, 1623. 

Castillejo, [Chaves Christ] History of the 
Ori^n of the Indians, and their first Colonies in the 
Country of Anahuac. Mexico, 1632. 

Gongora [Carlos de Siguenza e, a celebrated 
Mexican, professor of mathematics in the university 
of his native country] author of several mathemat- 
ical, critical, historical and poetical works ; amongst 
them were. 

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The Mexican Cyclography, a work of great 
labor, in which, by cakulating eclipses and comets, 
marked in the ancient historical pictures of the 
Mexicans, he adjusted their epochs with those of 
Eiu-ope ; and, he explained the methods by which 
they used to enumerate centuries, years and months. 
Fctio. And, 

The History of the Chechemecan Empire, in 
which Gongora explains what he found in ancient 
Mexican manuscripts and paintings, concerning the 
first colonies which passed from Asia to America ; 
and the occurrences of the most ancient nations es- 
tablished in Anahuac. Folio* 

All the preceding works of Gongora were print- 
ed at Mexico, from 1680 to 1693. 

Betancourt [Aiigustino de, a Franciscan of 
Mexico] Mexican Theatre, or the Ancient and 
Modem History of the Mexican Empire. Folio. 
Mexico, 1698. 

Arguello [Eman.] Centum Confessionis, 12mo. 
Mexico, 1705. - 

Aranzeles Reales de los Ministros de la Real 
Audiencia de N. Espagna. Folio. Mexico, ^1727. 

Beltran [P. F. Pedro] Arte de el Idioma Maya 
reducido a sucintas reglas, y Semilexicon. Quarto. 
Mexico, 1746. • 

Villa Segnor y Sanchez [D. Jos. Ant.] Theatro 
Americano. Descripcion general de los Reynos y 
Provincias de la Nueva Espagna. ^ vols. Folio. 
Mexico, 1746. 

Huemez y Horcasitas [D. Juan Francisco de] 
Extracto de los Autos de Diligencias y reconoci- 
mientoB de los rios, lagunas, vertientes, y desaguas 

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^ M^c^ f pu vatts^ fee. FqSo, M^ WCOi iT48. 

CtH^imi Me«k»ttm Pitrra^jQM^ 
ebratum Mexici, Anng 1585. FoUq, M^^jl^ 

CO, ^faoffa^ d^ Toledo, Histqria d^ NiMV^ ^Ki^^B^n^ 
eiMs^ poF su EseteFeddQ Cc«iqui?tifc4w H^rom 
Cortes^ Au<[i^itf»ia ^n otros^Po^Hi^i^l^y Notaa* 
Jfdio. Mexico, 1770k 

Kgi^ttH El Eguerea [IX Ja Jq§.J BiWiptbeca 
Mexicana, sive ^;rirfitarHi» Histcwi^ Vi^Qiiiin W 
Am^ie, Bore^ Hfttoi^i»^ ^c, TwQ Y«bMPes^ 
Fotiot. Mwio^ 1775. 

Feriwian Editions. 

Arkiaclq XP. Pafalo los. de} ExtirpafOioit de k 
IdolE^ria de Peru, ^iiartq. Printed at Lima, 1621. 

Beyesterosi [IX Thoiaaa de] Qrdcoanzas del 
Peru, Folio. Two volumes. Lima^ 1685* . 

Pcralta B^nwevo [I>. Pedro, de} Lii»a ftiodada 
Q Cwquista del Peru Poema Erayco* QtiaortQ^ 
Lima, 1732. 

Lima, Gozosa's, Descripcion delasfes^basDe*-. 
moMtTaciones, Conqvusta ciudad Cd^o \x real 
Proclamacipn de el Nanxbre x^uguito del Cgte^Q 
Monsorclio D. C^los III. Quarto. Lka«» 17^ 

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srAKXtr AMtiic4« 197 

Aparicio y Leon [D. Lorenzo de] Discurso 
Historico-Politico del Hospital San L^aro de Li- 
ma. Octavo. Linuii 1760. 

Jesuitas, CoUeccion de las applicaciones que se 
van hacicndo de los Cienes, casks y Coligios que 
fueroo de la Compagnia de Jesus, expatriados de 
*est03 Reales domrnips. Quarto* Two volumes. 
Lima, 1772 and 1773. 

The foregoing books relate solely to the con- 
^est and settlement of the country ; copies of 
virhich were not without much difficulty procured, 
by <ir. Robertson, who found it necessary to use the 
interest of his friends at the Spanish court. When 
we consider that so large a number of valuable 
works, on one s^ubject, were published in the cities 
of Mexico and Lima only, we are led to suppose that 
the whole number, which has been printed on va- 
rious other subjects, through the extent of Spanish 
America, must be very great ; and this considera- 
tion strengdiens the opinion before expressed, that, 
^though Uie works published in that country, from 
^ time it was first setded, till the year 1775, might 
not equ^, in wimber, those produced by the Anglo 
American presses, yet> any deficiency of this nature 
hasr been fully supplied by the superior magnitude 
©f the Spanish performances. 

It evidently appears, that the most voluminous 
and expensive works were published by the Span- 
iards ; and this is not altogether strange, as they 
possessed by fee the richest part of the coiwrtiy*; 
wd tks s^ttkn^eoA of thie soiitl»*ik pwrt (^ the eonti. 
mtwf^ and oS JSdeieicoy ccmMMUced ar cen^arr before 
that of the British colonies^ 

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A PRINTING press was early introduced into 
the Spanish part of this island ; probably about the 
be^nning of the seventeenth century. It was sel- 
dom used, except for printing the lists and returns, 
and other papers for the different branches of the 

M. dc St. Mery,* in his " Description of the 
Spanish part of St. Domingo," informs us, that 
" No works concerning the colonies can be printed 
in them, without the permission of the council of 
the Indies, and it is well known that the council is 
not over fond of granting such permissions. In the 
examination of the vessels that arrive, strict search 
is made after the books proscribed by the inquisi- 
tion ; and, as the convent of St. Lawrence the Royal, 
has, in Spain, the exclusive privilege of printing 
religious books, the senior auditor is exclusively 
charged with the causes that this privilege may give 
rise to in the island. If a work be printed at St. 
Domingo, twenty copies of it must be delivered to 
the president, to be sent by him to the council of 
the Indies, there to be buried, like every thing else 
that is sent thither.'^ 

♦ M. de St. Mery, lived at Cape Francois, previous to the 
destruction of it by the blacks. In 1798, he was a bookseller 
ip Philadelphia) mid s^ member of the Philosophical Society of 

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In 1790, the printing house, in the city of St. 
Domingo, stood in the vicinity of the palace of the 
president, or governor general, and not far from the 
ancient cathedral; which, with the prisons, and 
many ancient private houses, form a square, which 
b used for a market place. The cathedral was* be- 
gun in 1512, and finished in 1540 ; and, in it were 
interred the remains of the celebrated Christopher 
Columbus, the discoverer of this continent, which 
ought to have borne his name. The cathedral, also^ 
contains the remains of his brother Bartholomew, or 
of Diego, the son of Columbus. The coffins which 
contained their bodies were discovered in 1783, 
when, in repairing the cathedral, part of a thick wall 
was taken down. This fact St. Mery mentions on 
good authority ; which is corroborated by the cer- 
tificates of don Joseph Nunez, dean, dignitary of 
the holy metropolitan and primatial church of the 
Indies, don Manuel Sanchez, canon, dignitary, &c. 
and don Pedro de Galvez, preceptor, canon, digni- 
tary of the cathedral church, and primate of the 
Indies. These certificates are dated at Santo Do- 
mingo, April 26, 1783. [/] 

There was a printing house at Cape Francois, 
on the French part of the island, as I am informed, 
long before that town was destroyed by the negroes 
when they revolted. 

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900 nigTcnr om niiriuio. 


Twis idtndwas discotrered by Columbtis m 
14d2. He gave it the name of Fexxfinando, bv^ kt 
soon after iTecovered its tticient name of Cuba. 

A press, it is sdd, was established ia this 
islqiid many yeas ago ^ but it tias intended mendjr 
fior die use of the go vemmcat 

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IPRINTING has been long practised in the 
Portuguese settlements ; . but, I believe, the press ■ 
1^ been kept almost solely for the use of the gov- 
ernment. If any literary productions were ever 
issued from it, I am ijnacquaiinted with them. 

As there is an intercourse between the United 
States and Brazil, we may hope to obtain, at no dis- 
tant period, the history of printing in thjs part pf 
3outh America. 

Brazil is an extensive, opulent, and rich country, 
divided, according to geographers, into about twenty 
provinces, which contain diamond^ gold and silver 
' mines. The number of inhabitants is estimated at 
2,500,000, whereof one half are the descendant^ 
of the original possessors qf tfee coijntry ; about 
700,000 are slaves imported from Africa, 10,000 of 
whom are emplpyed in the dian^ond h^ines j and, 
the remainder are native and EJuropean Portuguese* 
St Salvador, and St, Sebastian, or Rio Janeiro, are 
the principal cities; the latter, sir George Staun- 
ton infcHHiLS us^ cqntaii^ 43,000 inhabitants — 40,000 


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of these are slaves and people of color*-^e royal 
court of Brazil is held at this place,* now become 
the residence of the king and royal family, who lately 
fled from Portugal on the invasion of that country 
by the emperor of the French. Thus one king of 
a civiliz^ pf c^lei has be^in Mitro4^«€d en^l]^ con- 
tinent. How soon one, or more, may be placed at 
the head of the government, or governments, of the 
Spanish provinces in South and in North America, 
is as yet unknown ; but di»4ime does not appear to 
be far remote, when such an event may take place. 

* In 1793, according to sir George Staunton^s account, 
there were but two booksellers in Rio Janeiro, and they sold 
* books on the subjects of divini^ and medicine only. 

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mdW 'iMM 


Jntroduetkn of the Art. 

TilE early part of the history of the United 
S&tes, is not, like that of most other nations, blend- 
ed tdth fable. Many of the first European settlers 
of this country were men of letters ; they made 
records dt events as they passed, and they, from the 
first, adopted effectual methods to transmit the 
knowledge of them to their posterity. The rise 
and progress of English America, therefore, from 
its colonization to the period at which it took a 
mme and place among sovereign and independent 
nations, may be traced with the clearness and cer- 
tainty of autiientic history. 

'That ait, which is the preserver of all arts, is 
worthy of the attention of the learned and the curi- 
ous. An account of the first printing executed in 
the English colonies of America, combines many 

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!^04 HiStORY OF tKtVTlifCi 

of the important transactions of the settlement, as 
well as many incidents interesting in the revolutions 
of nations ; and, exhibits the pious and charitable ef- 
forts of oilr ance^rs, in Newengland ^ to translate thef 
sacred Book3 ii)ito a language, which at this short 
distance of* time is, probably, not understciod by an 
individual of the human race, and for the use of a 
nation^ which is now extii^t. Such is the fluctua- 
tion of human a&irs ! 

The particulars respecting t^e Printing and 
rrinters of this country, it is presumed, ^vill gratify 
professional men ; and, a general history of this na- 
ture will certainly preserve many important facts 
which j in a few years, would be irrecoverably lost, 

Ambn^ the tirst Settlers of Newengland were 
many pious as Well as learned men^ They emi- 
tted from a country where the press had more 
license than in other parts of Europe ^ and they were 
acc](Jainted with the usefulness of it. As soon as 
they had made those provisions that were neces- 
sary for their ejcistence in this land, which was then 
a rude wilderhess, their next objects were, the es- 
tablishmeiit of schools, and a printing press ; the 
latter of which was not tolerated, till many years 
afterward, by the elder colony of Virginia. 

The founders bf the colony of Massachusettsf 
Consisted of but a small number of persons, who 

» The aborigines of thfe country. 

t Thip reader will perceive that I am here speaking of 
Massachusetts proper, not of the colony of Plymouth, where a 
settlement was made in the year 1 620, That colony has, how- 
eVerj long sincfe been incorporated into that of Massachusetts; 

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Arrived at Salem in 1628» A few more joined them 
ki 1629 ; a^ governor Winthrop, with the addi- 
tion of fifteen hundred settlers^ arrived in 1630. 
These last landed at the place since called Charles- 
town, opposite to Boston, where they pitched their 
tents, and built a few huts for shelter. In 1631, 
they began to settle Cambridge, four miles from 
the place where they landed. They also began a 
settlement on the identical spot where Boston now 
stands. In 1638, they built an academy at Cam- 
bridgCy which in process oftirtie was increased to a 
college ; and^ the same year> they opened a printing 
house in that place* In January, 1639, Printing 
was first performed in that part of North America, 
which extends from the gulph of Mexico to. the 
frozen ocean. 

For this press our country is chiefly indebted 
to the revi nu". Glover, a nonconformist minister, 
who possessed a considerable estate^ and had left his 
native country with a determination to settle among 
his friends, who had emigrated to Massachusetts ; 
because in this wilderness, he could freely enjoy, 
with them, those opinions which were not' counte- 
nanced by the government and a majority of the 
people in England* 

Very little more than the name of this Father of 
the American Press is known among us^ So far 
as my researches have extended, I can only find that 
his name has been barely mentioned by two re . 
spectable journalists,* who were among the first 
settlers that emigrated herCi This was, probably, 

* Governor Winthropt atid Ifiiptain Johnson. 

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owing to his having died cm his passage to Mastti« 
chusetts. By searching the ancient records of th^ 
cdlege. Sec. at Cambridge, Massachusetts, I have 
been enabled to collect the few particulars respect« 
ing him which I shall mention in course. 

Another press, with types, and another printer, 
were, in 1660, sent over from En^bnd by tfie cot- 
p^tion for propagating the gospel, among the Ift« 
dians, in Newengland« This press^ 8cc« was de* 
signed solely fco* the purpose of printmg the Bible^ 
and otl^r books, in the Indian language. On their 
arrival they were carried to Cambridge, and em- 
ployed in the printing house already established in 
that place. 

Notwithstanding Printing continued to be per- 
formed in Cambridge, from a variety of causes it 
happened, that many original works were sent firom 
Newengland, Massachusetts in particular, to Lon* 
don, to be {H*inted. Among these causes the prin- 
cipal were^-Jirst, the press at Camlmdge had, gen- 
CTally, full employment; secondly, the Printu^ 
dcMie there was executed in an inferior style ; and, 
thirdly, many wOTks on controverted p<Mnts of relig- 
ion, were not allowed to be printed in this country.. 
Hence it happened that for more than eighty years 
after Printing was first jn-actised in tl^ colony, man- 
uscripts were occasionally sent to England for pub- 

The fathers oi Massachusetts kept a watchful 
eye on the press ; and, in neither a religious or civil 
point of view, were they di^osed to give it much 
liberty. Both the civil and ecclesiastical rtilers were 
fearful that if it was not under wholesome restraints, 

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contentions and heresies would arise among the 
peofde* In 1662, the government of Massachusetts 
appointed licensers of the press ;* and afterward» 
in 1664, passed a law that ^^ no printing should be 
aUowed in any town withiu the jurisdiction, except 
in Cambridge^-^-^nor should any thing be printed 
diere but what the government permitted through 
^ agency of those poisons who were empowered 
fyr the purpose. Offenders against this regulation 
were to forfeit their presses to the country, and to 
be disfranchised of the privilege of printing thereaf- 
ter.! In a short time, this law was so far repealed, 
aa to permit the use of a press at Boston, and a per* 
aoQ was authorized to conduct it ; subject, however, 
to the licensers who were appointed for the purpose 
c^ inspecting it« 

It does not appear that the press, in Massachu- 
setts, was free from legal restraints till about the 
year 1755. Holyoke's Almanack, for 1715, has, 
in the title page, " Imprimatur, J. Dudley." A 
pamphlet, printed in Boston, on the subject of 
building market houses in that town, has the addi- 
tion of, " Imprimatur, Samuel Shute, Boston, Feb. 
19, 171».*r|: James Franklm, in 1723, was ordered 

*6en. Daniel Gookin, and the rev. mr. Mitchel, of Cam- 
bridge, were the first appointed licensers of the press in tlus 

t See this slated more at length in the account given of 
Samuel Green, printer at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

t There was no market house in Boston till 1734. On the 
SOth of April, in that year, the town, after many years contest- 

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by the government, not to publish " The New- 
England Courant/- witlK)ut- jM-eviously submitting • 
its contents to the secretary of the province ; and, 
Daniel Fowle* was imprisoned by the house of 
representatives, in 1754, barely on suspicion of his 
having printed a'pamphlet, said to contain reflections 
on some members of the gcnei^ court. 

For several years preceding the year 1730, the 
government of Massachusetts had been less rigid 
Aan formerly ; and, after that period, I do not find 
that any officer is mentioned as having a particular 
control over the press. For a long time, however, 
the press appeared to be under greater restrictions 
here than in England ; that is, till toward the close 
of the seventeenth century. 

In the course of this work it will appear, that the 
presses established in other colonies were not en- 
tirely free from restraint. 

In Virginia the first press was not introduced 
till about the year 1 727. The rulers in that colony, 
in the seventeenth century, judged it best not to 
permit public schools, nor to allow the use of the 

ing the question, voted to build three houses of wood ; one ^t 
the south part of the town, near the Great Elms ; another on 
the Old North square ; the other, in a more central ^imation^ 
npar Jhe Town Dock, where Faneuil Hall pow stands. Th^" 
three frames were erected the m6|nth following; and the 
sales, at the Town Dock market^ commenced the 25th of the 
same mpnth. In the course of two or three years, two of the 
market houses were sold hj order of the town, for pdier uses i 
and the third was destroyed by " the people/* 

• See Fnmklin, an4 Fowle, 

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pttOL^ Aod tboS) by keeping die pexffit in igao* 
nnce> tibqrdioa^ tx> teikter them more oboiieift 
to tiie laws ; pmvetit them fix>m libeliii^ the gov^ 
cmmeiity taxi to impede tbe growth of heresy, &c« 


Tx £ pi^ss had become free^some yeans previous 
to the commencement of the revolutibn; but it 
continued for a long time duly to (fisciiminate be* 
tween liberty and licentiousness* Thb freedom of 
the press wa& ^ firsts and one of the greatest agents 
in producing our naticmal mdependence. The press 
appeauis to be now under no particular restraints^ 
and no <me can wish the liber^ (^ it to be gres^n 

Except in Massachusetts, no presses were set 
up in die colonies till near the close of the seven-^ 
teenth century* Printing then was performed in 
Penn^lvania, ^^ near Philadelphia," and afterward 
in that city, by the same press^ which, inafewyears 
subsequent, was removed to Newyork* In 1709, 
a press was establi^ed at Newlondon, in Connecti^ 
cut; and, from this period, it was gradually intro^ 
duced into tte other colonies ; as well as into sev* 
eral of the Westindia islands, bdcmging to Great 

Till the year 1760, it appears that more books 
were printed in Massachusetts, annually, than in any 
of the other colonies ; and, before 1740, moi'e print* 

* Chalmer's Annal. Vol I . p. 22y Mid 345. 
I 2C 

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ii^ was done there thaa in aU the other colonies* 
After 1760, the quantum of printing done in Boston 
and Philadelphia was nearly equal, till the commoice^ 
ment of the war. Newyork produced some octavo 
and duodecimo volumes. — The presses of Connec- 
ticut were not idle ; they furnished nuuiy pam- 
phlets on various subjects, and some small volumes. 
Some books were handsomely printed in Virginia 
and Maryland ; and folio volumes of laws, and a 
few octavos and duodecimos, on reli^on, history 
and politics, issued from the presses of Carolina, 
Rhodeisland, Newhampshire,,&c, 

Before 1775, printing was confined to the o^)- 
itals of the colonies ; but the war occasioned the dis- 
persion of presses, and many were set up in towns 
that were remote. After the establishment of our in- 
dependence, by the peace of 1783, presses multiplied 
very fast, not only in seaports, but in all the princi- 
pal inland towns and villages ; and, it may now be 
said, that in the United States there are more presses 
employed than in any other part of the globe, con- 
taining the same number of inhabitants. The ma- 
jor part of these presses is used in printing news- 
papers ; but newspapers form not the only branch 
of printing which has increased. Bibles of all the 
various sizes. Dictionaries in English and Latin, 
Greek Lexicons— mo^ of the Greek and Latin 
classics, which are used in the country, numerous, 
original works, as well as the republication of va- 
rious European books of history, divinity, law, 
physic, philosophy, &c. in volumes ctf various mag-, 
uitudes, now find their way through the presses of 
the United States. 


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In the beginning of this wot-k, when treating of 
paper, I took notice of the various descriptions of it, 
made by the Chinese, Japanese, Egyptians, and the 
Europeans. I Mrill now give a brief account of the 
paper made by the natives of America, before this 
country was known to the nations of the old world. 

The ancient Mexicans made great use of paper. 
They manu&ctured it from the leaves of a genus of 
the aloe, or the palm icxotl^ and from the thin bark 
of other trees, by a process not now known. They 
formed it into sheets of various dimensions ai^ 
thicknesses, so as to answer sundry purposes ; some 
of the sheets were similar, in thickness, to the thin 
pasteboard, and press paper for clothiers, manufac- 
tared in Europe ; and some were thinner, but softer, 
smoother, and easy to write on. The sheets were 
generally made very long, and were polished suita- 
bly for die use to which they were intended to be 
applied. For preservation they were made up into 
rolls, or folded in the manner df bed skreens, and 
thus formed into books, Clavigero, who saw and 
handled several sheets which are now preserved in 
Mexico, informs us, that on this kind of paper the 
ancient Mexicans painted, in beautiful and perma- 
ment colors, the representations of their gods, their 
kings, their heroes, their animals, their plants, and 
whatever objects their fency dictated, or circum- 

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912 HisT*iT ^F FmiramKG. 

stances might require, On paper they delineated, 
in hieroglyphics, painted with colors which were ap* 
propriated to the subject.^** the symbols of their re- 
ligion, accounts of remarkable events, their laws, 
their rites, their customs, their taxes or tributes.-^ 
Some of these paintings on paper were chronologic- 
al, astronomical, or astrdogkal, in which wore rep* 
oeaented &eir calendar^ the posiliQii of dhe fstat% 
eclipses^ changes of the moon^ prognasdcadoaft of 
the variations of the weadiep-«*4his kind o£ pdhrting 
was caQed, by them, tonaiimatl.>-''X}6:ieT patndiigi 
were topographical, or chorographical, which served 
not only ta shew die extent and bottndaries of pos- 
sessions, but, likewise, die situation c^pbtces ; tiie 
direction of the coasts, and coorse of the riva^,* 
The Mexicaa empire abcmnded witii aft these kinds 
of paintii^ on psqDcr, £3r th^ painters were inmi* 
inerable, and there was hanUy any thing left tm- 
paantedi Uthose had been pieserved, there would' 
have bem nothing^ wanting to escptam die hkb&ey^ei 
Mexico I but, after die conquer of the country by 
die Spanisrds, the first p:eackers <tf the gofifd; sus- 
picious that supersdtioo wm mixed with alt these 
|)sdntings^ nude a fmrioua destmction q( them/^ 

• Cortes says, in his first letter to Charles V, of Spain, that 
having made kiquky if there was any safe harbor for yessefs hi 
the Mexican gulf, Mont»z«ina, the^Mexkan king^ presented 
htm with a painting ofthewirole coast, frcmi^e portofChal* 
chiuhcuecan, wli^re at present Vera Cruz lies, to the mep 
Coata^cualco. This^ account is confirmed by Bemai Diaz* 

t CHmgero'ii Hist Mei^ 

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virirsD sTATis* 213 

Baper nm&nr to thifc of Mexico^ it is sfldd, was 
aade m Pent* 

Whether the Eiitopean method of m^^ 
has ever been introduced into Spant^ America, I 
aumt cooapetent to saj ; but» in 8<»ne of the £iig- 
liih cokduBs, making p^>er from n^ of cottca and 
of linen, has Ibng been practised. 

PapermUb were ^ected m Pemx^lrama many 
jpearA befcnre the revolution. There were several in 
Ncwen^bhd, and two or three m Newywt. 

About the year 1730, an enterprisii^ booksel* 
ler in Boston,^ having petitioned for^ and received 
flome aid from the legislature of Massachusetts, 
erected a p^per noil, which was the first set up in 
thai coiovf^ Since 1775, paper mills h^ve in* 
crested n^idly, and paper is now, I believe, mami* 
faetured in all parts of the wiion«t 

Tt/pe Foundries. 

A FoirviMr, principally for Qodue, or German 
types, was ortaMished ait Germontown, Pennsylva- 
nia,, several years before the revolution ;^ but that 
foundry was cbk&y employed for its owner, Chris* 
taghsx Sower, who printed the Bible, and sevend 
<tfher vahiabk works, in the German langua^ 

* Danid Henchman. He produced, in 1731, to the gen- 
eral court, a sample of paper made at his mill. 

t The paper on which this work is printed, was manufac- 
tured in Worcester, at a mill built some fears since ; whiclr 
has been for some time past owned by Elijah Burbank. 

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Some attempts were made about 1768, to estab- 
lish foundries for types— one at Boston by mr. 
Mitchelson, from Scotland ; another in Connecticut 
by a mr. Buel ; but they were unsuccessful. : In 
1775, dr. Franklin brought from Eiuope to Phila- 
delphia, the materials for a foundry; but little use 
was made of them. 

So<m after the close of the revolutionary war, 
Jc^ Baine, type founder, of Edinburgh, sent the 
materials for a foundry to this country, by a kins- 
man, I believe his grandson, who settled at Phila- 
delphia. Baine came over himself, soon after ; and 
they were the first who regularly carried on the 
business of type founders in tl^ United 6tates. 
They were good wcntmen, and had full employ- 
ment. The types few the Encyclopedia, twenty 
one volumes quarto, printed some years imice 
by Dobson, at Philadelphia, were cast at "their 
foundry. Baine died in August, 1790, aged 77. 
He must have been 70 years of age when he ar- 
rived at Philadelphia. His kinsman returned to 

At the commencement of the late commotions in 
Holland, an ingenious type founder, fiom that coun- 
try, came and setded at Newyork. His foundry was 
calculated, principally, for Dutch and German types, 
the casts of which were handsome. The faces of 
his English letter were very ordinary. He was a 
Dutch patriot, who had lost most of his property, 
and was obliged to fly from his country. His want 
of funds disabled him from carrying on the business 
here with success. 

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imiTED STAT£S» 215 

At this time we have three or more type found- 
ries in the United States. The types from which 
this work is printed, were manu&ctiued by Binney 
and Ronaldson, at Philadelphia. 

Stereotype Printing. 

About the year 1775, an attempt at stereotype 
printing was made by Benjamin Mecom, printer, 
nephew of doctor Franklin. He cast the plates for 
a number of pages of the New Testament ; but 
never completed them. I shall have occasion to 
mention Mecom, in the course of this work, several 
times. He was skilful, but not successful. 

' The ingenious Jacob Perkins, of Newbmyport, 
Massachusetts, has lately invented a new kind of 
stereotype, for impresidng copper and other plates. 
From plates so impressed, most of the bank bills of 
Massachusetts and Newhampshire, are printed at 
rolling presses, and are called stereotype bills. 


I HAVE already observed, that man, in his pri- 
meval state, discovered a propensity to represent, 
by figures, on various substances, the animated 
work of his Creator. 

From sketching, painting, or engraving these 
images, or representations on the surface of those 
substances, he proceeded to the business of the 

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S16 HIS70&7 OF fRIKTIKe. 

flco^ptor or statoaiy , and produced dll tihe features 
and proportioiu of men, and the other various des* 
cripticuis of the animal creation, in wood ami stone* 
The invention of hieroglyphics has been gener. 
^ ally attributed to the priests of ancient Egypt, who 
made use of them, to convey the knowledge they 
possessed of the mysteries of nature, and the secrets 
of their morality and history, to their successors in 
the priesthood, widiout discovering them, to the 
vulgar ; but dr. Warburton, who appears to have 
been well acquainted with the subject of hiero- 
glyphic engravings, although his knowledge of coins 
and medals was questioned by Pinkerton, has, with 
great ingenuity, shewn, that hieroglypiiics were not 
die invention of Egyptian priests.*— He remarks, 
that " the general concurrence of diflferent nations in 
this method of recording then: thoughts, can never 
be supposed to be the effect of imitation^ sinister 
views, or chance ; but must be considered as the 
uniform voice of nature, speaking to the rude cod^ 
ceptions of mankind ; for, not only the Chinese of 
the east, the Americans of the west, the Egyptians 
of the south, but the Scythians, likewise, of the 
north, and the intermediate inhabitants of the earth, 
viz. the Phenicians, the Ethiopians, the natives of 
India, &c. used the same methods of hieroglyphic 
and picture," 

At this day the American ccmtinent is not des- 
titute of vestiges of ancient engraving. Long before 
the discovery of America by Columbus, we are tcrfd 
that the Mexicans made coined money of tin and 

* See WarburUm's wprks. 

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topper, trWch was stamped by the authority of their 
sovereigns and feudal lords.* They were acquaint- 
ed with Ae arts of sculpture and engraving ; and, 
Frangob Corrfijd says, that the ornaments of the 
doors trf die temple of die sun, in Peru, were formed 
of jasper and granite, and were sculptured in birds^ 
quadrupeds, and animals of imaginary being, such 
OS the spfaimt, 8cc. and in the most exquisite man- 
ner. Don Ulloa gives an account of vases dug up 
in South America, which have figures designed 
upon them, completely in the Etruscan taste ; form- 
ed of earth, or composition, which, like die old 
Etruscan, is now no where to be found. Thpy were 
red, Wack, and extremely light, and sometimes had 
Ae figures in relief. What is very remarkable is, 
that, like the Etruscan vases, they have been dis- 
covered in no other places than sepulchres. 

The Mexicans had learned to express in their 
stfttues, " all the attitudes and postures of which the 
human body is capabJe ; they observed the propor- 
tions exactfy, and could, when necessary, execute 
the most delicate and minute strokes," with their 
chisels of flint, or of k«*dened coppcr.f They ex* 
cetted in the art of founding and casting, with the 
precious metals, the most perfect images of natural 
bodies. They were expert lapidaries, and knew 
how to form gems into such shapes and figures ad 
fency dictated ; and to finish them with an exqui- 
site polish. Among their precious stones were 
Ae emerald, amethyst, cornelian, turquoise, and 
others which were unknown m Europe. They set 

♦ Ckvigero^s Hist. Mwu f Ibid. 

I 3D 

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these stones in gold, and in silver, wrought in ^ 
very skilfiil manner, and rendered of great value. 
Condamine and Clavigero were both astonished at 
the industry and patience with which they must 
have worked in marble. They were workmen in 
linen and cloth of various descriptions, as well 
as painters and engravers. The specimens of 
their art, which were carried to Europe by Cortes, 
and others who visited the country, were found to 
be nearly inimitable, by the most expert artists of 
the old world. Their copper instruments and weap- 
ons they hardened to a temper which was equal to 
that of steel ; an art which the Greeks and Romans 
possessed to the time of the taking of Constanti- 
noplCj by Mahomet II, when, with the knowledge 
of the Greek fire, it sunk into oblivion. 

The United States have produced several ves- 
tiges of engraving, by the rude hands of the aborig- 
ines. I have a prospect of obtaining particular ac- 
counts of some of them ; which, should I be so 
fortunate as to procure, I will take notice of them in 
an appendix. 

Thus, we find that there is hardly any inhabited 
part of the world, which did not, before it became 
civilized, produce some specimens of engraving. 

The modem European art of engraving, was not 
greatly encouraged in America before the revc^u- 
tion, and the artists did not appear to possess first 
rate abilities. They were unskilful ; but the in- 
crease of printing having made business for the 
engraver, and created a necessity for artists in that 
line, it has now arrived at nearly as great perfection 
in the United States, as in Europe. Engraving on 

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type metal, and occasionally on brass, in relief, for 
letter press printing, has been practised for many 
years in the United States ; and, is often as weU ex- 
ecuted as are wooden cuts, for the like purpose, 
on the other side of the Atlantic. 

Printing Presses. 

The printing presses made use of in the Eng- 
lish colonies, before the revolution, were, generally, , 
imported from England, but some were manufac- 
tured in the country. 

Since 1775, good presses have been made in 
many of the capital towns in the United States, par- 
ticularly in Philadelphia, and in Hartford, Connecti- 
cut. Some of these presses underwent several par- 
tial alterations in their machinery, but no essential 
change in the construction was made from the com- 
mon English printing press. A few have been con- 
trived to perform the operation of printing in a dif- 
ferent manner from that press, but these were not 
found to be useful. 

Some years since doctor Kinsley, of Connec- 
ticut who possessed great mechanical ingenuity, 
produced, among other inventions, a model of a 
cylindrical letter press. It was a subject of much 
conversation among printers, but was never brought 
into use. The invention, however, did not wig- 
inate with Kinsley. Cylindrical letter presses 
were invented in 1789, by William Nicholson, of 
London, who obtained a patent for them in 1790, 

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Kinslef'ss^ mcKlel^^m from Kicbdsioa^s pi^ 
some variatioii. Nicbotson placed hb foraisr of 
tvpesi bonsoiitalfy ^ Kmslejr pkuced hisi p tr peiM l ie» 
vUsffljr; his melhDd waa not cateidated &r mat 
printing. Nicholsoit'S' preatse^ wiare tiaed^ andf It lar 
said, made excellent work. These presses require 
but one person to work them, who is able to per- 
form as much or more work in a day than two at 
common presses. The workman applies a sheet of 
paper to the form, ^tums the cylinder by a handle, 
the impression isnxade; and, be has natdnng^more 
to do than to tsike off the primed sheet,, and pot on 
another white one, thus contisiQingtar print. Thr 
form is blacked by the revolutionrofrdtersv pcoperljr 
parepared for Ae ptarposc^ 

Vof a dsscrifydon c! these presses, see appeodfar 
and the fritate, botb of whidi sgfecofieA^ from tfa^^ 
. supplement of tibe Encyck^pedia, yp6k % 

RoUing P'resses* 

The rolling press, as it is called^ by copperj^ter 
printers, was not used in England, till the reign of 
king James I. It was carried from Antwerp to 
England, by one Speed* I cannot determine when 
it was first brought iato English America, but I 
believe about the beginning of the eighteenth ei^v^ 

* Dr. Kinsley was a native of Massachusetts, but settled in 
Connecticut. He invented a machine for making pins, and aSK- 
other for preparing clay and mouldfaig bricks, 8cc. 

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. SO far as relates to the ii^rodiiction of the art 
of Printing, and establishing tl^ press in this sec^ 
tion of the continent, Massachusetts claims prece- 
dence over all the other colonies. The press was 
erected here in the autumn of 1638 ; and, it was 
more than forty years before printing commenced in , 
any other part of what, before the revolution, ,was 
called British America. 

Hitherto justice has not been done to the man, 
by whose agency the art was first introduced into 
the English colonies. Although he was one of the 
best, and firmest friends to Newengland, his name 
has not been handed down to us with so much pub- 
licity as were those of other distinguished charac- 
ters, who were his contemporaries, and fellow labor- 
ers, in the great work of settling a dreaiy country, 
and civilizing the native children of the wilderness. 
The principal cause of this seeming neglect in our 
historians- and biographers mayy p€rhaps> arisp from 
flus circumstance, that his de^iny was similar to 
that of Moses, who, although zealously engaged in 

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conducting the children of Israel from Egypt to 
Canaan, yet never reached the land of promise, but 
— ^finished his pilgrimage in the mountain of Nebo. 
As this patron of the Anglo American press 
died on his parage from Europe to this country, 
he, of course, did not become so well known, as he 
would have been, had he arrived and resided here. 
— ^This circumstance, probably, prevented his ac- 
quiring that celebrity to which his merits jusdy 
entitled him. Although his name is barely men- 
tioned by two or three journalists, yet, after a dili- 
gent research, I have been enabled to obtain the fol- 
lowing particulars respecting this venerable Father 
of the American Press. 



Mr, Glover was a worthy and wealthy dis- 
senting clergyman in England, who engaged in the 
business of the settlement of Massachusetts, and 
had been attentively pursuing such measures for its 
interest and prosperity as he judged would best tend 
to promote them. Among other things for the ben- 
efit of the infant colony, he was very desirous of 

* His christian name has been variously spelled in the an- 
cient records. In those of Harvard college it is abbreviated 
Joss. In the records of the county court, it is in some places 
¥rritten Josse^ in others Jesse. In all probability the latter is 
his right name. The author of Wonder-Working Providence 
wrote it Jos. which in past times was the abbreviated name of 

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establishing a press to accommodate the business 
both of church and state ;* he contributed liberally 
towards a sum sufficient to purchase printing mate- 
rials, and for this purpose solicited, in Englandf 
and Holland, the aid of others. 

The ancient records of Harvard college mention, 
that " Mr. Joss. Glover gave to the College a flfont 
of Printing Letters, and some gentlemen of Am- 
sterdam gave towards furnishing of a Printing 
Press with letters forty-nine poui^ds and something 
more.'^t The same records give us, also, the follow- 
ing names as " Benefactors to tlie first ffonts of Let- 
ters for printing in Cambridge, in New England, 

♦ Wondcr-Working Providence of Sion's Saviour in New- 
England. Lond. ed. 4to. p. 129 ; a very scarce book ; it is a 
" History of New-England from the English planting in the 
yeere 1628 until the yeere 1652." It was written by major 
Edward Johnson, who was one of the first settlers of Wobum, 
a very judicious and active man in the settlement of the col- 
ony ; he Was a member of the general court, and employed in 
several important concerns of the government. He was &ther 
of the hon. William Johnson, who was chosen assistant in 
1684.— Johnson bears testimony to the worth of mr. Glover, 
and speaks of his exertions to promote the interest of the in- 
fant colony. He mentions him, as << being able in person and 
estate for the work in which he was engaged ;** and " for fur- 
ther compleating the Colonies in Church and Common-wealthr 
work, he provided [in 1638] a Printer, which hath been very 
usefull in many respects.'' 

t Governor Winthrop mentions that " a printing house 
was begun at Cambridge, at the charge of Mr. Glover." 
See his Journal, p. 17 1 . 

I Ancient record$ of Harvard college. Vol. 1 and ?, in MS, 


by Google 


Major Thomas Clark^ C^t James Oliver, €apL 
Allciv Mr. Stoddard, Mr. Freake, and Mr. Hues**' 

In the year 1638, mr. Glover, having obtaiiaad 
tibe means, procured a good printiag apparatus, ssid 
engaged a printer to accompany it in a ship bound 
to Newengbwad* Mi;. Glover, with his femiiy, em- 
j>aris:ed in the same vessel ; but unfortunately he did 
not live to r^ch the shores of this new world** 
His widow and children, it is supposed, arrived ia 
the autumn of that year, and setd^ at C^fnbridfe ; 
she afterwards became the wife of rar. Henry Dun* 
ster, who was elected the first president of Harvazd 

It is not known, whether mr. Glover had been 
in Neweugland previous to his embaiking for tlus 
country in 1638 ; but I find by the records of die 
county of Middlesex, that he possessed a valusfcle 
real and personal estate in Massachusetts ; that lie 
had two sons and three daughters ; that John Glov- 
er, one of the sans, was educated at Harvard cc4- 
lege, and graduated in 1650, and was appointed^ 
ma^strate in 1652 ; Aat one of the daughters was 

♦ In the same ship in which mr. (Mover embarjced $«• 
Newengland, came passenger the rev. Ezekiel Rogers^ who, 
with a number of emigrants, about sixty families, from Eng- 
land, setUed at Rowley ; and mr. Rogers was chosen and or- 
dained their minister. These people were the first setUers of 
that town ; they soon erected a number of houses, and were 
the first who maiuifactured wooUen cloth in this part of Amer- 
ica ; many of them having followed the business in ks various 
branches in England. They built a fulling miU, and employed 
their children in spinning cotton, &c. ^fVond, Work. Frov* 
p. 130. 

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marned to mr. Adam Winthrop^ and another to 
mn Appleton. 

Mr. Glover had doubtless been written to and 
requested by his friends — among whom were the 
leading men in the new settlement of Massachu* 
setts, who were then establishing an academy, which 
soon acquired the appellation of college— to providea 
press, &c. not only for the advantage of the church 
and state, but particularly for the benefit of the 
academy ; the records of which prove that the types 
and press were procured fol-, and, the types partic- 
ularly, were the property of, that institution* The 
press, as appears by the records of the county court 
of Middlesex, 1656, was the property of Mn Glov- 
er's heirs. Mr. Glover, it should seem, intended to 
have carried on both printing and bookselling ; for, 
beside the printing materials, he had provided a 
stock'of printing paper^ and a quantity of books for 
sale. s 

John Glover, one of the sons of Jesse Glover, 
after die death of his mother, brought an-action, in 
the court above mentioned, against his father in law 
Dunster, for the recovery of the estate which had 
belonged to his father and mother, and which was 
detained by Dunster. An inventory of the estate 
was filed in court ; among the items were the print- 
ing press, printing paper, and a quantity of books. 
The inventory proves that the press, then the only 
ofie in the country, was the property of the plaintiff 
in the action ; and, it is shewn by the said inventory, 
and by the records of the general court, that Dun- 
ster had had the management of the press, in right 
I 2 E 

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of his wife, and as president of the college ; aad, that 
he had received the " profits of it." As it may amuse 
those who feel an interest in M^hatever concerns the 
first press, and the person by whose agency the art 
of Printing was introduced into the colonies, and as 
others may be gratified by the perusal of the pro- 
ceedings in, and decision of, one of the courts of 
justice holden in the primitive state of the country, 
I have extracted them, verbatim et literatim^ from 
the records, and added them with the inventory 
beforementioned in note [§•] 


The printing apparatus, as has been related^ 
was, in the year 1638, brought to Cambridge, then 
as much settied as Boston;* both places being 
founded in a situation which eight years before this 
event, was in scriptural language, a howling wilder- 
ness-^^t Cambridge the building of an academy 
was begun ; and, it was at that place the rulers 
both of church and state then held their assem- 
blies. These circumstances, probably, induced 
those who had the management of public affairs to 
fix the press there ; and, there it remained for sixty 

* Boston and Cambridge are separated by Charles rirer. 
Cambridge was first intended as the capital of the colony ; two 
years after the settlement began, a preference was given to 






years, altogether under their control ; as were other 
presses afterward established in the colony; but, 
for upwards of thirty years, Printing was exclu^ 
sively carried on in that town, 


Daye was the first who printed in this part of 
America. He was the person whom mr. Glov- 
er eng^ed to come to Newengland, and conduct 
the press. He was supposed to be a descendant of 
John Daye, a very eminent printer, in London, from 
1560 till 1583, but this cannot be accurately ascer- 
tained. He was, however, bom in London, and 
there served his apprenticeship to a printer. 

Daye having, by the direction irfthe magistrates 
and elders, erected the press and prepared the other 
parts of the apparatus, began business in the first 
month of 1639.* 

The first work which issued from the press w^ 
The FreemarCs Oath;'^\jQ which succeeded, An 

However eminent JJaye^s predecessors, as 
printers, might have been, it doe^ not appear 
that he was well skilled in the art j it is probable 
he was bred to the press j his work discovers 

liich is requisite for 

p. in. 

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In the ancient manuscript records of the colony^ 
are several particulars re^)ectmg Daye ; the first is 
as follows. 

" Att a General Court held at BosUhi on Ac 
Eighth Day of the Eighth moneth [October] 1641. 
Steeven Day being the first that sett vpon print- 
ing, is graunted three hundred acres of land^ where 
it may be convenient without prejudice to any 

In 1642, he owned several lots of land " in the 
bounds of Cambridge." He mortgaged cwtie of 
those lots as security for the payment of a cow, calf, 
and a heifer ; whence, we may conclude, te was 
not in very affluent circumstances.* 

* A simple memorandum of the &ct, made in the book 
of records, was then judged sufiicient, without recording a 
formal mortgage ; this appears by the first book of records 
kept in the colony, now in the registry of deeds of the county 
of Suffolk, Massachusetts, from which the following are eX"* 
tracted, viz. 

" Steven Day of Cambridge graunted vnto John Whyte 
twenty Seaven Acres of land laying in the Bounds of Cambridg 
for the payment of a cowe and a calf and a two yeares old 
heiffcr." Dated the 25th of the 5th month, 1642. 

" Steeven Day of Cambridg graunted vnto Nicholaus Da- 
vidson of Meadford, all his lands on the south side of Charles 
River, being aboute one hundred Acres in Cambridg bounds, 
for surety of payment of sixty pounds, with sundry provisicms.** 
Dated the 25th of the 5th month, 1642. 

" Steeven Day of Cambridg bound over to Thomas Croabyi 
five lots of land in the new field beyond the water in Cambridge 
number 24, 25, 26, 27, and 29th, in all sixety Acres, for the 
payment of fiftey seaven pounds, with liberty to take off all 
wood and timber,** &c. Dated 16th of 2d month, 1643. 

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In 1643, Daye, for some ofience, was by order 
of the general court taken into custody ; his crime 
does not appear on record ; the court *' ordered, 
that Steven Day shall be released, giving lOOl. Bond 
for appearance when called for/' 

Daye continued to print till about the close of 
of the year 1648, or the beginning of 1649 ; at 
which time the printing house was put under the 
management of Samuel* Green. Whether the re- 
signation of the office of manager of the printing 
house, was, or was not, voluntary in Daye, cannot 
be ascertained. Neither the press, nor the types, 
belonged to him ; he had been employed only as 
the master workman ; his wages were undoubtedly 
low ; and, it evidently appears, he was emban^assed 
with debts. His industry and economy might not 
be suited to the state of his finances ; circumstances 
like these might cause mr. Dunster, who it seems 
then conducted the printing business, to be dissatis- 
fied, and induce him to place the printing house in 
other hards ; or, it was possible, that Daye, find- 
ing himself and the press under a control he was 
unwilling to be subjected to, resigned his station. 

Daye remained in Cambridge ; and, some years 
after he had ceased to be master workman in the 
printing house, brought an action against presi- 
dent Dunster, to recover one hundred pounds for 
former services. The record of the decision of the 
county court in that case, is as follows. " Att a 
County Court held at Cambridge, April, 1656, 
Steeven Day Plant, against Mr. fienry Dunster^ 
Defft. in an action of the case for Labour and Ex- 
penses about the printing Presse and the utensils 

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and appurtenances thereof and the mannageing the 
said worke to the valine of one hundred pounds. 
The Jury finds for the Defit. costs of court.*' 

In 1655, he had not obtained the land granted 
to him in 1641. This appears by the following 
extracts from the public records, viz. 

" At a General Court of Elections holden at 
Boston 23d of May 1655, In answer to the Peticon 
of Steeven Day of Cambridge craving that the 
Graunt within the year 1641 of this Court of three 
hundred Acres of Land to him for Recompence of 
his Care and Charge in furthering the worke of 
Printing, .might be recorded, the Record whereof 
appears not,* the Court Graunt his Request and 
doeth hereby confirme the former graunt thereof 
to him." 

*^ At a General Court of Elections holden at 
Boston, 6th of May 1657, Steeven Day of Cam- 
bridg having often complayned that he hath suffered 
much dammage by Erecting the Printing Presse at 
Cambridg, at the Request of the Magistrates and 
Elders, for which he never had yett any Consider- 
able Sattisfaction, This Court doe Graunt him 
three hundred Acres of Land in any place not for- 
merly Graunted by this Court." 

In the records of 1667, is the following order 
of the General Court relative to another petiticni 
from Daye, viz. " In answer to the Peticon of 
Steeven Daye, It is ordered that the Peticoner hath 
liberty to procure of the Sagamore of Naslioway 

• The record appears to havQ bee^i regularly made in 164 K 
J extracted it from the original record book of the colony feir^ 
tliat year.' 

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[now Lancaster] by sale, or otherwise to the quan- 
tity of one hundred and fifty acres of Vpland, and 
this Court doeth also graunt the petitioner twenty 
Acres of lUeadow where he can find it free of 
former Graunts.** 

Daye ^^d in Cambridge, December 22, 1668, 
aged about 58 years. Rebecca Daye, probably his 
wife, died October 17, of the same year. 

I have found but f*v books printed by Daye. 
I have never seen his name in an imprint, and, I 
believe, it never appeared in one. Several books 
printed at Cambridge, by his successor, are without 
the name of the printer ; and, some of them do not 
give even the year in which they were printed; 
but I have identified the foUoMmg 

Catalogue of Books printed by Daye* 

1639. The Freeman's Oath. 

1639. An Almanack, calculated for New England;-*-By 
Mr. Herce, Mariner.— The year begins with March. 

1640. The Psalms in Metre, Faithfully translated fbr the 
Use, Edification, and Comfort of the Saints in publick and pri- 
Tate, especially in New England. Crown 8 vo. 300 pages. An 
endre copy, except the title page, is now in the possession of 
the rev. mr. Bentley, of Salem } this copy I have caref\illy ex- 
amined, and although the title page is wanting, and no imprint 
appears, I have no doubt but it is one of the impression of the 
Jirat book printed in this country. The type is Roman, of the 
size of small bodied english, entirely new, and may be called a 
very good letter. In this edition there are no Hymns or Spir- 
itual' Songs; it contains only the Psalms, the original long 
Preface, and " An Admonition to the Reader" of half a page, 
at the end of the Psalms after *' Finis."L.-This " Admonition" 
respects the tunes suited to the j^salms. The second edition 


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in 1647, contained a few SpiriCual Songs.--*The third' edidoQ, 
revised ^nd amended by president Dunster, Sec. had a large 
addition of Scripture Songs and Hymns, written by mr. Lyon. 
The first editbn abounds with Qrpographical errors, many of 
which were corrected in the second edition. This specimen 
of Daye*s printing does not exhibit the appearance of good 
workmanship. The compositor must have been wholly unac- 
quainted with punctuation. " The Prefece,** is the runmng 
title to that part of the work, " The.** with a period^ is on the 
left hand page, ajid ^ Preface.!' on the right. Periods are 
ofben omitted where they should be placed, and not seldom 
used where a comma only was necessary. Words of one syl- 
lable, at the end of lines, are sometimes divided by a hyphen; 
at other times, those of two, or more syllables, are divided 
without one ; the spelling is bad and irregular. One thing is 
very singular — at the head of every left hand page throughout 
the book, the word ^< psalm'' is spelled as it should be ; at 
the head of every right hand page, it has an £ final, thus, 
^< psALME." Daye was probably bred a pressman; the press- 
work is pstesable. The book is bound in parchment. {[Aj 

This was commonly called ^ The Bay Psalm Book," but 
aftei'ward, " The New England Version of th^ Psalms.** The 
rev. Thomas Prince, of Boston, who published a revised and 
improved edition in 175.8, gives, in his pre&ce, the follow- 
ing account of its origin and of the first edition piinted by 
Daye, viz. " By 1636 there were come over hither, near thirty 
pious and learned Ministers, educated in the Univeridtiea of 
England, and from the same exalted Principles of Scripture 
Purity in Religious Worship, they set themselves to translate 
the Psalms and other Scripture Songs into English Metre^as 
near as possible to the inspired Original. They committed 
this Work especially to the Rev. Mr. Weld, and the. Rev. John 
Eliot of Roxbury,* well acquainted witk the Hebrew, in which 
the Old Testament, and witl} the Greek, in which the New, 
were originally written. Ttiby finished the Psalms in 1640, 
which were first Printed by Mr. Daye that Year, at our Cam- 
bridge, and had the Honor of being the Mrst Jipok printed in 

* £liot who translated the Bible into the Indiin laogu^e. 

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tfKITBD STi!^T£a« 235 

te Navdi AM(fio% nad »$ for smi I Sid in «Aui vfhok New 

1641. A Catechism, agreed upon bf the £)4fif at th^ 
D^iire of tiie Q«m?«1 Court.t 

164 1 . JM9 of Ubtftiea. {This book contnio^ m bun- 
drod LawBy wl^h bad beaadrawnuppursuaot^oanorderof 
Ae genorri o^^n, b)r Nathaniel Wavdi pastor of the church 
in Ipswich. Mr. Ward hud been a mmeter in finglandy and 
itamcttlf a practidoner of law Uk tbejoourta of that ooucitry4 

164), An Almisiack for 164K [One or more Alntar 
QMka war* tflfexf jrear printed at the Cambrk%e press. In 
aU of thum the yowr begins with March.] 

1647. The Ps^ns in Metre. FakhfuUy translated &r 
the Uao) Edification and Comfert of the Saint», in p^bUc 
md ptiviite} espociaHsr in NQw*&igland. Cro. 8vd. 300 pi^s. 

[This was a second edition, somewhat amended, and a' few 
Spiritual Songs added. After this edition was published, the 
rev. Henry Dunster, president of Uarrard GoDege, and a 
littaster of the Oriental languages^ and mr. Ridtard Lyon, ed- 
ucated at a university in Europe, were appointed a committee 
further to revise and improve the Psalms, which service they 
performed in two or three years ; when another edition was 
published, with the addition of other scriptural Songs. This 
revised version went through numerous editions, in New- 
•ngland. It was reprinted in England and Scotland ; and 
was used in many of the Ei^ish dissenting congregations, as 
well as in a number of the churches in Scotland-^it was added 

* The RTennd annalist is here in antrror. Priating was introduced into 
Mexico, and other Spanish provinces in America, many years before the sec- 
tkmtnt of Ihe £ngUdi cabaics in Bhutth Ameika. 

f tliii work is mentiofled in governs Winthro|>'s Jeumat. 

:J The " Body of Liberties** had been revised and altered by the General 
Court, and sent to every town for further consideration. This year the 
Cottft agaia rtvmd md ameAdttd ibe Uiw§ coniatiMd in t^ b«ok« a^d pub. 
lished and established them 9$ ao ai^rMieni fot thee* ytifi. 

Winthrop's Journal, 

I 8F . ^ 

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to several English and Scotch editions of the Bible ; and, went 
through fifty editions, including those published in Europe.} 

1647. Danforth's [Samuel] Almanack for 1647. <<Cam- 
bridg, Printed 1647." 

1648. Danforth's [Samuel] Almanack. «Cambridg 
Printed 1648." The typography is rather better th«n usual. 

1648. The Laws ofthe Colony of Massachusetts; drawn 
up by order of, and adopted by, the General Court, &c. Folio. 
I have not found a copy of this work. 

1648. [About.] Astronomioal Calculations. By a Youth. 
[UrianOakes, then a student at Cambridge ; where he was, af- 
terward, settled in the ministry, and elected president of Har- 
vard college.] The Almanack had the mottxy^'Parvum parva 
decent s aed ineat sua gratia fiarvia. The year ki which this 
was published is not ascertained, nor by -virhom printed.* 

1649. Danforth's [Samuel] Almanack. ^Cambridg, 

Beside the works already enumerated, there were 
many others printed by Daye ; but, no copies of 
them are now to be found. 

Although I have not been able to discover a 
copy of the laws, printed in 1648 ; yet, respecting 
this edition, there is the following record, viz. 

*' At a General Court of Elections held at Bos- 
ton 8th month', 1648. It is ordered by the Court 
that the Booke of Lawes now at the Presse may be 
sould in Quires at 3s. the booke provided that every 
member of this Court shall have one without price, 
and the Auditor Generall and Mr. Joseph HiUs ; for 
which there shall be fifty in all taken up to be so 
disposed by the appointment of this Court.'* [i] 

* It U mentioned by Mither im hit Mignalia, by Holmct in hit Hittory 
•f Cambridge, in Hitt, Col.— and, by othm. 

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W A s the son of Percival and Ellen Green ; who, 
with their children and other relations, were among 
the first settlers of Cambridge ;* they emigrated 
from England, and arrived with governor Win- 
throp, in 1630. Green and his family came in the 
ship in which the hon. Thomas Dudley, deputy 
governor, was a passenger.f Samuel Green was 
then only sixteen years of age. He was in Cam- 
bridge eight years before Daye came from England ; 
but was unknown as a printer until about 1649, 
nearly eleyen years after Daye's ^rival. 

Some ^Titers, since the year 1733, erroneously 
mention Green as the " first who printed in New- 
england, or in North America," 

All the records I have examined are silent res- 
pecting the cause of Daye's relinquishing the man- 

♦ The records of the county of Middlesex inform us, that 
four sons of Percival Green, were living in 169 1, viz. Samuel, 
Nathaniel, Edward, and^ Thomas— -a fifth son, whose namie 
was John, died some years before ; Percival had a brother, 
Bartholomew, who also settled in Cambridge. After the death 
of Percival Green, his widow married Thomas Fox. In 1 69 1, 
Samuel Greenland his brothers sued Fox for recovery of a lot 
of land in Cambridge, that he then held in possession, whicK 
had belonged to their father. 

t Boston News-Letter, Jan. 30, IfaS.. 

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236 HISTOHY ^t rfttKtlNC. 

agement of the press ; nor do they give any reascm 
why his place in the printing house was supplied 
by the appointment of Green. The similari^ of 
Green's first prmting to thaet of Daye^s, induces me 
to believe that Green was unacquainted with the art, 
when he undertook the management of the press, 
and that he was assisted by Daye, who continued to 
reside in Cambridge ; and, whose poverty, probably, 
induced him to become, not only an instructer, but, 
a journeyman to Green. 

By die records of the colony, it appears, that the 
President of the college stifl had the direction of the 
concerns of the printing house, and made contracts 
for jjrinting ; and, that he was responsible for die 
productions of the press, until licensers were ap- 
pointed. I have extracted the following from the 
records of 1650 and 1654. 

'* At a third meeting of the General Court of 
Elections at Boston, the 15th of October 1650, It 
is ordered that Richard Bellingham, Esquir, the 
Secretary and Mr. Hills, or aney Two of them, are 
appointed a Comittee to take Order for the printing 
the Lawes Agreed vppon to be printed, to determine 
of all Things in reference thereunto. Agreeing with 
the President fFor the printing of them with all Ex- 
pedition and to Alter the tide if there be Cawse."* 

*^ At a General Court of Electicms, held at Bos- 
ton, die third of May 1654. It is ordered by tki& 
Court that henceforth t]he Secretary shaH, within 
tenn dayes after this present sessions, and so from 
time to time deliver a copie of all Lawes that are to 

• MS. Records of the Colony, Vol. 3. p. 40. 

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be published^ unto the President or printer who 
diail fiuthwith make an Impression thereof to the 
noumber of five^ Six, or Seven hundred as the 
Court shall order, all which Coppies the Treasurer 
shall take of and pay for in wheate, or otherwise to 
Content, for the Noumber of five hundred, after the 
rate of one penny a Sheete, or eight shillings a 
hundred for five hundred sheetes of a Sorte, for so 
many sheetes as the bookes shall contajne, and the 
Treasurer shall disterbute the bookes to every 
magistrate one, to every Court one, to the Secreta- 
ry one, to- each towne where no magistrate dwells 
cme, and the rest amongst the Townes that beare 
publick charge wi& this jurisdiction, according to 
the iKHimber of freemen in each Towne. And the 
order that Ingageth the Secretary to transcribe cop- 
pies for die Townes and others, is in that respect 

** At a General Court held at Boston 9th of June 
1654 Upon Conference with Mr. Dunster, [presi- 
dent of the college] and the printer in reference 
to the imprinting of the Acts of the General Court, 
whereby we understand some inconveniencies may 
accrue to the Printer by printing that Law which 
redtes the agreement for printing. It is therefore 
Ordered, that the said Law be not put forth in print, 
but kept amongst die written records of this 

* I have quoted ancient records in itiany instances, as they 
not only give fects correctly, but convey to us the langus^e, 8cc. 
ef the periods in which they were made. 

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Whether Green was, or was not acquainted wiA 
printing, he certainly, some time after he began that 
business, prosecuted it in such a way as, generally, 
met approbation. He might, by frequenting the 
printing house,^ when it was under the care of Daye, 
have obtained that knowledge of the art, which 
enabled him, with good workmen, to carry it on ; 
be this as it may, it is certain that as he proceeded 
with the execution of the business, he seems to 
have acquired more consequence as a printer ; his 
work, however, did not discover that skill of the 
compositor, or the pressman, that was afterwards 
shewn when Johnson, who was sent over to assist 
in printing the Indian Bihlcj arrived. 

In 1658, Green petitioned the general court ioc 
a grant of land. The court took his petition into 
consideration, and determined as follows, viz. 

*^ At the Second Sessions of the General Court 
held at Boston the 19th of October 1658, in answer 
to the Peticon of Samuel Green, of Cambridge, 
printer. The Court judgeth it meete for his En- 
couragement to graunt him three hundred acres of 
Land where it is to be found." 

In 1659, the records of the colony contain the 
following order of the general court. ^* It is order- 
ed by this Court that the Treasurer shall and hereby 
is empowered to disburse out of the Treasury tvhat 
shall be necessary tending towards the printing of 
the Lawes, to Samuel Greene, referring to his 
Pajnes therein or otherwise," This edition of the 
Laws was ordered to be printed December 1658, 
and was finished at the press, October i6th, 1660. 

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From the MS. records of the cottimissicmers of 
the united colonies, who were agents for the cor- 
poration, in England, for propagating the gospel 
among the Indians, in Newengland, we find, that 
in 1656, there were two presses in Cambridge 
both under the care of Green. One belonged, to 
the college, which undoubtedly was the press that 
mr. Glover purchased in England, and Dayc 
brought over to America ; the other, was the prop- 
erty of the corporation in England. There were 
types apjiropriated to each. 

The corporation, for a time, had their printing 
executed in London; but, when the Indian youth 
had been taught to read, &c. at the school at Cam- 
bridge, established for the purpose, and mr. Eliot 
and mr. Pierson, had translated Primers and Cate- 
chisms into the Indian language, for the common 
use of the Indians, and eventually traitslated the Bi- 
ble, it became necessary that these works should be 
printed in America, under the inspection of the 
translators. For this reason 'the corporation sent 
over a press and types ;, furnished every printing nrn- 
terial for their work ; and, even paid for mending of 
the press, when out of repair. In September, 1654, 
the commissioners in the united colonies found that 
a suflScient quantity of paper and types for the pur- 
pose of executing the works wluch were projected, 
had not been received; they, therefore^ wrote to 
the corporation in England for an augmentation to 
the value of 201.* The articles arrived in 1655. 

Gr^en judging it necessary to have more types 
fortlie Indian work, in 1658 petitioned the general 

• A}1 the sums are in sterling money. 

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court to tliat purpose. Tl» court decided thereon 
as foUows, viz. 

" At a General Court holden at Boston 19th of 
May 1658. In answer to the Peticon of Samud 
Green, prmter, at Cambridge, The Court Judgeth k 
meete to Comend the consideration therof to the 
Comissioners of the United Colonjes at their next 
meeting that so if they see meete they may write tx> 
the Corporation in England for the procuring of 
twenty pounds worth more of letters for die vse of 
the Indian CoUedg." 

When the ipress and types, &c. soit by the cor- 
poration in England, for printing the Bible and other 
books in the Indian Language, arriyed, they were 
added to the printing materials bdonging to the cqI<- 
lege, and, altogether made a well furnished printing 
house ; the types were neat, and the feces of Aem 
as handsome as any that were made at that time; 
they consisted of small founts of nonpareil, brevier, 
long primer, small pica, pica, en^ish, great primer^ 
and double pica ; also, small casts of long primer 
and pica Hebrew, Greek, and blacks. 

The building occupied for a printing house, wad 
well suited to the business* It had been designed 
for a college for the Indian youth.* 

♦ General Daniel Gookin, who lived in Cambridge, tad 
who, in 1662, was appointed one of the two first licensers of 
the press, mentions in his work, entitkd *< Historical Collec- 
tions of the Indians, of New England/* dedicated to kii^ 
Charles II, that " the house erected fi>r the Indian college^ 
built strong and substantial of brick, at the expense of the Cor- 
poration in England, for prqwigating the Gospel in New Eng- 
land, and cost between 3001. and 4001. not beii^ improved for 

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Green now began prmting the Bible in the Indian 
language, which, even at this day, would be thought 
a work of labor, and must, at that early period of the 
setdement of the country, have been considered a bu* 
siness difficultto accomplish, and of great magnitude^ 
It was a work of so much consequence as to arrest 
the attention of the nobility and gentry of England, 
as well as that of king Chaiies, to whom it was ded- 
icated. The press of Harvard college, in Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, was, for a time, as celebrated 
as the presses of the universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge, in England. Having obtained many 
particulars relating to the printing of this edition of 
the Bible, I will follow Green through that arduous 

In 1659, Hezekiah Usher, merchant, and book- 
seller, of Boston, -agent for tlie corporation, charges 
that body 40 L paid Green for printing " the Psalms 
andMr. Pierson's Cattechisme,^' fecc. and credits 80 1. 
in printing types ; he, also, gives credit for one hun- 
dred and four reams of paper, sent by tlie corpora- 
tion, toward printing the New Testament " in the 
Indian language." The corporation, in a letter 
dated London, April 28, 1660; and directed to 
the commissioners, observes,. " Conseming youer 
Printing the New Testament in the Indian Lan- 
guage, a sheet whereof you haue transmitted to vs, 
wee concurr with youerselues therin, and doe ap- 

thc ends intended, by reason of the death and failing of Indian 
Scholars, was taken to accommodate English scholars, and for 
placing and using the Printing Press belonging to the Col- 
lege," &c. This building was taken down many years since. 
It stood not for from the other buildings of the college. 
I 2G 

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proue 6f that prouision you have made for printings 
the same conceiueing and offering as our judgments 
that it is better to print fifteen hundred than but a 
thousand ; hopeing that by incurragement from Si- 
on Collidge, with whom we haue late conference, 
you may bee enabled to print fifteen hundred of the 
Ould Testament likewise*'* 

Udier, in bis account rendered to the corpora- 
tion, in 1660, debits the stock of the corporation 
with two hundred reams of printing paper, " bought 
since he rendered his last account," and with print- 
ing ink and types, and " setting them in thepresse" 
the gro6s sum of /'120 1 8 ; and, to " cash paid Mr. 
Green for distributing the ffont of letters and print- 
ing six sheets of the New Testament in Indian att 
four pounds per sheet, £24^^ 

In September 1661, the commissioners, who 
that year met at Plymouth, wrote to mr. Usher; 
andy among other things, thanked him for his " care 
in prouiding Matterials and furdiering the printing 
of the Bible, and desire the continuance of the same 
vntill it bee Issved ;" and to " pay Mr. Green for 
printing the same as formerly ; also ta *' demaun^ 
and receiue of Mr. Green the whole Impression of 
the New Testament in Indian, now finished ; and 
take care for the binding of two himdred of them 
strongly, and as speedily as may bee with leather or 
as may bee most serviceable for the Indians ; and 
^eliuer them forth as you shall haue direction from 
any of the comissioners for the time being of 
which keep an exact account that soe it may bee 
seen how they are Improved and disposed of; alsoe^ 
wee pray you take order for the printing of a thous- 

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and coj^yes of Mr. Eliotts CaticWsmes which 
we vnderstand are much wanting amongst the 
Indians^ which being finished, Recdue from the 
Presse and ^spose of them according to order 

The agent, in his account current with the cor- 
poration in 1662, has, among other charges, one for 
" Disbursements for printing die Bible as per bill 
of particulars j^234 11 8."* 

This bill was only for one year ending Sep- 
tember 1662. At that time Green, by direction, 
gave to the commissioners-^ 
" An account of die Vtensils for Printing belong- 
ing to the Corporation, in the costody of Samuell 
Green of Cambridge Printer and ^uen in vn- 
der his hand, viz. 
The presse with what belongs to it with one tinn 
pann and two frisketts. 

* The following is the bill of particulars, a3 charged by 
Green, viz. 

To mending ofthewindowes of the printing house, £\ 5 

To pack thrid and ueUum, .5 6 

To 2 barrells of Inke and leather for balls, 20 

To hide for the presse being broken, 1 

To 160 Reams of paper Att 6s. per i^eam, 48 

To printing the Title sheet to the New Testament, 1 

To printing 1500 Cattechismes, 15 
To printing 21 sheets of the Old Testament, att 

31b. 10 s. per sheet Mr. Johnson being absent, 73 10 
To printing 25 sheets with his healp att 50 shill, 

per sheet, 62 10 

To binding 200 Testaments att 6 d. a peoce, 5 

To Mr. lohnsons board, 7 5 9 

£2U 11 8 

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Item two table of Cases of letters [types] with one 

ode [odd] Case. 
Item the fFoatt of letters together with Imperfections 

that came since. 
Item one brasse bed, one Imposing Stone. 
Item two barrells of Inke, 3 Chasqs, 2 composing 

stickes one ley brush 2 candlestickes one for the 

Case the other for the Presse* 
Item the frame and box for the sestaren [water 

Item the Riglet brasse rules and sc^bard the 

Sponge 1 galley 1 mallett 1 sheeting [shooting} 

sticke and furniture. for the chases. 
Item the letters [types] that came before that were 

mingled with th^ coUedges.'' 
At the meeting of the commissioners m Sep* 
temlDer 1663, the agent charges the corporation 
with the balance due for printing the Bible, which 
he paid that month to Green, in full for his services, 
jf 140 12 6. Green, at this meeting, gave in an 
account of all the printing paper he had received at 
ililFerent times, from the corporation, and their 
agent, amounting to 469 reams; 368 reams 'of 
which he had used in printmg the Bible, 30 ream^ 
in printing two Catechisms, and Uiere remained in 
his hands 71 reams. 

At the meeting of the commissioners in Sep- 
tember 1664, among the articles charged in the 
rgent's account with the corporation, was the fol- 
lowing bill of sundiies paid to Green, viz. 
" To expences about the. presse for mend- 
< ing it; makcing new Chases, and to... 

twenty scauen skins for balls &c. £ 4 4 4 

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To two smale Chests to put the Bibles in 

[20 copies] that were sent to Eng- 

land, 5 

To printing the Indian Psalmes to go with 

the Bible, 13 sheets att 2 lb per sheet, 26 
To printing the Epistle dedicatory to the 

Bible, 10 

To printing Baxter^s Call in Indian, eight 

sheets at 50s. per sheet, 20 

Ta printing the Psalter in Indian, 9 sheets 

at 20s. 9 

To one yeares board of lohnson, 15 

The agent, in his account for 1669, charges, 
"Cash paid Green for binding and clasping 200 
Indian Bibles at 2 s. 6 d. £25. — For binding 200 
Practice of Piety at 6d. £S. — ^For do. 400 Baxter's 
Call at 3s. per 100, 12s." &c. 

I have made a calculation from the documents 
I have seen, and find the whole expense attending 
the carrying through the press, 1000 copies of the 
Bible ; 500 additional copies of the New Testa- 
ment ; an edition of Baxter's Call to the Uncon- 
verted ; an edition of the Psalter, and two editions 
of Eliot's Catechism, all in the Indian language, 
including the cost of the types for printing the Bible, 
and the binding a part of them, and also the binding of 
a part of Baxter's Call, and the Psalters, amounted 
to a fraction more than 1200 1. sterling. The Bible 
was printed on a fine paper of pot size, apd in-^quarto. 
After the first edition of the Bible, and some other 
books in the Indian language, had been completed 
at the press belonging to the corporation for propa- 
gating the gospel, &c. the coiporation made a prcs- 

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ent of their (Hrinting materials to the college. On 
this occasion the government oi the c(dlege ordered 
as follows. 

" Harvard Colledge Sept 20, 1670. The hew- 
orable Corporation for the Indians having ocdered 
their Printing Presse, letters, and Vtensils to be 
delivered to the Colledge, the Treasurer is ordered 
forthwith to take order for the receiveing thereof, 
and to dispose of the same for the CoUedge use and 
improvement"* Green, by direction, gave to Ac 
president a schedule of the articles, and valued them 
at 80 1. That sum must have been very low. With 
these types he began another edition of the Indian 
Bible in 1680, and completed it in 1686. 

Some small religious treatises having been pub- 
lished in 1662, whidi the general court, or some of 
the ruling clergy, judged rath^ too liberal, and 
tending to open the door of heresy, licensers of the 
press were appointed ;t but, on the 27th of May, 
1663, tiie general court " Ordered that the Printing 
Presse be at liberty as formerly, till this Court shall 
take further order, and the late order is hereby re- 
pealed, "t 

After this order was passed, a more free use of 
the press seems to have been made ; this imme- 
diately arrested the attention of government, and 

• College records. Vol. 1. 

t Major Daniel Gookin and the rev. Jonathan Mitchell 
were the first appointed licensers of the press. [Ancient 
records of the colony.] 

t Ancient records of the colony. 

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soon awakened their fears ; and the foUoMdng rig^d 
edict was in consequence passed, viz. 

*^ At a Genleral Court called by order from the 
Govemour, Deputy Govemour, and other Magis- 
trates, held at Boston 19th of October 1664. For 
the preventing of Irregularyties and abuse to the ?iu- 
tharity of this Country, by the Printing Presse, it is 
ordered by this Court and the authority thereof, that 
theeu- shall no Printing Presse be allowed in any 
Townc within this Jurisdiction, but in Cambridge, 
nor shall any person or persons jkesume to print 
any Copie but by the allowance first had and ob- 
tayned under the hands of such as this Court shall 
from tjme to tjme Impower ; the President of the 
Collec^, Mr. John Shearman, Mr. Jonathan Mitch- 
ell and Mr. Thomas Shepheard, or any two of them 
to survey such Copie or Coppics and to prohibit 
or allow the same according to this order ; and in 
case of non observance of this order, to forfeit the, 
Presse to the Country and be disabled from Vsing 
any such profession within this Jurisdiction for the 
tjme to Come^ Provided this order shall not extend 
to the obstruction of any Coppies which this Court 
shall Judge meete to order to be published in 

Government appears not only to have required a 
compliance with the above law, but to have exer- 
cised a power independent of it. The licensers of 
the press had permitted the reprinting of a book 
written by Thomas a Kempis, entitled " Imitation 
of Christ,'' &c. a work well known in the Christian 

* Ancient MS. records of the colony. 

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world* This treatise was represented to the court 
by some of its members, in their session in 1667, as 
being heretical ; whereupon, the court passed an or- 
der, as follows.—" This Court being informed that 
there is now in the Presse reprinting, a book that Im- 
itates of Christ, or to that purpose, written by Thom- 
as Kempis, a popish minister, wherein is contayned 
some things that are lesse safe to be infused amongst 
the people of this place. Doe comend it to the licens- 
ers of the Presse the more full revisale thereof, and 
that in the mcane tjme there be no further progresse 
in that work*'^ 

In 1671, the general court ordered an edition of 
the laws, revised, Sec. to be printed. Heretofore the 
laws had been published at the expense of the colony. 
John Usher, a wealthy bookseller, who was then, or 
soon after, treasurer of the provmce, made interest 
t6 have the publishing ' of tliis edition on his own 
iiccount. This circumstance produced the first 
instance, in diis country, of the security of copy 
right by law. Usher contracted with Green to print 
the work ; but, suspecting that Green might print 
additional copies for himself, or that Johnson, who 
was permitted to print at Cambridge, would reprint 
from his copy — ^two laws, at the request of Usher, 
were passed to secure to him this partiQular work ; 
these laws are copied from the manuscript rec- 
ords ; the first was in May, 1672, and is as fol- 
lows, viz. 

" In answer to the petition of John Vsher, the 
Court Judgeth it meete to order, and be it by this 
Court ordered and Enacted, That no Printer shall 
print any more Coppies than are agreed and paid 

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for by thfe bxvner of the Coppie or CoppleSj hoi* 
diafl he hot aiiy otl^r reprint or make Sale of any of 
the same without the said Owncr^s consent upott 
ihe fotfeitlire and penalty of ti^ble the whole chai^ 
of Printing aiid paper, of the whole quantity psiid 
fbr by the owner of the Coppie, to th^ said dWiier 
or his Assigns;*' 

When the bocJk Wa§ published, tfsher, nttt sat- 
isfied with the law already made in his favor, peti* 
tioned the court to secure him the copy right for 
seven year^. In compliance with the prayer of hisf 
petition, the courts in May, 1673$ decreed as fol- 

** John V^er Having been at the Sole Chardge 
of the Impressioh of the booke of Lawes, and pre- 
sented the Govemour, Magistrates, Secretary, as 
atlso every Deputy, and the Clark of the deputation 
With otie. The Court Judgeth it meete to order 
■fliat for at least Seven yeaf^, Vhlesse he shall have 
sold thefti all before that tjme, there shall be no oth- 
er or furtW Impression made by any person thereof 
In this Jurisdiction, under the penalty this court 
Sihadil see cause to lay on any tibat shall adventure irt 
that Kind, besides making ffull sattisfaction to the 
S2tid Jno Vshe^r or his Assigns, for his chardge and 
damage thereon. Voted by the whole court met 

Another editioh of the laws of the colony, revised, 
was put to the press in 1685. Respecting this edi- 
tion, the court ** Ordered, for the greater expedi- 
tion in the present revisal of the Laws they shall be 
sent to the Presse Sheete by Sheete, and the Treas- 
urer shall make piayment to the Frinf er fbr the same, 

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Paper and work; and Elisha Cook and Samuel 
Sewsdl Esqrs. are desired to oversee the Presse 
about that work.'' 

, There is among the records of the colony for 
1667, one as follows. — " Layd out to Ensign Sam- 
uel Green of Cambridge printer three himdred 
Acres of land in the wilderness on the north of 
Merrimacht River on the west side of Haverhill, 
bounded on the north east of two little ponds begin- 
ning at a red oak in Haverhill/' &c. " The Court 
allowed of the retume of this farme as laid out.." 

Green continued printing till he became aged. 

By the records of the earliest English proprie- 
tors of Cambridge it appears, that Green was the 
owner of several valuable tracts of land in and about 
that town. 

Green often mentioned to his children, that for 
some time after his arrival in Newengland, he, and 
several others^ were obliged to lodge in large empty 
casks, having no other shelter from the weather ; 
so few were the huts then erected by our hardy and 
Venerable ancestors. He had nineteen children; 
eight by his first wife, and eleven by a second, who 
was daughter of Mr. Clarke, an elder in the church 
in Cambridge^ and to whom he was married Feb. 
23, 1662.* Nine of the children by the second 
wife lived to the age of fifty two years, or upwards. 

The Cambridge company of militia elected 
Green to be their captain ; and, as such, he bore a 
commission for thirty years. He took great pleas- 
ure in military exercises ; and, when he became^ 

* Middlesex records of marriages and deaths. Vol. 3. 


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through age, too infirm to walk to the field, he in- 
sisted on being carried there in his chair, on days of 
muster, that he might review and exercise his com- 

He was for miany years chosen town clerk* 
And, in the Middlesex records, vol. 1, is the fol- 
lowing particular, viz. 

** At a jCounty Court held at Cambridge the 
5th 8th month 1652, Samuel Green is alowed 
Clearke of the Writts for Cambridge." 

Green was a pious and benevolent man, and as 
such was greatly esteemed. He died, at Cambridge, 
January 1st, 1702, aged eighty seven years. 

Until the commencement of the revolution in 
1775, Boston was not without one or more printers 
by the name of Green. These all descended from 
Green of Cambridge. tSomc of his descendants 
have, for nearly a century past, been printers in 
Connecticut. One of them, in 1740, removed to 
Annapolis, and established the Maryland Gazette j 
which is still continued by the family. 

No printing was done at Cambridge afterGreen's 
death. The press was established in this place sixty 
years ; and, about fifty of them. Green, under gov- 
ernment, was the manager of it. He was printer to 
the college as long as he continued in business. 

Soon after his decease, the printing materials 
were removed from Cambridge and, probably, sold. 
It does not appear, that the corporation of the col- 
lege Owned any types after this time, till about the 
year 1718, when mr. Thomas Hollis, of London, a 
great benefactor to the college, among other ^fts 

• Boston News-Letter, Jan. 1733. 

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^S^ HISTp»V Of raiNTiKc. 

pi^sef^ted to tfep universily, ^ fount, w cagt, erf H^^ 
brew, ^ another of Greek types, bo^ of th^m 
n^re of Ui^sige of long primer, Tl^Gre^\va&iio^ 
used till 1761, when the government of the cQllege 
bad a wwk p?mt§d entitled, ^ieta$ et Qratulatio 
CoHegii Qmt^brigienm ^mdNamngka^ d^oated 
to king George the third, oi\ bis ^4?e$i^€m to thQ 
llirone ; two, of these poe^oftl cssftya being written 
in Qreelk, called these types into u§je, Thiey were 
never used but ^t that time, ^d w^re, m January, 
4764, destroyed by the flre that consumed Harvard 
IjistU, one of the college buildings^ in which tibe typoi 
and college library, we^e deposited^ the east ctf'He*! 
bjrew escaped, ha\^g been sent to Bwton some 
time before, to print profi^ssor Sewali'^ Hebrew 

The foHowiag is a catalogue of the books that I 
have ascertain^ w^« jwiirted by Green, and by 
Green a^d Jolmson; the greater p^ of them I have 
^een, Those^in which Marmaduke Jk>hnsoa was 
concerned, haye the names of the printers added* 

Catahgue of Books printed bji Green, 

- 1649. « A iPlatform of Church Discipline gathered out 
of the word of God : and agreed upon by the Elders ; aii4 
Messengers of the Churches assembled in the Synod at Cam- 
bridge in New England to be presented to the Churdies 9^ 
Cienprall Court for their consideration and acceptance, in the 
Lord. The Eight Moneth Anno 1649. Prmted by 5 G at 
Cambridge in New England and are to be Sold at Cambridge 
and Boston Anno Dom : 1649.'* Quarto, of pot size, 44 pages* 
[This book appears, to be printed by one who was but littlt 
acquainted with the typograpliic art i it is a ftoher proof that 

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VVtrtV STATB8. S53 

QiMftwOBHiNibredloit; a&d» tlut tlua was one q( the fint 
haaik^ bom the press, a&sr he begon printing. 

The l37pe is new pic% or one but little worn ; the pres» 
work is very bad, and that of the ewe no better. The punctua? 
tion in the title is exactly copied ; the compositor did not seem 
to know the use of points ; there are spaceaf be^sre commas^ 
periods, parentheses, &c. The head of « The Prefece" is in 
tw^ lines of large ca|dtats, but has no point afbr itr^i^nor i» 
Hiere any after ^ FINIS" which word is in two line ct^tida 
at the end of the book. The pages of the Pre&ce have a nm^ 
idng title; mththe folio, or nimiber of the pages, in brapk-* 
•ts immediately following in the centre of a line, thi^s^ 
The Preface [2] 

The printer did not aj^ar to ha^e had any acquaints 
ttiaoe with signatures. The book is printed and folded in 
wlic^e tweets, without insets; the title page is printed sep«- 
irat^y • in the first sheet, at the bottom of the first page, is 
«^ ji a," third page " Aaa^* fifth page ^ Aaay^ seventh page 
^ Aaaa^ The second sheet has llie signature A at the bot- 
tom of the first page of that sheet; " Aa," third page ; ** A aa," 
fifth page; and, ^ A aaa,'* seventh pi^. The thi^d sheet be- 
gins with B, which, with the following sheets, have aa man^ 
signatures to each as the first and secoiul ; but ail, excepting 
tihose on the first and third pages of a sheet, were uncommon, 
and have not any apparent meaning. Every part of the work 
shews the want of common skill in the compositor. Facs, and 
omamented large capitals cut on wood, are used at the begin- 
iiing of theprefoce,and at the first chapter of the work. Ahead 
piece of fiowers is placed at the beginning of the text, and aline 
of flowers between each chapter. In the book are many ref- 
erences to scripture, in marginal notes, on bre\ier. Letters 
of abbreviation are frequently used-*-Hiiuch as comend, allow- 
ftce, comply, acqualt, fr5, offece, ofTeded, partaklg, cdfession, 
&c. The spelling is very ancient, aa els, forme, vpon, owne, 
wildemes, powr, eythei> wee, acknowledg, minde, doctrin, 
theHn, wherin, himselfe, patrone, choyce, sovaraigne, sinne, 
aadsfie, greifo, &c. As I believe this book to be one of the 
first printed by Qjreen^ I have been thus partkular in describe 

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ingit; soon after thispeiiodhisprinting was much improfred.] 
[[The Platform^ &c. was reprinted in London, in 1653) for 
<^ Peter Cole> at the Sign (^ the Printing Press, inComhill, 
near the Royal Exchange.**] 

1650. Norton's [John] Heart of New England rent at the 
Bla^hemies of the present Generatbn. 4to. 58 pages. 

\6S0. The Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs of the 
Old and New Testament, faithfully translated into English 
Metres For the Use, Edification and Comfort of the Saints in 
publick and private, especially in New England. 2 Tim. .3: 
16, 17. Col. 3: 16. Eph. 5: 18, 19. James 5: 13." Crown 
8vo. 308 pages. [This was the Newengland version of the. 
Psalms, revised and improved by president Dunster and Rich- 
ard Lyon, mentioned by the rev. Thomas Prince.] 

1653. Eliot's [John] Catechism. [In the Indian lan- 
guage. Printed at the expense of the corporation in England 
for propagating the gospel among the Indians in Newengland.] 

1656. An Almanack for the year of our Lord 1656. By 
T. S. Philomathemat. Foolscap. 8vo. 16 pages. [This Al- 
manack I own. It appears that an Almanack was annually 
printed at Cambridge, from the first establishment of the press, 
till near the close of the 17th century. Many of them I have 
seen, and those I shall more particularly take notice of.] 

1657. An Almanack for the year of our Lord 1657. By 
S. B. Philomathemat. Foglscap. 8vo. 16 ps^es. [I have a 
copy of this.] 

1657. Mather's [Richard] Farewell Exhortation to the 
Church and People of Dorchester, in New England. << Print- 
ed at Cambridge.'* 4to. 28 pag^. 

1658. Pierson*s Catechism. [In the Indian language, 
for the use of the Indians in Newhaven jurisdiction.] 

1659. Version of the Psalms in the. Indian Language. 

1661. The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Je- 
sus Christ. Translated into the Indian Language and ordered 
to be printed by the Commissioners of the United Colonies in 
New England, at the Charge and with the Consent of the Cor- 
poration in England, for the Propagationof the Gospel amongst 
the Indians in New England. The Indian title is thus, Wus- 
ku Wuttestamentum Nul-Lordumun Jesus Christ Nuppo- 

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quohwussuaeneumun. With marginal notes. Printed by 
Samuel Chreen and Marmaduke Johmon, The whole in th« 
Indian language, except having two title pages, one of which 
is in English. Quarto. [X:] [Some copies were dedicated 
to the king.] 

1661. Eliot's [John] Catechism. [In the Indian lan- 
guage.] Second edition. [1000 copies were printed.] 

1661. The Psalms of David in Indian Verse, entitled, 
Wame Ketoohemae Uketoohomaongash David. 4to. [This 
Indian version accompanied the New Testament, and when 
the Old Testament was finished they were bound up together.] 

1662. Propositions to the Elders and other Messengers 
of the Churches, concerning Baptisme. Recommended by 
the General Court. 4to. 48 pages. 

1 662 . Answer of the Elders and other Messengers of the 
Churches assembled at Boston 1662, to the Questions propos- 
ed to them by order of the Honoured General Court. 4toi 
60 pages. 

1662. An Almanack for 1662. [Title page lost.] 

1662. Anti-Synodalia Scripta Americana. By John Al- 
lin of Dedham. 4to. 38 pages. [No printer's name nor year 
are mentioned. This was reprinted in London.] 

1663. The Holy Bible: Containing the Old Testament 
and the New. Translated into the Indian Language, and or- 
dered to be printed by the Commissioners of the United Col- 
onies in JS/ev> England^ at the Charge and witli the Consent 
of the Corfioration in England for the Profiagation of the Gos* 
pel amongst the Indians in New England. [/] Quarto. Print- 
ed by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson. It had mar- 
ginal notes ; and also an Indian title page, for which see the 
second edition in 1685. [This work was printed with new 
types, full &ced bourgeois on brevier body, cast for the pur- 
pose, ahd on good paper. The New Testament which was 
first printed in 1661, was on the same types and like paper. 
The Old Testament was three years in the press. I have a 
copy of the Old and New Testament, with the Version of the 
Psalms, complete. It is a great typographical curiosity. A 
dedication, see note [X:] to king Charles II, was prefixed to a 
number of copies, ] 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

StS6 HISTORY ot t^Rllirttwa. 

166S. An Almanack lor 1663. By HfnA ChiOiibei^* 
(|iX«^MiSii(. Printed by S. tii^en and M. Johnson. 

1663. Darenport^s [ John^ of N^w Haven] Another Essajr 
for inrefttigation of the Truth in ahswer to tliro Questions icon'* 
cemingy I. The subject of Baptisme. II. The GoAsociatiM 
of Churches. Cambridge. PrhitAd by Samuel Green and 
Marmaduke Johnson, 4td. 82 page&. 

1663. Shepard's Church Membership. 4td. 50 pages. 

1663. Shepard's Letter on the Church Membership 6f 
Children ahd their Right to Baptisme. Printed by S. Clreeft 
tahd M. Johnlion. 

. Certain Positions out of the Holy Scriptures, pre^ 

missed to the whole ensuing Discburse. PMHted at Cam- 
bridge. 4to. 80 pages. [Year and printer's name not Men- 

1663. Cotton's [John] Discourse on Civil Government 
in a New Plantation. 4to. 24 pages. Printed by S. Gree& 
and M. Johnson. 

1663. Higginson'6 [John] Cause of 6od ahd his People 
in New England. An Election Sermon at Bost^^, 1663. 
4to. 28 pages. 

1664. Shepard's Sincere Convert. ISmo. 

1664. Allin's [John, of Dedham] Anti-^ynodalia Amer- 
icana. 4to. 100 pages. Second edition. Reprinted at Cam- 
bridge by S. G. & M. J. for Hezekiah Usher of Boston. 

1664. Animadversions upon the Anti-Synodalia Amer- 
icana, a Treatise printed in Old England in the Name of the 
Dissenting Brethren in the Synod held at Boston in Neweng- 
laiid 1662, and written by John AUin, Pastor of the Church in 
Dedham. 4t6. 86 pages. Printed by S. Green ahd M. John- 

1664. Defence of the Answers and Arguments of the 
Sjmod met at Boston in the yeare 1662. 4to. 150 ps^es. 
Printed by S. Green Sc M. Johnson, for Hezekiah Usher of 

1664. Defence of the Synod by some of the Elders. 4ft 
pages, small type. Printed by S. G. & M. J. for Hezekiah 
Usher of Boston. 


.Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

firm? WAT^B* S5? 

ifi^\li9t Wm Lwgliag^ 1^ Oip HiQv. JqM Eli^l* ^»^ 8!V% 

pmi^, JWJirtWfted,. a* I. ^ i* oftj^ tl^^r qw with oal<J^p]w^ 

«%lW»^.Q-«f^% b^ i^ 9111^ ha?re b^^ pnnt^ i4>ou| 16,64.] 

^6^4. "VSf Ww&'a* [Ss|Wi^43 PiscoujMf^, w thoj I^^aJ. *^ 

iftS4- C^?,i;^c«j^'9li^;9^iO/A]^s)^ ?w?rt<^ 

U^. C9fl«<?t^ of t^ T^aljujaoni^ of ^ the 
N«»&iian^<!*Wqh%a^r^^p€iC^ 4fx^ 3^p^^ 

The Psalms, Hyip^^. ^ Spinti^al. S»g* pC Ui|» 

Qjji i^(| ^feiif^ Jcs^^s^Bfi^^ F^th^UJjt Timai^iMi into English 
Metre. For the Usj^^ SU|f%ajtUu^ ^;^d Qqija^i^t of U^^i%)t« 
Ia m*feK ^ Privj^>. ^^c«i^ ill, Ne^, ?»fland, Spiall 
^^»^ loa pffg^r t^ coLuQii)^ t9^ eaqh, i^ QQ]^gaj;ciI. *^.^^t 
%^d!n* $^^^. ^ ^^^^^h y^bej; of Bps)toi|/* 

[This was, I bje^e-v^ tk/^ tt#d edi^oi^ of th^ Ne\ie;engl^)4 
Y^^A 9^ 4^. ?>4bp^s ^^j it, W. ^.^^. >^^^ ^d ij^proved 
by president Qi|f st;(^ &^ apd tl^ fifth, ipclvijdjij^; a^L th§ 
|>jmB%t4iMf^^ W I,hay^a,c9jjNjlet9C9?y9fthis^<l^on, 
hul tbi^ l^)m^<9 9|1h^ fiW^r, awjltji^yfear in. which ij; i^raSjprinjfe* 
ed, are not mentioned. It is calculated hy^ being pmt^d iu ^ 
Wbri*PMfj.^^%very m^ type^ tp bind up ^ith i^^glish 
editions of th^p^^t ^yibl^ ;; ^i^, a^ the printing; i^ exejc:ut^4 
by a gppi^ YorljppL^ ^ is the. best t;ha)l; I^ h^^ye sqen &oia the 
Cambridge g?^> IcQfD^cludfi«th^]^];e» ijt o<^uld i?^ be. pi^inted 
|igs(]^ref9L M^W: A% f^\y^ 9if Maffli^dulf ^ Johxiaoji in 1 6^Q ; I 
haTe no doubt it v^ P^v^t^ u^^- Johi^pi'^, pare ; ai^ ^roj)^ 
9bbk ?W1^ aift^U?*^ 5p^BiJ)Jft cm^ froq^ tih^ pcess in, 1 663. 
|9l^^|j^mf^^8q9dp%t^, 9fi^ ^ caUod Vy ^((? cQi:por^ti^oi4 
in England, who engaged, and sent him over, to assist 
Green in printing that work. Although in this edkion the 

I 2 1 

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typography far exceeds in neatness any work then printed iit 
the country, it is very incorrect; but this might have been more 
the fault of the corrector of the press, than of the printer. My 
belief that it was published about the year 1664, or 1665, is con- 
firmed by its being printed fbrHezekiah Usher, the only book* 
seller that lean find an account of at that time, in Ne^england. 
He dealt largely in merchandise^ and was then agent to the 
corporation in England, for propagating the gospel in New- 
england. It is a curious fact, that nonpareil tjrpes were used 
so early in this country ; I have not seai them in any other 
book printed either at Cambridge, or Boston, before the rev- 
olution; even brevier types had been but seldom used in the 
printing houses, in Boston, earlier than 1760. The nonpareil 
used for the Psalms was new, and a very handsome faced letter.] 
1665. The Conditions for New Planters in the Territo- 
ries* of his Royal Highness the Duke of York. Printed at 
Cambridge, on the face of half a sheet. 

1665. Practice of Piety. [Translated into the Indian 
language.] Small 8vo. about 160 pages. 

1666. Whiting's, [Samuel, of Lynn] Meditations upon 
Genesis xviii, from ver. 23 to the end of the chapter. 12mo. 
359 pages. « Printed and Sold at Cambridge." [No printer's 
name, but undoubtedly from Green's press.] 

1666. Flint's [Josiah] Almanack for 1666. ^^fuA/itf 
afler Flint's name. « Printed Anno Dom. 1666." 

1667. ' Mitchell's [Jonathan] Nehemiah upon the Wall. 
An Election Sermon, May 1667. << Printed at Cambridge.'* 
[No printer's name.] 

1 667. Practice of Piety. Translated into the Indian lan- 
guage, by the Rev. John Eliot. Second edition. 

1667. Beakenbury's [Samuel] Almanack for 1667. 

1668. Dudley's [Joseph] Almanack for 1668. 

1668. Elegy on the Rev. Thomas Shepard, Pastor of the 
Church in Charlestown. By Urian Oakes. 4to. 

1669. Moreton's [Nathaniel] New England's Memorial. 
2 1 6 pages, 4to. Printed by ^. G. & AT. J. for John Usher of 

♦ Newyoik. 

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166f. An Almanack for 1669. By J, B. Printed by 

1 670. Danforth's Election Sermon at Boston, 1 670. 4to. 
24 pages. Printed by S. Green and M. Johnson. 

1670. Stou^ton's [William] Election Sermon, 1670* 

1670. An Almanack for 1670. By J. R. Printed by 
S. G. & M. J. 

1 670. Life and Death of that Reverend Man of God, Mr. 
Richard Mather, Teacher of the Church in Dorchester, New- 
England. 4to. 42 pages. Printed by S. Green and M. John- 

1670. Walleyes [Thomas, of Boston] Balm of Gilead to 
heal Siori's Wounds. An Election Sermon, preached at New- 
Plimouth, 1669. 30 pages. 4to. Printed J^ S. Green and 

1 670. Mather's [Samuel] Testimony from the Scripture 
against Idolatry and Superstition, preached in Dublin 1660. 
4to. 80 pages. [No printer's name] " Reprinted at Cam- 

1671. Mather's [Eleazar, of Nortiiampton] Exhortation 
to the present and succeeding Generations. 4to. 32 pages. 
Printed by S. G. & M. J. 

1 67 1 . An Almanack for 1 67 1 . [Title page lost.] 

1 672. An Artillery Election Sermon 1 672. By tiie Rev. 
UrianOakes. 4to. 

1672. Mather^s [Increase] Word to the present and 
succeeding Generations of New England. 4to. 36 pages. 

1 672. Eye Salve, or a Watch Word from our Lord Jesus 
Christ unto his Churches, especially in the Colony of Massa- 
chusetts. An Election Sermon preached at Boston 1672, 
By Thomas Shepard, of Charlestown. 4to. 56 pages. 

1672. Allin's [John, of Dedham] Spbuse of Christ com- 
ing out of Affliction, leaning upon her Beloved. 4to<. 32 
pages. ** Printed at Cambridge by Samuel Green, and are to 
be Sold by John Tappan of Boston." 

1 672. The General Laws and Liberties of the Massachu- 
setts Colony, Revised and alphabetically arranged* To which 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

3lS) HISTOHY t)ir TRriTTlNG. 

mrt tMAj^^Tttcddeais aiidF<»ntt» oftbiBge freqiientjf^md.*' 
With a complete index to the whole. Re«print6d bf order 0f 
Ibe GeneiU Court HoMen ftt fieston. May l^ i6r&. £dward 
Rawson, Seer* WHOa&evtr tker^re teaM^fk '4At Pomcr^ re^ 

to themselvea damnation. Rom. xiii. 2. Folio. 200 pag^es. 
{^W^i iMfteted. There is a smtfll woodea €ut ai the txdony 
arms as a frontispiece opposite to the title pagei indiffiBrcfittf 
estecuted^ aad a lafge hsGbditfBOfe head^l^c^ cut on wDod at 
tke beginmng* of the irst page of i]i«kcws. S^riatsdlaQr^ 
Gneen, fbt Jolm Usher of Boston.] 

1 672 . The Book of the General Laws of the Inhabitants 
of New PluiKNith, coU«cttd out of the Records of the Gesera) 
Coiut. PiMiihed hy the Authority of the Geivrai Court of 
that JurisdiddoOt held at Pluaouth the Gth daj of ^ June l&fU 
ThQ following text of scripture is mthe title page*»-JB^«tt6/>cr 
tjo e^^ry Ordiwante ^Afynjbr tU JjsrdU ^aab9. 1 Pet* ii. 13. 
JP0&9. $0 pages* 

) 672, Indian Logic Pruner. B7 Joim Eliot. 

1672. Several ^ Laws and Orders" made at the<xeiKtal 
C<mrt at Boston, 1 672. S pages. Fotlo. 

167S. The Book of Oie General Laws ibrthePeopU 
withm the Jurisdiction of Connecticut. Collected out of the 
Records of the Gt^ieni Court. Lately revised and published 
by the Authority of the General Court of Connecticut) 1672. 
Has a text from scripture in the title page, yiz.— Xei tu mdt 
fionestly A9 in tht Day, ngt in Rioting and Drunkennest jr not in 
Chambtring and IVant^mc^ss not in Strife and Mtnying. Robu 
asiii. 13. ["rbeiw is a Mnall wooden cut of the armstif Con* 
neetknit in the title page. The arms are fifteen grape vinet% 
witiii a hand over them holding a scroll^ on wbichis this motto 
¥^Sustinet gut tramtuUt., Fotio. T^ pag^« 

1673. New Englai^d Pleadled with, and pressed to Con- 
sider Uie Things ifi^iich ceacem her Peace. An Eiectiea 
^i^rmon 1673. By Umn Os^&es. 4tQ^ €4 pages. 

1674. The Unconquersbl«, AU<!^onqueinngi and more 
.^bftn C(3aiqi:H»riog SoiMet, or the Sitei»ir8s(ttl ^arre which a 
fielieT4^c wag^ with the^i^mi^ of Us S^ou!* Aa ArtWlei;|r 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


.1674. David Serving ltk^dt%mt«lt Aft £leo^^ Ser- 
ItMi MfiSVe t!i« 6^*ei^ Cotixt tif Kelv t*iftt!eydlll{i) Jui^ 1674. 
By Samuel Arnold of Marshfield* 4lo- «4 pag«8^. Mj^inus 
mtt John OsenSniiilge Mid IiK!i«eieu^ McO^vfer. 

l«?4. Several « X^wft and OfAem^*^ fie^M at ^ tStettttA 
Court at Boston, 1674. 4 pages. Folio. 

l€T4^. MotH^^i [Jodli^] Souldi^rs &pirilittatized> bf the 
Chrifl/dan SottMiefr cntleriy and Strenu6Usly engaged itt the 
{Spiritual Wafi«, and m fightiftg ttie Good Fight. A Set** 
mem preached at Botrton on Artillery Electiem 1 674^ 4to. 4^ 
pages. . 

16T4. Fitch^ pamcs, of Norwich] Hbly €oiinesidttw 
An Electimi Srermon at Hartford, Connecticut^ 1674. 4td. 
^4 pages. 

1675. Sctnettd « La^^^end Orders** made at the Sessiows 
tdf l!te General Court at Boston in 1 675. FtAvk. So pages. 

1«75 . Mat3[ter*s pftcrease] First PHndples of Kew Etig* 
land concerning theiaubject of Baptisme iUid Clmrch Com- 
Ittuxdon. 4to. 56 pages. 

1-673. Mailier's pncrease] Discourse concerning the 
«td>ject ofBaptisme. 4to. 8^ pages* 

1676. Heart Garrisoned ; or the Wlsdottie and Care of 
the SpiritoalSocildier above aS Things to Safeguard his Heart* 
An Artillery Electten Sermon. By Samuel Willard. 4to. 
1^4, pages. 

1 677. Several ^ Laws andOrdew," made at the first Ses* 
aion of the General Court for Elections 1«77, at Bo^on. 
!Polio. 4 pages. 

1679. An Almanack for 1679. By Philomath. 

1682. Narrative of iheCaptivityandRestouratujnof Mrs. 
lOiary Rtftflandsott. 8vo. 

1683. Oakes's [Urian] Fast Sermon, delivered itt C«m« 
bridge. 4to. S3 pages. 

1682. Ornaments for the Daughters of Zion ; or the 
fitaractcr aiidHap|Miie«6 of a Virtuous Woiaaa« By Cotton 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Mather. 13mo. 116 pages. Printed by S. G, Sc B. 6. for 
Samuel Phillips of Boston. 

1684. An Almioiack &r 1684. 

1 684. Dennison's [Daniel] Irevicon ; or a Salve &r New 
JEng^and's Sore. 8vo. 50 pages. 

1 685. The New England Almanack for 1 686. " Printed 
at Ciambridge by Samuel Green, sen. Printer to Harvard CoL 
A. D. 1685." 

1685. The Holy Bible, containing the Old Testament 
and the New. Translated into the Indian Language, and or- 
dered to be printed by the Commifisioners of the United Colo- 
nies in New England, &c. This was a second edition of Eliot's 
Indian Bible ; and, like the first, it had marginal notes, and an 
Indian translation of the Newengland Vernon of the Psalms. 
The rev. mr. Cotton, a great proficient in the Indian language, 
assisted mr. Eliot in revising and correcting this edition. Both 
editions had title pages in English and Indian. The title in 
the Indian language, is as follows, Mamusse Wunneetupana- 
tamwe Up-Biblum God naneeswe Nukkone-Testament kah 
wonk Wusku Testament. Nequoshiiymmuk nashpe Wut- 
tinneumak Christ noh asoowesit John Eliot. Nahqhtoeu onte- 
hetoePrintewoomuk. Cambridge: Printeuoop nashpe Sam- 
uel Green. 4to. It was six years in the press. Two thousand 
copies were printed.* It was not so expensive as the first 
edid<m. Mr. -Eliot had the management of it ; and, in his let» 
ters to the hon. Robert Boyle, president of the corporation for 
propagating the gospel among the Indians in Newengland, he 
^knowledges the reception of 9001. sterling, in three pay- 
ments, for carrying it through the press. 

1685. Manitowampae pomantamoonk samploshanau 
Christianoh. 12mQ. 

1 686. The New England Almanack for 1 68 6. 

1687. Practice of Piety, [Translated into the Indian 
language.] Third edition. 

* Letter from the rev. John Eliot Xo the hon. Robert Boyle in London. 
Mr, BHotgave a part of his salary toward printing the work^ It went to 
the press in the beginning of the year i68o, and was not completed till the 
beginning of t686. Mr. Eliot lived till 1690. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

tTNItED STAftf^r 26$ 


1687. Eliot's Catechisni. [In ^ Indian language J 
This was a third or fourth edition printed at the expense of 
the corporation. J 

1 687. Primer, iii the Indian Language. [It had gone 
through several previous editions at the expense of the corpo- 

1689. Sampwutteahae Quinnuppekompauaenin, Wahu-^ 
womook oggussemesuog Sampwutteabae Wunnamptamwae-* 
nuogy &c. Noh asoowesit Thomas Shephard. This is Shep^ 
ard's Sincere Convert, translated into Indian by the rev. John 
Eliot, and was licensed to be printed by Grindal Rawson. 
ISmo. 164 pages. 

1691. An Almanack. By John Tully. "Cambridge. 
Printed by Samuel Green and B. Green, and are to be sold 
by Nicholas Buttolph at Gutteridge's Coffee House, in Bos-* 
ton, 1691.** 

1691. Nashauanittue Meninnunk wutch Mukkiesog 
Wasses^mumun wutch Sogkodtunganash Naneeswe Testa- 
mentsash; wutch Ukkesitchippooonganoo Ukketeahogkou-- 
nooh. Noh asoowesit John Cotton. [This is John Cotton*s 
Spiritual Milk for American Babes. Translated by Grindal 
Rawson.] 12mo. 1 4 pages, f See old editions of the New- 
England Primer.] Printeuoop nashpe Samuel Green kah J9ar« 
tholomew Green* 

1691. Ornaments for the Daughters of Zion; or the 

^ Character and Happiness of a Virtuous Woman. By Cotton 

Mather. 12mo. 114 pages. Re-Printed by Samuel Green 

and Bartholomew Green for Nicholas Buttolph, at Gutter- 

idge's Coffee House, Boston. ' 

169 1. Things to be looked for. An Election Sermon. 
By Cotton Mather. 12mo. 84 pages. Reprinted by Samuel 
Green and Bartiiolomew Green. 

1692. Tully's Almanack for 1692. Printed by Samuel 
Green and Bartiiolomew Green for Samuel Phillips of Boston. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


hp^ to the pFinting buskiess ia Londoiu T^ 
corporation in England^ fep propaga^g the gospel 
among the Indians, engaged, and sent him over to 
Ambries, ipi 1660> to assist in printjpg the Bible in 

In a letter dated^ ^ Coppefs IM in l^QQ^Ot 
April 28th, 1660/^ and directed to the commisai^tt^ 
ers of the united colenks, who had the whole man- 
agement of Indian affiiirs, the corporation writer, 
" Wee haue out gf our ^esire to ftirther 2^ vorke of 
60^ great concernment, [printing the whole; l?ible in 
the Indiw Isngu^^] ^^^^^ with ^ aWe pii^ter fc^ 
dir€6 yeares vpon th^ teaman 9S^ QOn^t|c^ ^^ 
closed.-— Wee desire you at the earnest tequesl of 
Mr. Johnson, the printer and fop his inciuwge- 
ment in this undertaking of printing the bible in the 
Indiw tengu^g^, hi^ nftip^e may bee inentioned. with 
others as a printer and person ^thftth l)ine ingtfWi 
mentall therin ; fbr whose diet, lodging and W^h-* 
ing wee desire you to take care of." 

The Qommissioners in their answer to the e<M^ 
pqr^tion, d^ted " Newhauen tlie 10th of l^gptembq:, 
1660," observe, " Such order is taken by the ad- 
uice of Mr. Eliott Mr. Vsher Mr. Green and Mr. 
Johnson that the Impression of the ould and New 
Testament shalbee carryed on together which they 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

have sdr^y begiiii and Resolue to prdscciite with 
dl diligence } a sheet of Geneses wee have ^eii 
Which w^i^ have <Md«td shalbee Transmitted vntd 
jrou ; the printers doubte not but to print a sheeti5 
euery weeke and coinpute the whole to amount to d 
hundred and fifty sheets. Mr. Johnson wilbee 
iJratifyed with the honour ot the Impression and 
acomodaled in other respects Wee hope to content.'* 

The commissioners this year, charged the cor- 
poration with 11. 4 s. paid for " the expenses of 
Joluison the printer att his first arrivall before he 
setded at Cambridge." 

In a letter dated, " Boston Sept. 10th, 1662," 
iiid addressed to the hon. Robert Boyle, governor 
cif the corporation in England, the commissioners 
cf the united eol(>nies observe^ " The bible is no^ 
about hdfe done ; and constant progress^ therin iS 
made ; the other halfe is like to bee finished in a yeare ; 
flie future charge is vncertain ; wee have heer with 
Sent twenty coppies of the New Testament [in In- 
dian] to bee disposed of as youer honors shall see 
nieeit. The trust youer honors hath seen tneet to re- 
J)0se in vs for the manageing of this worke we shall 
endeauor in all faithfulness to discharge. Wee craue 
leave att present for the preuentmg of an objection 
that may arise concerning the particulars charged 
Or the printing wherin you will find 2 sheets att 
ihree pounds ten shillings a sheet, and the rest butt 
at SO shillings a sheet, the reason wherof lyes heer : 
It pleased the honored corporation to send ouer one 
Marftiedtrke Johnsoh a printer to attertd the worke 
Oh condition as tliey Will enforme you ; whoe hath 
Carfed beer vety vnwbtthyly of which hee hath bine 

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openly Convicted and sencured in some rf our 
Courts although as yett noe execution of sentence 
against him ; peculiare fauor haueing bine showed 
him with respect to the corporation that sent him 
ouer ; but notwithstanding all patience and lenitie 
vsed towards him hee hath proued uery idle and 
nought and absented himselfe f5rom the worke more 
than halfe a yeare att one time ; for want of whose 
assistance the printer [Green] by his agreement with 
vs was to haue the allowance of 21 lb. the which is 
to bee defallcated out of his saUery in England by 
the honored Corporation there." 

The commissioners, in this letter to the corpo- 
ration, mentioned some bad conduct of Johnson, of 
which he was convicted, but they do not particular- 
ize his offence. I find in the records of the " county 
court,'' of Middlesex, for 1662, that, in April of that 
year, Johnson was indicted for " alluring the daugh- 
ter of Samuel Green, printer, and drawing away her 
affection without the consent o£ her father ;'' this 
was a direct breach of a law of the colony. Johnson 
was ccMivicted^ fined five pounds for that offence ; 
and, having a wife in England, was ordered " to go 
home to her," on pendty of twenty pounds for 
neglecting so to do^. At the same court Johnson 
was fined twenty pounds, for threatening the life of 
any man who should pay his addresses to Green's 
daughter. In October 1663, Johnson,^^ not having 
left the country, agreeably to his sentence, was fined 
twenty pounds, and ordered " to be committed till 
he gave security that he would depart home to Eng- 
land to his wife the first opportunity." Samuel Goffe 
and John Bernard were his sureties tbat he should 

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depart tfie country within six weeks, or in a vessel 
then bound to England. Johnson, however, for 
some cause that cannot be ascertained, [the records 
of the next county court being destroyed by fire] 
was permitted to remain in the country. His wife 
might have died; he had influential friends; and 
made his peace with Green, with whom he was af- 
terwards concerned in printing several books. 

The commissioners received an answer to the 
letter last mentioned from the governor of the cor- 
poration, dated " LondcMi April 9th, 1663," at the 
close of which the governor remarks, " Conseming 
Marmeduke Johnson the printer wee are sorry hee 
hath soe miscarryed by which meanes the printing 
of the bible hath bin retarded we are resolved to de- 
fault the 2-1 lb. you mention out of his sallary. Mr. 
£lIiott whose letter beares date three monthes after 
youers, writes that Johnson is againe Returned in- 
, to the worke whose brother alsoe hath bine with vs 
and ^ves vs great assurance of his brothers Refor- 
mation and following his busines diligently for the 
time to come ; and hee being (as Mr. Elliott writes) 
an able and vsefuU man in the presse we haue thought 
fitt further to make tryall of him for one yeare long- 
er and the rather because vpon Mr. Elliotts motion 
and the goodnes of the worke ; wee have thought 
fitt and ordered that the Psalmes of Dauid in meter 
shallbee printed in the Indian language, and soe wee 
hope that the said Johnson performing his promise 
of amendment for time to come may bee vsefuU in 
the furthering of this worke which we soc-much de- 
sire the finishing of: We haue no more but com- 
end you to the Lord. Signed in the name and by 

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^c ^pppintei^ent of tte CorpOTation for tite prop^ 
ga^^^ of the Gro^)ell in America. 

P^r Robert Boyle Gem^rnor.'^ 
The cpHf^mi^siQrters wrpt^ from ^o^t^Py Sfpfe 
18th 1663, to the corporation^ ^ wa^ their mmsi 
custom, rendering ^ pa^cular account of their conr 
cerns, and of the expenditures qf the moQej? of ^ 
corporation. Respecting Johnson, they obsierve, 
^^ Some l^me after o^r last letter Mar^i^^ke lohn- 
^on Retun^d to the Presse a^d h^th 0^^ hm^ 
selfe Indifferently w^U since soe fair as wee Igiow h\k% 
the bible being finished and little (xther worke pr^ 
senting; wee dismised him att the end of tfee tsarvm 
you had contracted with him for ; bvt vnderstwdfc® 
youer honorable Corporation hath agreed wHh him 
for another yeare ; wee shall Indeavcmr to Bgaploy 
him as wee can by printing the Psjilraes and anc^er 
little Treatise of Mr. Baxters whieh Mr. £^iatt b 
^nslateing into the Indian langu^e which is thought 
may bee vsefuU and profitable to the Indi^nsi md yett 
there will not bee full Imployment for him ; ^ad fipf 
after times our owne printer wilbee svifficiaa%' able 
^o print of any other worke that wilbee nossesary ftsr 
theire vse soe that att the yeares end l^e may be c^ 
mised ; or sooner if hee please : and If thei^ bee 
occation further to Imploy him It were much bet- 
ter to contract with him heer to print by the sbedse 
than l>y allowing him standing wages : Wee were 
forced vpon his earnest Request to lett him fine 
pounds in parte of his wages to supply his present 
nessesitie which must bee defaulted by youer hcm<»rs 
with his brother : his last yeare by agreement with 
him begineth thp ^th. of August last from the okJ 

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of Ids former contract till that time hee was out c£ 
this Imployment and foUowcd his own occacions.'^ 
The corpomtion in their next letter to the com* 
missioners write, ** concerning Marmeduke John« 
8on the printer whose Demeanor hath not been suit- 
able to what hee promised wee shall leave him to 
youerselues to dismisse him as soone as his yeare is 
expired if you soe think fit.'* 

The i^xt meeting of the Commissioners was at 
Hartford, September 1, 1664 ; they then informed 
the corporation ui England, that they had " dis- 
mised Marmeduke Jolmson the Printer att the end 
of his teandie agreed for hauing Improued him as . 
well as wee ccMild for the yeare past by imploying 
him with our owne printer to print sudi Indian 
workes as could be prepared which hee was not 
aUe to doe alone with such otiter English Trea- 
tisea which did present ; for which allowance hath 
bpe made propcMtionable to his laboure ; some 
time hath bine lost for want of imployment but for 
after times wee hope to haue all books for the In- 
dians vse printed vpon ezier tearmes by our owne 
prkkter especially if it please youer honers to send 
ouer a fonte of Pica letters Rom^fi and Italian 
winch are much wanting for printeing the practice 
c€ piety and other workes ; and soe when the 
Presses shallbee Improued for the vse of the Eng^- 
fish wee shalbe careftill that due alowance be madfe 
to the Stocke for the same ; It seemed Mr. Johm- 
son ordered all his Saltery to be i^ceiued and dis- 
posed of in England which hath put him to some 
stmightes heer which forced vs to allow him fine 
pounds formerly (as we Intimated in our last) and 

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since hee hath taken vp the sume of four pound all 
which is to be accoumpted as parte of his Sallery 
for the last yeare ; the remainder wherof wee doubt 
not youer honors will satisfy there.'* 

Before the Bible was finished, Johnson being in 
great want of money, applied to the commissioners 
of the United Colonies, to pay him his wages here 
instead of receiving them, agreeably to contract, in 
England. Upon which the commissioners " or- 
dered in Answare to the request of Marmeduke 
Johnson for payment of his wages heer in New 
England; notwithstanding his couenant with the 
Corporation to receiue the same in Englaml which 
hee sayeth is detained from him; which yett not ap- 
peering to the comissioners they could not giue any 
order for the payment of it heer; but vpon his 
earnest request that there might bee some Impow- 
eredto relieue him in case it could appeer before 
the next meeting of the Comissioners that noc pay- 
ment was made to him in England the Comission- 
ers of the Massachusetts Collonie is Impowered to 
act therein accwding to theire Discretion," 

The rev. var. Eliot,* who translated the Bible 
into the Indian language, appears to have been very 
friendly to Johnson. After he was dismissed from 
employment at the press of the corporation, mr. El- 
iot proposed to the commissioners in September, 
1667, that Johnson should have " the font of letters 
[types] which the Corporation sent over for their 
vse by him, when he came from England," and 

• Mr. Eliot was by some stiled "Apostolus nostrorum 
Temporum inter Indos Nov Angliae." He died 1 690, 8^edl6« 

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irhich had been but little worn, at the price they 
cost in England, which was 31 1. 17 s. 8 d. sterling; 
to which proposal the commissioners assented. 
These types he received in part payment of his 

In 1670, April 28th, Johnson being released 
by death or divorce, from his wife, in England, 
married Ruth Cane of Cambridge, which is re- 
corded in the Register of the town for that year. 

In September 1672, the commissioners ordered 
their agent, Hezekiah Usher, to pay Johnson 61. 
" for printing, stitching and cutting of a thousand 
Indian Logick Primers." This is the last business 
I can find performed by Johnson for the corporation. 

Johnson's name appeared after Green's in the 
iniprint of the first edition of the Indian translation 
pf the Old and New Testament ; and, t;o several 
other books which were not printed for the corpo- 
ration for propagating the gospel among the Indians. 
It is not probable that they had any regular partner- 
ship, but printed a book, in connexion, when con- 

I have seen no book with Johnson's name in the 
imprint after 1674. 

He was " constable of Cambridge" in 1673, 
and perhaps some years preceding. In April, 1674, 
the county court allowed him " his bill of costs, 
amounting to three shillings ; and ten shillings and 
six pence for journeys that were by law to be paid 
by the county treasurer." It appears that he was 
poor, and rather indolent. He died in 1675, and 
his wife departed this life soon after him. 

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373 HISTOAY Of PftllltflrG. 

The following is an extract from tiie Middlesex 
records** ** At a County Court held at Charles-/ 
towne Jiuiel9, 1677.— Mr* John Hayward Attor^ 
ney in behalfe of the Commissioners of the United 
Coloneys pl'ff against Jonathan Cane, Executor M 
the last will and testament of Ruth Johnson adminis* 
tratrix to the estate of her husband M armaduke Johii^ 
son deceased^ in an action of the cftde fot deteynitigf 
a font of Letters, bought by the said Johnson witii 
money y** he received for y** end and Use of y*- 
Honourable Corpcrration in London constituted bf 
his Majestic for propagating of the gOspell to th6 
Indians in New England, and also for deteynii^ si 
Printers chase, and other implements that belong to 
a Printing Presse, and is apperteyning to the said 
Indian Stocke according to attachmt. dated 8, 4^ 77w 
Both parties appeared & joyned issue in the case^ 
The Jury having heard their respective ple^ fe ewu 
dences in the case, brought in their vefditt, Ending 
for the pPve that the Defdt. shall deliver the Wt. o^ 
Letters expressed in the attachment, with other mat^ 
terials expressed in the attachment, or the value 
thereof in money, which wee find to be forty 
pounds, with costs of court. The Defdt. ttiStSt hifif 
appeale to the next Court of Assbtants.'^ 

Beside the books printed by Green and hirii^ 
which appear in Green's catalogue, I find tho fol-^ 
loMdng printed solely by Johnson, viz. 

♦VoLiiLp. ire. 

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^XfT^D %t-^t:?s, !?7a 

CutabgW' of BogJks ppmted b^ J[Q«KdOH* 

IMS. Commumon qfChuvcAea^ or, the Divine Manage* 
ment of Goafiel Churches by the Oidinance of Council^ con^^ 
tated in Or4^r, accovding to the Scdptuves. As also the Way 
of bringing all Christian Parishes to be particular reforming 
Congregational Churches: humldy fipitfioaed as a Way which 
hath so muche ^ht itrom the Scdptures of Truth, as that it 
m^ be lawfully submitted unto by all ; and may by the Bless* 
ing of the Lord be a means of uniteing those two Holy and 
eminent JPar4ies, the Fresbyteriana and the Congregational- 
f9i«-^As also to prepare for ^e hoped-for Resurrection of the 
Churches ; and to propose a Way to bring aU Christian Na- 
tions unto an Unity of the Fakh and Order of the Gospel. 
Written by John MUoty Teacher of Roxbury in N. E. Crowii 
8vo, 88 pages. The following is the Preface to the work. 

« Although a few copies of this small script are printedi 
yet it is not published, only committed privately to some godl/ 
and able hands to be viewed> corrected, amended, or rejected, 
as it shall be found to hold weight in the sanctuary ballance, 
or not. And it is the humble request of the Author, that 
whatever objections, rectifications or emendations may oc<* 
curre, they may be conveyed unto him ; who desireth nothing 
may be accepted in the Churches, but what is according to the 
will and minde of God, and tendeth to holiness, peace, and 
promotion of the holy kingdome of Jesus Christ. The pro- 
curing of half so many copies written and corrected, would be 
m^XP difficult ^ charge^l^e than the printing of these few. 
I beg the pr^er^ as well ^ th^ pains of th^ precious Servants 
of the Lordj that \ may never have the least finger in doing 
any thing ttat may be derogatory to the holiness and honour 
of Jesus Christ and his churches. And to this I subscribe 
myself one of the least of the labourers in the Lord's vineyard. 

JoiTN Eliot." 

1^65. The Rl^e, Spring atxd Foundation of jthe Anabap- 
tists : or the Re-Baptised of qw* Tim^f . ^^ pag^s. Qu^qrto. 

I 2L 

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274 HISrORV of PftlNTlNG. 

1668. God^Terrible Voice in the City of London, where- 
in you have the Narration of the late dreadful Judgment of 
Plague aiid Fire; the former in the year 1665 and the latter 
in the year 1666. 32 pages. Quarto. 

1668. The Righteous Man's Evidence of Heaven. By 
Timothy Rogers. Small Quarto. 

1671. Cambridge Platform of Church Discipline^ Sec-r 
ond Edition. 40 pages. Quarto. 

1672. " Indian Logick Primer." 

1673. Wakcman's Young Man's Legacy to the Rising 
Generadon. A Sermon, preached on the Death of John Tap* 
piU) of Boston. 46 pages. Quarto. 

1673. Mather's [Increase] Woe to Drunkards. Two 
Sermons. 34 ps^s. Quarto [Printed by Johnson] " and 
sold by Edmund Ranger, Book Binder, in Boston." 

1 674. Exhortation unto Refonnation. An Election Ser* 
mon. By Samuel Torrey, of Weymouth. 50 pages. Quarto. 

1 674. Cry of Sodom enquired into, upon occasion of the 
Arraignment and Condemnation of Benjamin Goadi for his 
prodigious Villany. ByS.D. Quarto. 30 pages. 


Son of Samuel Green, by his second wife, wai 
in business a few years with his father at Cam- 
bridge. In the year 1690, he removed to Boston, 
and set up his press. The same year his printing 
house and materials Were destroyed by fire, and he, 
in consequence of his loss, returned to Cambridge 
and was again connected with his father. The few 
b6oks which I have seen, that were printed by hjs 
father and him in company, are taken notice of with 
his father's. He resumed business, in Bostcm, in 
1692. {^See printers mJBoston.^ 

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Aboitt forty five years from the beginning of 
the settlement of Boston, a printing house was 
opened, and the first book I have found printed, in 
this town, was by 


[^Conductor of the Pre^s.^ 

Foster was bom in Dorchester, near Boston, 
and educated at Harvard college, where he graduated 
in 1667. 

Printers at this time were considered as mere 
agents to execute the typographic art ; the presses 
were the property of the college, but all their pro- 
ductions were under the control of licensers ap- 
pointed by the government of the colony ; that gov- 
ernment had restricted printing, and confined it 
solely to Cambridge, but it now authorized Foster 
to set up a press in Boston. It does not appear that 
he was bred to printing, or that he was acquainted 
with the' art ; the probability is, that he was not ; but 
having obtained permission to print, he employed 
workmen, carried on printing in his own name, and 
was accountable to government foi^the productions 
of his press. 

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The general court, at the session in May, 1674, 
passed the order following — " Whereas there is 
now granted that there may be a printing Presse 
elsewhere than at Cambridge ; for the better regu- 
lation of the Presse it is ordered and Enacted that 
the Rev. Mh tliotttate ThatChet afed tleVs IHKil^ease 
Mather, ctf Bbstoh^ be added uttto thfe fcAta&r Li* 
censers,' tod they ane heiieby iftipowtrtd to *tft ftb* 

If F'oster's printing equalled, it could not be said 
to excel, that of Green or Johnson, either in neat- 
ness or correctness. H6 printed a number of small 
tracts for himself and others. The earliest book 
which I have seen from the press under his care, 
was published in 1676, and the latest ih 1680. He 
calculated and published Almanacks. To his Al- 
manack for 1681, te aim^xed an iiigenioii9.dis9erta- 
lion on comets, seen at Boston ih Kor&mh&t lEind 
December 1680.* 

He died at Dwchester, Sqftembei* 9> 1681, ^ged 
tiiirty three years* His grave ^tofte bears the fi* 
lowing inscription, viz* 

*^ Astra colis vivens, moriens super aethera Fostar 
Scande precor, coelum metiri disce supretnum ; 
Metior atque meum est, emit mihi dives Jesus, 
Nee tenior quicquam nisi grates solvere.^' , 

In English thus. 
Thou, O Foster, Who on earth didst study the 
heavenly bodies, now asctod above the finnsulient 

♦ See Collections of Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 
^.—Chronological and topographicai account of Dorchester, 
written by the rev, T» M. Harris. 

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and sufvey the highest heaven, I do survey and 
inhabit this divine region. To its possession I am 
admitted through the grace of Jesus ; and to pay 
the debt of gmtkude I hoM the ttiost sacred obli- 

Two p(yiems on the death ei Foster were printed 
in 1681 f one of them was written by Thomas Tile- 
stone, of Dorchester, and the other by Joseph Ca- 
peh, ^ftemards miriistet of Tijpifield, Mass^husetts. 
Thfe httef tofltludtti tdth l!he foUoWihg lines. 

" Thy body, which n6 activeness did lack, 
lO'ow^s laid aside like sin old Almanack ; 
But fiir tile pf escttt <btily's out of date, 
*T#ill h&ve at teng& k i»t more aedve stat^. 
t'ia, though With dutft thy body soiled be, 
Yfk at the resurfettloii we «haU see 
A Mr EDITION, aB4 of matchless worth. 
Free fixmi Erratas, n^ in Heaven set £»fth ; 
'Tis but a word from (Sod, the great Creator, 
kt sh^l be done When hfe saith 3n9riinUmt]C»^ 

Whoever has read the celebrated e^Htaph, by 
F^aidilin, on himself, will have some suspicion thfU 
it was taken from this or^no/., 

* Vcrsicm, By a friend* 
F6fi*e!S while livhig, stany orbs explored ; 
Dying, beyond their radiant sphere he soiurM ; 
And, still admiring the Creator's plan, 
Learns the wide scope of highest heaven to scan. 
Me, too, muy Christ, by his rich grace, prepare 
To foUoW) tod be reunked there 1 

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[^Conductor of the Press^^ 

^When Foster died, Boston was without the 
benefit of the press ; but, a continuance of it in this 
place being thought necessary, Samuel Sewall, not 
a printer, but a magistrate, &c. a man much re- 
spected, was selected as a proper person to manage 
the concerns of it, and, as such, was recommended 
to the general court. In consequence of this rec- 
ommendation the court, in October, 1681, gave 
him liberty to cany on the business of printing in 
Boston. The license is tlfus recorded.* 

'' Samuel Sewall, at the Instance of some Friends, 
with respect to the accommodation of the Publick, 
being prevailed with to undertake the Management 
of the Printing Presse in Boston, late under the 
command of Mr. John Foster, deceased, liberty is 
accordingly granted to him for the same by this 
court, and none may presume to set up any other 
Presse without the like Liberty first granted." 

Sewall a bookseller. Books for himself 
and others were printed at the press under his man- 
agement ; as were several acts and laws, with other 
work for government. Samuel Green^ jun. was his 
printer. In 1682, an order passed the general court 

♦ Records of the Colony for 1681. 

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triritED stATjESt S79 

for the treasurer to pay Sewall ten pounds seventeen 
sluUings, for printing the election sermon, delivered 
that year by the rev. mr. Torrey. I have seen sev- 
eral books printed by the assignment of Sewall. 

In 1684, Sewall, by some means, was unable to 
conduct the press, and requested permission, of the 
general court, to be released from his engagement ; 
this was granted ; the record of his release is in the 
words following. 

" Samuel Sewall, by the providence of God, 
being unable to attend the press, &c. requested 
leave to be freed from his obligations concerning it, 
which was granted, with thanks for the liberty then 

In 1684, and for several subsequent years, the loss 
of the charter occasioned great confusion and disor- 
der in the political concerns of the colony. Soon after 
Sewall resigned his ojfice as conductor of the press 
in Boston, he went to England ; whence he returned 
in 1692. He was, undoubtedly, the same Samuel 
Sewall, who, when a new charter was granted by 
king William, was for many years one of the coun- 
cil for the province ^ and who, in 1692, was ap- 
pointed one of the judges of the superior court ; in 
1715, judge of probate ; and, in 1718, chief justite 
of Massachusetts. He died January 1, 1729-30t 
aged seventy eight years. 

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9lVi HISTORY 0f F»f^t<NG. 


Printed for, or by tiie assignmcut ei Samuel 
Sewall, to whom government had committed th^ 
management of the press after the death of Foster* 
He printed mider Sewall less than two years. I 
have seen only three or four works whieh bear his 
name in the imprint, and these were printed fop 
Sewall. One was entitled, " Govenant Keeping, 
the Way to Blessedness. By Samuel Wilhu^^ 
12mo. 240 pages. " Boston : Printed by Jame« 
Glen, fOT S. Sewall, 1682." I do not recollect the 
tides of the others, which were pamphlets. 

All the printing done by Glen was at SewaH% 


Was the pop. by biB Mt wjffe, pf 8al»^l^^ 
Qreen, wJiP at that timp printed at Cambridge, Hg 
was taught the art in the printing hous^ gf hi? fether, 
His books bear the next earliest dates to Foster's 
and Glen's. In 1682, he printed at the press which, 
by order of the general court, was under the man- 
agement of Sewall; and, for some time, by virtue of 
an assignment from Sewall. He worked chiefly for 
booksellers ; many books printed for tbCi are with- 

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<mt the) nrfini^of fhe fiHnter^ dtid 9Dim* wi^totf t date.^ 
After Sewall ceased to conduct the press, Gre^ 
VwopBrrnktsed tt> cctetih^ pwntin^y Sufejcot te the 
cfontvbl of the feens^rsL* 

JohnI Ditntofi^ a London bookseUer,* who visited 
Bosfdn wkole Gi^iv was^ ki busiBi^^^ in 1^86^ aad^ 
dfterhkl retosm? fo Engtehd^ published &e history of 
Isk owh* '^ Life ^d EnrcMis,^ m^Atknis Green in Ha 
potdksitjxm m the fbilotv4ng mminen 

" I contracted a great friendiship Sor Ais i«»^ 
to name his trade, will convince the world he w^s a 
man of good sense and miderstanding ; he was so 
facetious and obliging in his conversation, that I 
took a great delight in? lusr company, and made use 
of his house to while away my melancholy hours.^f 

Dunton gives biographical sketches of a num- 
ber of men and women whom he visited* Jh Boston 
hr 16M ; and, represents Green's wife as a' most 
c^ecellfent woman; even as a^ nitxid, from which- to 
tfbtw " t/ie picture of the bed o/whes.^^1^ ^n"] 

Green f)rinted for government, and soon after 
hife"deatHi the general' court ordfei^cd' the treastiiierto 

* FiilItBxv8li(n[lld^ uiMrf* iff tkdoi'impiitteto b6ok% h^fws* 
f$tffp^^ Ski. not on^thekmnniefty butiUi&yeav, and m^tiun. 
iMhitke^' stntei^sBOd tcwm) where.tbesr prabscsare eetaUistiedLr 

flewBfiapcrs^ aiidlinstayvbooksy^tovie latefybeen piibiislMdi£E 
ilttrCakitdtfnM Ml tbtest&le not being designated in ^theiniM* 
^ffiii^attJtmaii3^iiiMetficeirtlicaniBRit> to d^teniuiied^ieRi|i8rcla%& 
bf»th«ie£aclia disttiti^ in^wiiiclrof the stafeecrtlieyfiirer^ I^Hnted^ 
fDimt6ft*s'Li#5'aiid'ErrorsJ. PWfltfed^i:6ttittf,in>3. P; 

Jr Hfertnaidte name waJi^ESBiayetW'Sai. She'M^s^borh'itf ' 
I 2M 

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282 History OF PRINTING. 

pay his heirs £92 17, " due him for his last print* 

In 1690, Boston was visited with the small pox ; 
before the practice of inoculation was introduced, 
this disease, at every visitation, swept off a large 
number of inhabitants. In July, of that year. Green 
fell a victim to that loathsome disease; he died 
after an illness of three days ; and, his amiable wife, 
widiin a few days after her husband,* was earned 
off by the same epidemic* 


On an examination of the books printed in Bos-r 
ton before the year 1700, it appears that Richard 
Pierce was the fifth person who carried on the 
printing business in that place. Whether he had 
been bred a printer in England, or had served an 
apprenticeship with Green, at our Cambridge, can^ 

• 1 am fevored by Rosset^ Cotton, esq. of Plymouth, witk 
an original letter, dated at << Plymouth, Aug. 5, 1690," to lii» 
great grandfather, the rer. John Cottony then on a visit to 
Barnstable, from his son, which m^ntiond, among other arti- 
cles of information from Boston, ^ the small pox is as bad as 
ever ; Printer Green died of it in Three days, his wive also is 
dead with it" This letter contains much news of the day $ it 
states that, <^ on Saturday Evening about fourteen houses, be* 
sides warehouses andBrue houses, were burnt at Boston, from 
the Mill Bridgh down halfway to the Draw Bridgh." By this 
it should seem, that at that time^ there was a street along side 
ofth© Mill Creek. 

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not be determined. There was a printer, in Lon- 
don, by the n^me of Richard Pierce, in 1679 ; and, 
it is not improbable, that he emigrated to this coun- 
try, and set up his press in Boston. I have seen 
some books printed by him on his own account, 
and a number for booksellers ; they are mentioned 
in the Catalogue of Books printed in America be- 
fore the revolution. I have not found any thing 
printed by him before 1684, or after 1690. 


B. Green has been mentioned as a printer at 
Cambridge, in connexion with his father. He be- 
gan business at Boston in 1690, immediately after 
the death of his brother, with the best printing ap- 
paratus then in the country. He was married the 
same year ; and, soon after, his printing house was 
consumed, and his press and types entirely destroyed 
by a fire, which began in his neighborhood. This 
misfortune obliged him to return to Cambridge, 
and he continued there two years, doing business in 
company with his father. Being again furnished 
with a press and types, he reestablished himself in 
Boston ; and, opened a printing house in Newbury 
street. The imprint to several of the first books 
from his press, is, " Boston : Printed by B. Green, 
at the South End of the Town." 

In April, 1704, he began the publication of a 
newspaper, entitled " The Boston News-Letter, 

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Z^ HisTpji*: py f siVf INC. 

PttfaBAccJ by ^ijthority/? |t wm printed iw»0W^, 
p» JMpg^ys, f<^ Jiohij i^arr^bell pftrtiiia*er» who 

hee» prijtf qd QigjMi^fl yewf few Cftmpfeilli Qrpm 

TW^ jiewsp^r WM ^ fir^ pp»t§4 im ^ 
British cc^Qiup^ of North An^dca 5 ^, bad b^» 
published fiftm> yf^rs, h^wp any Qth^ wpi^ rf flw 
kindmadQ ^ ^peaiwc^ 6 Wa3 (^QfitMl^^ ^ 
Green, and his successors, until the year 1776, 
when the British troops evacuated Boston, [o] 

After his father's deatfi, Bartholomew Green 
printed for the college ; and he was, for nearly forty 
years, printer to the governor and council of Massa- 
chusetts. He 1^ the mos^ ^i^tjpguji^hpA piinter 
of th^^ peripd, in thi^ cqunt^ ; ^ 40 flaoj^ \f^^ 
nc§$ than any other of thp p|-qfe^^ ; b^t, h^ WQr|tp 
e4 chiefly for the hppl^selkrs.* 

John Allen wasi coiipepii^ w^th Qre^n in pnWt 
iRg «^Wy bwks^ in ^he ^^pprjnts of which twft 
their n^^s, gjj^^^d ; there was npt^ however, a 
Tifigular p^tae^^hip bet^y^n theH^.t 

iphTQUgh the whqlp oom^ of hi^i life, Ovc^ 
^s, distinguished fpr p^ety and b^^voJ?npe; h^ 
^as highly respected ; and, for mai^y yws, h?Wt 

* Although Gr«^0 lYas pwt^r tc^ th^ gpvcjriKjr and coimr 
ell ; yet;, the acts and laws printed by him were, d©ne for a 
bookseller, Benjamin Elliot, from 1703 to 1729, as i^pears 
fKom the imprints. ^ 

t. The boo^s printed by Jiim, an4 by l)ggg[\ ai^d Allen,, will 
appear ij^ a Catalogue of ^ooks printed in, Aii^^ri^ca before the 
Htevolution, now preparing for the press. 

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0VITJJ1 4TATS0« 885 

ii» office of a deaoon m die Old South cburch in 
Boflbcn. He diodi Deoember 28, 1732* 

Ti^ foJUbwing cfaaracter of him 13 extracted 
from The Boston News-Letter, of January 4, 1733# 

^^ Qaitholomew Green was a person g^erally 
knDfim and /esteemed among us, as a very humble 
apd exempli christtan, ooe who had much of that 
prindtiYe ehristianity^ in him which has always been 
tiba distinguishing glory of New-England. We 
may further remember bis eminency for a strict ob- 
9^r¥ibigtheSaU)ath; his household piety; his keep- 
irfg doBe and diligent to the work of his calling ; 
his meek and peaceable spint ; his caution of pub- 
Uahing any^ing oflfensive, light or hxuiful; and 
his tend^ ^m^thy to the poor and afflicted. He 
always spoke of the wonderful spirit of piety that 
prevailed in the land in his youth, with a singular 
pleasurc.'' [^See Mstory of Newspapers in the 
second vobme qftfus work.'} 


I ^hY% not seen any book with his name in tli^ 
imprint? published earlier than the year 1690. He 
piat^d? sometimes in connexion with Bartholomew 
Green, and sometimes with Benjamin Harris ; but 
was not in regular partnership with cither. There 
is 9P evidence that he had printing materials of his 
own \mtil 1707 ; at this time he opened a printing 
house in Pudding lane, near the postoffice, and did 
business on his own account. In November, of 

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286 HisTonir or printikg. 

this year, he began printing The Boston News-Let- 
ter, for the proprietor, mr, Campbell, postmaster. 
Soon after this event he published the following ad- 
vertisement, viz. 

" These are to give Notice, that there lately 
came from London a Printing Press, with all sorts 
of good new Letter, which is now set up in Pudding 
Lane near the Post-OfEce in Boston fw publick 
use : Where all persons that have any thing to print 
may be served on reasonable terms.". 

Allen printed The News-Letter four years; 
when a fire, which consumed most of the buildings 
in Comhill, and many in King street, Queen street, 
and the contiguous lanes, is supposed to have burnt 
his printing house. The fire broke out on the 
evening of the 2d of October, 1711. |j&] On the 
preceding day he had printed The News-Letter ; 
but, on the next week, that paper was again printed 
by Green ; or, as the imprint runs, " Printed in 
Newbury-Strcet, for John Campbell, Post-Master." 
I have seen a number of books, printed after this 
time, by Allen alone, the last of which is Whitte- 
more's Almanack, bearing the date of 1724. 

While he was connected witli Green, and pre- 
vious to 1708, the acts, laws, proclamations, &c. of 
gotemment, were printed by them, and Allen^s 
name appeared with Green's as "Printers to the 
Govemour and Council.'' Allen printed no book, 
that I have seen, on his own account; all the busi- 
ness he executed, in the line of his profession, was 
for booksellers. He was from England. There is 
in an ancient library in Boston, a copy of Increase 

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Mather's Mystery of Israel's Libation, printed in 
London, by John Allen, in 1669. It is supposed 
that he came to Boston by encouragement from the 


His printing house was, " over against the Old 
Meeting House in ComhiU.''* He removed sev- 
eral times ; and, once printed " at the London 
CofFee-House,'* which I believe he kept, in King'si 
street ; at another time in Comhill, *' over against 
the Blew Anchor-" The last place of his residence 
I find mentioned, was in Comhill, " at the Sign of 
the Bible/' 

He printed, principallyj for booksellers ; but he 
did some work on his own account. He kept a 
shop, and sold books« I have not met with any 
book of his printing earlier than 1690, nor later 
than 1694. In 1692 and 1693, he printed The 
Acts and Laws of Massachusetts — ^they contained 
about one hundred and thirty pages, folio, to which 
t^ie charter was prefi:iccd. The imprint is, " Boston : 
Printed by Benjamin Harris, Printer to his Excel- 
lency the Grovemour and Council." His commis- 
sion from governor Phips, to print them, is pub- 

♦ This church was burnt down in the great fire of 171 1 ; 
but was soon rebuilt, on a new site, a number of rods to the 
south of the spot where the old building stood, and was, for 
many years, known by the n^me of " the Old Brick ;" which, 
in 1808, was taken down, a new church having been erected 
%r the societ]^ m Summer street. 

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S88 HisTORir CBP p^iNtriNqf. 

fished op|K>8ke to'the titJrpigr of tiiieinsluiftefttdrit 
words Mcnviiig. 

^ Bjr his Excettency.-*^! oidetBei^saiian Hanris 
to print the Acts and Laws made by the Great and 
General Court, or Assembly of Their Majesties 
Province of Massachusetts-Bay in New-England, 
that so the people may be infof med thereof. 

William Phips. 
« Boam, DecenAer 16^ 1692-" 

lit the tide page of diie hiws,^ piintedby him in 
1693^ is a hancSsome cut of their Boajeslieft'* artM^ 
This was ia the reiga of WiUiam md. Marf« 

Hands was from London ; he v^fturaed these 
about the year 1694. Before and srfkv hia eit^g^^ 
lion to America^ be owned a considk»ibfe^ bciehstDrt 
in that city. John Dunton's account o£ hka iar 

^^ He had been a brisk asserter of £«ig^ii$k lib* 
erties, and once printed a Book rn£ti that veiy titte* 
He sold a protestant Fetitk)» in King Charleses 
Reign, i<x which he was fined five Pounds t and he 
was once set in the Pillory, but hi» wife (like a kind 
Rib} stood by him to defend hor Hi^sband agnifisfc 
tJie Mob. After this (havii^ a deal d£ Mercwy ifti 
his natural temper) he travelled to New-£nglaiK]^ 
where he followed Bookselling, and then Co&cv 
sellings and tl^n Printing, but continued B^s. Ifar- 
ris still, and is now both Bookseller and Printer in 
Grace Church Street, as we find by his London 
Post ; so that his Conversation is general (but never 
impertkient) and his Wit pliable to all inventions. 
But yet his Vanity, if he has ^)y, gives no alh^ toi 
his Wit, and is no more tiiack might justly speingff 

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UNITBD 8TATBt« 389/ 

from eonscious virtue ; and I do hiifl but justice in 
this part of his Character, for in once traveUing with 
him from Bury-Fair, I found him to be the most 
ingenious and innocent Companion, that I had ever 
met with."* 


Was the son of Samuel Green, junior, of Bos- 
ton, and grandson of Samuel Green o( Cambridge. 

The earliest books, which I have met with of 
his printing, bear date in 1700. He had a printing 
house at the north part of the town, in Middle street, 
near Cross street. He printed and sold some books 
on his own account ; but, as was customary, printed 
principally for booksellers. The imprint to some 
of his books is, " Boston : Printed by Timothy 
Green, at the Korth Part of the Town.^* I have 
seen other books printed at the same time by his 
uncle Bartholomew, with this imprint, "Boston; 
Printed by B. Green, at the South Part of the 

^Duntoa's Life and Errors, printed in London, 1705. 
Dunton was an English bookseller, who had been in Boston ; 
he was bred to this business by Thomas Parkhurst, who pub- 
lished Mather's Magnalia, and other books for Newengland 
ministers. Dunton had a knowledge of the booksellers in 
England, Scotland, Ireland, Holland, and Newengland; and 
published a sketch of tbw charaetex^a. [^e Moolnelkri^ 

I 2N 

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Tbtm." Although several printers had succeeded 
each other, there had never been more than two 
printing houses open at the same time in Boston ; 
and, at this period, it does not appear that the num- 
ber was encreased. 

T. Green continued in business, at Boston, 
until 17 14, He then received encouragement from 
the general assembly of Connecticut, and removed 
his press to Newlondon. [^See printers in Connec* 

JAMES PRINTER, alias James the Printer. 

This man was an Indian native ; bom at an 
Indian town called Hossanamesitt,* now the town 
of Grafton, in the county of Worcester, Massachu- 
setts. His father was a deacon of the church of 
Indian Christians established in that place. James 
had two brothers ; the one^ named Anaweakin, was 
their ruler ; the other, named Tarkuppawillin, was 
thpir teacher ; they were all esteemed on account of 
their piety, and considered as the principal persons 
of that Indian village.f 

James, when a child, ivas taught at the Indian 
charity school, at Cambridge, to read and write the 
English language, where, probably, he recdved the 
Christian name of James. 

* Signifying a place of small stones. 

t Major Daniel Gookin*s account of the Indiana in New^ 

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In 1659, he ws& put apprentice to Samuel Green, 
printer, in that place, which gave him the surname 
of Printer. Green instructed him in the art of 
Printing; and, whilst his apprentice, employed him 
as a pressman, &c. in printing the first edition of 
the Indian Bible. 

A war taking place between Jameses country- 
men and the white people, James, fired with a spark 
of the amor patriae^ left his master secretiy, and 
joined his brethren in arms. A number of skir- 
mishes were fou^t, in all which the Indians were 
repulsed with loss ; they, in consequence, became 
disheartened ; and, the associated tribes separated, 
and retired to their respective places of residence ; 
at which time, 1676, the government of Massachu- 
setts issued a proclamation, or, as Hubbard, in his 
Narrative of the Indian Wars, terms it, " Put forth 
a Declaration^ that whatsoever Indians should with- 
in fourteen days next ensuing, come in to the Eng- 
lish, might hope for mercy. Amongst sundry who 
came in, there was one named James the Printer^ 
the superadded Title distinguishing him from others 
of that name, who being a notorious Apostate^ that 
had learned so much of tiie English, as not only to 
read and write, but had attained some skill in print- 
ing, and might have attained more, had he not like 
2i false villain run away from his Master before his 
time was out ; he having seen and read the said 
Declaration of the English^ did venture himself 
upon the Truth thereof, and came to sue for his 
life ; he affirmed vdth others that came along with 
him, that more Indians had died since the War be«, 
gan of diseases (such as at other times they u§ed 

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not to be acquainted withal) than by the sword ci 
the English.'^* 

In this war, the Narraganset Indians lost their 
celebrated chief, king Philip, of Mount Hopt ; after 
which the colony enjoyed great tranquilli^. 

James, it is supposed, remained in ai^ near 
Boston, till 1680 ; and, doubtless, worked at the 
printing business, eitl^r with his former masta*, at 
Cambridge, or with Foster, who had lately set up a 
press, the first established in Boston, and must have 
well known James, who lived with Green when 
Foster was at college. 

In 1680, he was aigaged with Green at Cam« 
bridge in printing the second edition of the Indian 
Bible. The rev. John Elbt, in a letter to the hon. 
Robert Boyle at London, cbted March, 1682^ 
observes respecting this second edition, '* I desire 
to see it done before I die, and I am so deep in 
years, diat I canmit expect to live long ; besides, 
we have but one man, viz. the Indian Printer, that 
is able to compose the Sheets, and correct the Press 
with understanding.'* 

Li another letter, dated ** Roxbury, April 22, 
1684," to the hon. mr. Boyle, from the reverend 
mr. Eliot, he mentions, *' We present your honours 
with one book, so far as we have gone in the work^ 
and humbly beseech that it may be acceptaWe tiH 
the whole Bible is finished ; and then the whole im- 
pression (which is two thousand) is at your honours 

• Hubbard's Narrativie of the Troubles with the Indians in 
New-England, &c. 4to* edition j « printed by Authority," at 
Boston, 1677, p. 96, 

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ffKZT&D StAT£$« S93 

command. Our slow progress needeth an apology. 
We have been much hmdered by the sickness the 
last year. Our workmen have been all sick^ and we 
have but few hands (at printmg) one Englishman, 
and a boy, and one Indian ;* and many interrup- 
dons and diversions do befall us, and we ^ould do 
but little diis very hard winter." 

We hear no more of James until 1709, when an 
edition of the Psalter, in the Indian and English 
languages, made its ap{)earance with the following 
imprint — ^^ Boston, N. E. Printed by B. Green 
andtA Printer^ for the Honourable Company for the 
Propagation of the Gospel amongst the Indians in 
New-England.''— In Indian thus, Upprinthomun^ 
neau B, Green, kah J. Printer, wutche quhiantamwe 
Chapanukkeg wutche onchektouunnat wunnaunch- 
ummookaonk ut New-England. ITOQ.f 

Some (rf James's descendants were not long 
since living in Graftcm ; they bore the surname of 

• Undoubtedly J. Printer. 

t Bartholomew Green was the son of Jameses former mas- 
ter ; James was well known among all the neighboring tribes ; 
and, one motive for employing him in printing this Psalter, 
might haye been, to excite the greater attention among the 
Indians, and give it a wider circulation ; beside, bis knowl- 
edge of both languages, enabled him to expedite the work 
with more facility and correctness than any other person. 

Several books were, abput this time, translated into the 
Indian language, and printed, which might have afforded em- 
ployment to James ; but I have seen only the Psalter with his 
name as the printer. 

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Was bom in England and there bred to the 
Printing business. When young he took an ac- 
tive part in opposition to the high church party. 
On some publick procession^ probably that of dr. 
Sacheverel, when many of the zealous members of 
the high church decorated their doors and windows 
with garlands, as the heads of their party passed in 
the streets, Fleet is said to have hung out of his 
window an ensign of contempt, which inflamed the 
resentment of his opponents to that degree, that he 
was obliged to secrete himself from their rage, and 
to embrace the first opportunity to quit his country. 

He arrived at Boston about the year 1712, and 
soon opened a printing house in Pudding Lane» 
now Devonshire Street, The earliest book I have 
seen of his printing, bears date 1713. He was a 
good workman ; was a book printer, and he and T. 
Crump were concerned in printing some books to- 

But the principal performances of Fleet, until 
he began the publication <rf a news paper, consisted 
of pamphlets, for booksellers, small books for chil- 
dren and ballads. He made a profit on the latter, 
which was sufficient to support his family reputa- 
bly. He owned several negroes, one of which 
worked at the printing business, both at the press 
and at setting types ; he was an ingenious man, and 
cut, on wooden blocks, all the pictures which deco* 

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tJNItED STAtES. 295 

i^ted the ballads and small books of his master. 
Fleet had also two negro boys bom in his house ; 
sons, I believe, to the man just mentioned, whom 
he brought up to work at press and case ; one nam- 
ed Pompey and the other Cesar ; they were young 
when their master died ; but, they remmned in the 
&mily and continued to labor regularly in the joint- 
ing house with the sons of mn Fleet, who succeeded 
their father, until the constitution of Massachusetts, 
adopted in 1780, made them freemen. 

Fleet continued printing, in Pudding Lane, till 
early in 1731, he then hired a handsome house in 
Comhill, on the north comer of Water street, which 
he afterward purchased ; and occupied it through 
the residue of his life. He erected a sign of the 
Heart and Crown, which he never altered ; but after 
his death, when crowns became unpopular, his sons 
changed the Crown for a Bible, and let the Heart 
remain. Fleet's new house was spacipus and con- 
tained sufficient room, for the accommodation of his 
family, and the prosecution of his printing business, 
beside a convenient shop, and a good chamber for 
an auction room. He held his vendues in the eve- 
ning, and sold books, household goods. Sec. as ap- 
pears by the following advertisement which he in- 
serted in the Boston Weekly News-Letter, March 
7th, 1731. 

" This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen, 
Merchants, Shopkeepers and others, that Thomas 
Fleet of Boston, Printer, (who formerly kept his 
Printing House in Pudding Lane but is now re- 
moved into Comhill at the sign of the Heart & 
Crowuy near the lower end of School Street,) is 

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willing to undertake the Sale of Books, Househ<^ 
Goods, Wearing Apparel, or any other Merchan- 
dize, by Vendue, or Auction. The sjud Fleet hay* 
ing a large & commodious Front Chamber fit for 
this Business^ and a Talent well known and ap* 
proved, doubts not of giving entire Satisfaction to 
such as may employ him in it ; he hercby enga^ng 
to make it appear that this Service may be per-» 
formed with more Convenience and less Charge at a 
private House well situated, than at a Tavern. And, 
for further Encouragement, said Fleet promises to 
make up Accompts with the Owners of the Goods 
Sold by him, in a few Days after the sale thereof.'^ ' 
In September 1731, a new periodical paper was 
published in Boston, entitled, " The Weekly Re* 
hearsal ;" intended, principally, to ccmtain Essays, 
Moral, Political and Commercial.* John Draper 
was first employed to print tlae Rehearsal for the ed^ 
itor, but soon relinquished it, and Fleet succeeded 
him as the printer of it ; and, in April, 1733, he 
published the Rehearsal on his own account. It 
was then, and had, in fact, from the beginning, 
been no more than a weekly newspaper ; but, while 
in the management of Fleet, it was the best paper at 
that time published in Newengland. In August^ 
1735, Fleet changed The Weekly Rehearsal into 
The Boston Evening Post. The last number oi the 
Rehearsal was 201, and the first number of the Eve- 
ning Post, was 202, which shews that the Evening 
Post was then intended to be a continuation of the 

* See Rehearsal, in the Histoiy of Newspapers in this 

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tfiriTBD STATES^ 297 

Rehearsal ; but the next Boston Evening Post wz$ 
numbered 2, and became a new hebdomadal ^psipcr^ 
which was published every Monday evening* 

Fleet was industrious and econonwcal 5 free 
fitmi superstition ; and, possessed a fund of wit and 
humor^ which were often di^layed in hb para* 
graphs and advertisements^ The members of Fleet's 
family, although they were very worthy, good pea* 
pie, wei^ not, all of them, remarkable for the pleaS'p 
antness of their countenances ; on which account he 
would, sometimes, indulge himself in jokes which 
were rather coarse, at their expense^ He once in* 
vited an intimate friend to dine with him on Pouts 5 
a kind of fish of which the gentieman was rcmarka- 
bly fond^ Wlien dinner appeared, the guest re* 
marked that the pouts were wanting, ^* O no,'* 
said Fleet, " only look at my wife and daughters." 

The following is an advertisement of Fleet, for 
the sale of a negro woman-*^it is short and pithy, 
viz.-—" To be sold by the Printer o£ this paper, the 
very best Negro Woman in this Town, who has 
Jiad the small pox and the measles ; is as hearty as 
^ Horse, as brisk as a Bird, and will work like a 
3eaven Jug. 23, 1742." 

In number SO of The Boston Evening Post, 
Fleet published the following paragraph, under the 
Boston head — ** We have lately received from an 
intelligent and worthy Friend in a neighboring Gov- 
ernment, to the Soutiiward of us, the following re- 
markable Piece of News, which we beg our Read- 
ers Patience to hear, v/z. That the printer there 
gets a great deal of Money, has Twenty Shillings 
for every Advertisement published in his News- Par 
I 3Q 

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per, calls Us Fools for working for nothing,' and hai 
lately purchased an Estate of Fourteen Hundred 
Pounds Value,* We should be heartily glad (had 
we Cause for it) to return our Friend a like surpriz- 
ing Account of the Printers Prosperity here. But 
alas ! the reverse of our Brother's Circumstances 
seems hereditary to Us : It is well known we are 
the most humble, self-denying Set of Mortals (we 
wish we could say Men) breathing ; for where there 
is a Penny to be got, we readily resign it up to 
those who are no Ways related to the Business, nor 
have any Pretence or Claim to the Advantages 
of it.t And whoever has observed our Conduct 
hitherto, has Reason enough to think, that we hold 
it a mortal Crime to make any other Use of our 
Brains and Hands, than barely to help us 

" To purchase homely Fare, and fresh small Beer 
(Hard Fate indeed, we can't have better Cheer !) 
And buy a new Blue Apron once a year.J 

" But as we propose in a short Time to publish a 
Dissertation upon the mean and humble state of the 
Printers of this Town, we shall say no more at pres- 

• This friend, it is supposed, was James Franklin, 
l;iephew to dr. Benjamin Franklin, who was established in 
Rhodeisland ; and, at that time, the paper currency of that 
colony was greatly depreciated. 

t Two or three of the Boston newspaper^ were then 
printed for postmasters, or past postmasters ; and printing in 
general was done for booksellers. Master printers had but 
little more profit on their labor than journeymen. 

\ It was usual tlien, and for rilany years after, for printers, 
when at work, to wear blue or green cloth aprons ; and it 
would have been well if this practice had not been laid aside^ 

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ent upon this important Subjecit, and humbly ask 
Pardon for so large a Digression. Only we would 
inform, that in this most necessary Work, we are 
promised the Assistance of a worthy Friend and 
able Casuist, who says he doubts not but that he 
shall easily make it appear, even to the Satisfaction 
of the Printers themselves, that they may be as good 
Christians,* as useful Neighbors, and as loyal Sub- 
jects, altho' they should sometimes feed upon Beef 
and Puddings as they have hitherto approved them- 
selves by their most rigid abstemious way of living." 

In February 1744, a comet made its appearance 
and excited much alarm. Fleet on this occasion 
published the following remarks. 

*' The Comet now rises about five o'Clock in 
Ihe Morning, and appears very large and bright, 
and of late it has been seen (with its lucid Ti^n) in 
the Day-Time, notwithstanding the Luster of the 
Sun. This uncommon Appearance gives much 
Uneasiness to timorous People, especially Women^ 
who will needs have it, that it portends some dread- 
ful Judgments to this our Land : And if, from the 
Apprehension of deserved Judgments, we should be 
induced to abate of .our present Pride and Extrava* 
gance, &c. and should become more humble, peace- 
able and charitable, honest and just, industrious and 
frugal, there will be Reason to think, that the Com^ 
et is the most profitable Itinerant Preacherf and 

• Most of the printers in Boston, at that dme, were mem- 
bers of the Church ; to which circumstance Fleet, probably, 

t Preachers of this Class, who with their adherents were vul- 
garly called AVw Lights J were then frequent in and about Boston. 

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dOO HlStOHt OF VHtnttf^G* 

fiiendlj Ahc' X^A/ that has yet appeared among tis^^^ 
lEvffn, Fast No^ 446-] 

Fleet had often occasion to complain of die de« 
linqiiency of his customers in making payment for 
The Evaiiiig Post ; and^ in reminding them of their 
deficiency^ he sometimes indulged himself in sever* 
ity crf'remaiic, that men of great religious professions 
^id service^ should neglect to pay him his just de- 
mands« One of his dunning advertisements is as 

" It will be happy for many Pec^le, if Injusticef 
Extortion and Oppression are found not to be 
Crimes at the last; which seems now by their 
Practice to be their settled Opinion : And it would 
be well for the Publisher of this Paper, if a great 
many of his Customers were not of the same Senti-^ 
ments* Every one, almost, thinks he h^ a Right 
to read News ; but few find themselv^ inclin'd to 
pay for it. 'Tis great pity a Soil that will bear FU 
ety so well, should not produce a tolerabfe Crop of 
Common Honesty*" [Even. Fost. No* 690. Oct* 

' The preceding extracts from The Evening Post^ 
are sufiicient to enable our readers to form some ac- 
quaintance with the publisher of that paper ; and, 
when they consider the time when the exti:acts were 
published, they will be the more jdeased with lus 
independence of characten 

Fleet published The Evening Post until his 
death ; and his sons continued it till the memorable 
battle at Lexington, in 1775, the commencement of 
the revolutionary war, wlien its publication ceased* 
He was prmter to the house of representatives in 

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iririti]) sYAT&i« SOI 

1^2fi, 1730 and 173L He died in July 1758, aged 
sevtnty three years ; was possessed of a hand** 
some propoty, and left a widow^ three sons and two 
d»aghlers* One of the sons, and the two daugfa« 
tars wet^ never manied. 


Tuk first book I have seen with Crump's name 
in itj was printed in 1716, by T. Fleet and hinu 
iFleet and Crump printed several books tc^ther, 
but never, I believe, formed a regular partnership* 
It seems to have been the custom with master print- 
ers in Boston, at that time, when their business was 
on a very small scale, instead of hiring those who 
had served a regular apprenticeship to the trade, as 
journeymen, to admit them as temporary partners 
in work, and to draw a proportion of the profit. 
For example-*-two printers ^reed to a joint agency 
in printing a book, and their names appeared in the 
imprint ; if one of them was destitute of types, he 
allowed the other for the use of his printing mate- 
rials, the service of apprentices, &c. and when the 
book came from the press, the bookseller [most 
books were then printed for booksellers] paid each 
of the printers the sum due for his proportion of the 
work ; and the connexion ceased until a contract 
Was formed for a new job. This method accounts 
for facts of which many have taken notice, viz. 
books appear to have been printed the samfe year by 

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T. Fleet and T. Crump, and by T. Fleet separate- 
ly ; and so of others. — This was the case with 
Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, at Cam- 
bridge. Their names appear, together in the im^ 
print of a bode, and in the same year tte name of 
S. Green appears alone. The same thing took 
place with Bartholomew Green and John Allen, and 
with Benjamin Harris and John Allen. ^ Allen^s 
name often appeared with Green's, and sometimes 
with Harris's ; but still oftener the names of Green 
and Harris appear alone in the books iss^ued from 
their respective printing houses. I can recollect 
that, when a lad, I knew several instances of this 
kind of partnership. 

Crump, after his connexion with Fleet, printed 
some books, in which his name only appears in the 
imprints. He did but little business. I have not 
seen any thing printed by him after the year 1718, 


Began business about the year 1718. His 
printing hous^e was in Prison lane,* the comer of 
Dorset's alley. This building was occupied for 
eighty years as a printing house by Kneeland and 
those who succeeded him ; but it is now filled with 
offices occupied by gentlemen of the law. 

He was bom in Boston, and served an appren- 
ticeship with Bartholomew Green. He had res- 

* Now Court Street. 

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pectable friends, who, soon after he became of age^ 
furnished him with means to procure printing ma- 

Kneeland was a good workman, industrious in 
his business, and punctual to his engagements. 
Many books issued from his press for himself and 
for booksellers, before and during his partnership 
vnih Timothy Green, the second printer of that 

William Brooker, being appointed postmaster 
at Boston, he, on Monday, December 21st, 1719, 
began the publication of another newspaper in that 
place. This was the second published in the Brit- 
ish colonies, in North America, and was entitled 
" The Boston Gazette.'' James Franklin was 
originally employed as the printer of this paper; 
but, in two or three months after the publication 
commenced, Philip Musgraye was appointed post- 
master, and became the proprietor of it. He took 
the printing of it from Franklin, and gave it to 

In 1727, a new postmaster became proprietor of 
the Gazette, and the printer of it was again changed* 
Soon after this event, in the same year, Kneeland 
commenced the publication of a fourth newspaper,* 
entitled, " The New-England Journal." This was 
the second newspaper in Newengland published by 
a printer on his own account. In four months af- 
ter the establishment of this paper, Kneeland form- 

• The New-England Courant had been printed several 
years befora, but at this time wad discontinued. 

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^ a partner^p with Green already meisdbned, sw 
of that Timothy Green who, some yeajis before, re» 
moved to Newlondon. The firm was 

Kheeland and Green* 

When this partnership took place, Kneeland 
oi)ened a bookshop in King, now State street, on his 
own account, and Green managed the business of 
the printing house for their mutual interest. After 
attending to bookselluig, for four or five years, 
Kneeland gave up his shop, returned to the printing 
house, and took an active part in all its concerns. 

They continued the publication of The New^ 
England Journal, near ififteen ye^rs ; when, on the 
decease of the proprietor of the Boston Gazette, hi^ 
heirs, for a small consideration, resigned that paper 
to Kneeland and Green, They united the two pa» 
pers under the title of *' The Boston Gazette, and 
Weekly Journal," 

The partnership pf Kneeland and Green wa^ 
continued f<^ twenty five years. In 1752, in con.- 
sequence of the father of Green, in Ne wlondon, hav* 
ing become aged and infirm, the partnership was 
dissolved, and Green removed tp that place, where 
he assumed his father's business. 

The concerns of the printing house were, after 
Green went to Connecticut, continued by Kneeland 
with hb accustomed energy, Soon aft* the disso- 
Jution of their partnership, The Boston Gazette and 
Weekly Journal was discontinued ; and Kneeland, 
wheu a few months b£id elapsed,, began ^Rotber paper 

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^tUdod) '^ Th« BoHqh Qa»ette, or Weekly Advert 

The baokadlcr9 of thU time were enterpiiw^g* 
Kneeknd »d Gteeo jmntedt principally for Daniel 
Hmehman, an editim of the BiUe in small 4to. 
This was the first Bible printed, in the English lan- 
guage, in America* It was carried tlu-ough the press 
as privatdy as possible, and had the London impdnt 
of the copy froin which it was reprinted, viz* *^ Lon*. 
don : Printed by Mark Baskett, Printer to the King's 
Most Excellent Majesty,' • in wder to prevent a pros- 
ecuticm from those» in England and Scotland, whQ 
published the Bible by a patent from tlie crown ; or, 
Cum prwikgio, as did the English universities (^ 
Oxford and Cambridge. When I was an appren- 
tice, I oi^ heard those who had assisted at the case 
and press in printing thiB Bible, make mention of 
the fact The late governor Hancock was related 
to Henchman, and knew the partic^ilars of tl^ tn^is- 
^e&m. He possessed a copy of this impression. 
As it h^s a London impnnt, at this day it can be 
distinguldied from an En^ish edition, of the same 
date, only by those who are acquainted with the 
niceties <rf typography. This Bible issued from 
fte press about the time that the partnership of- 
Kneeland and Green expined. The edition was not 
large; I have been informed that it did not exceed 
seven or eight hundred copies. 

Not long afier the time that diis impression of the 
Bible came fix>m the press, an edition of the New 
Testament, in duodecimo, was printed by Rogers 

I 3 P 

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and Fowle, for those, at whose expense the Bible 
issued. Both the Bible and the Testament were 
well executed. These were heavy undertakings for 
that day, but Henchman was a man of prc^rty ; 
and, it is said, that several other principal booksel- 
lers, in Boston, were concerned with him in this 
business. The credit of this edition of the Testa- 
ment was, tor the reason I have mentioned, trans- 
ferred to the kbg's printer, in London, by the in- 
sertion of his imprint* 

Kneeland was, for a great length (^ tune, printer 
to the governor and council, and during several 
years he jmnted the acts, laws and joumab oi the 
hquse of representatives^ He was diligent, vnd 
worked at case when far advanced in years* The 
books he published were chiefly on religious sub- 
jects; he printed some |)olitical pamphlets* He 
was mdependent in his circumstances; a mem- 
ber of the Old South church ^ and, was a pious, 
friendly, and benevolent man. He lefl four sons, 
all of whom were printers; two of them, whose 
names were Daniel and John, set up a press, in part- 
nership, before their father's death ^ but the other 
two never were in business on their own account. 

He died December 14th, 1769, aged seventy 
three years. The following is extracted from the 
Evening Post of December 18th, 1769. 

" Last Thursday died, after a long indisposition, 
Mr. Samuel Kneeland, formerly, tor many years, 
an eminent Printer hi this Town. He sustained 
the character of an upright man and a good Chris- 
tian, and as such was universally esteemed. He 
continued in business till through age and bodily 

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trXITE© STATES. 307 

Infirmities he was obliged to quit it« His Funer^ 
was very respectfully attended on Saturday Evening 


Was the brother of the celebrated dr. Benjamin 
Franklin. He was bom in Boston, where his father, 
who was a respectable man, carried on the business 
of a tallbtv chandler, at the Blue Ball, comer of 
Uiuon street. With this brother dr. Franklin liv- 
ed several years, as an aj^rentice, and learned the 
art of Printing. I have been informed that James 
Franklin served an apprendceship with a printer in 
England, where his father was bom, and had con- 

In March, 1741,* J. Franklin came from London 
widi a press and types, and began business in Bos- 
ton. At first he printed a few pamphlets for book- 
sellers. In 1719, a postmaster was appointed, who 

* Before the new stile took place in 1755, there was much 
confusion respecting date^j particularly in regard to the months 
of January and February. Some writers began the year in 
January, and others in March. The difficulty was to deter- 
mine whether January and February closed an old year, or 
began a new one. It became necessary to have some mode, 
by which it might be known to what year January and Febniary 
belonged, wherever these months were mentioned. For this 
purpose the following method was adopted. — ^During January, 
February, and to the 22d of March, the year was thus marked, 
1716-17, or \7\^ meaning, that by the ancient mode of calcu« \ 

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^stiibliihed a seccmd newspaper; for uAtE ttis time 
The Boston Newb'.Lett^ Wte the ilndy paper wUcfa 
had been published m British America. Tlite.tidb 
of the new paper was, " The Boston Gazette,'^ and 
J, Franklin was employed to print it ;* but, within 
seven months, Philip Musgravei being appcnnted to 
the postoffice, became the proprietor of tfie Gazette^ 
and employed another printer ; and Franklin oA- 
erwise employed his press until August 6, 1?21 ; 
Whien, eticour^iged by a humfoer i^resfifectabte dop- 
acters, who wt^e dewous of h^Vi^ a poper of a i£fi. 
ferent cast ftx>m those ihm tmUished, li^ began die 
ptiblicatton, at his ownridt, of a third mwsqpapeiv 
entitled) " The New-Englmd Counint.'* Fndk* 
litl's father and many of his friends wtxt inimkal to 
Ihis underfiaking. They supposed that one new^<. 
p^ w^ enough for the whole continent; and they 

l&ting, the month mentiob^ belonged ibthefecr If 16$ but, 
l^ the new c^culatioii, to tke jetr \7\7. After the 3Mof 
March there was no difficult ; for by both calculations, the 
succeeding months wefe included in the new jrear. 

* Dr. Franklin, in writing his life, was incorrect in assert* 
fcig, that the Courant was the second newspaper pubUiriied in 
America, There were three papers published at that time, viz. 
iarst, The Boston News-Letter ; secondly, The Boston Ga- 
jBette^ and, the third was The American Mercury, published 
ikl Philadelphia ; of course the Courant was the fourth. The 
doctor probably fell into this mistake, from his- knowledge that 
Ms brother first printed the Gazette, which, in &ct, was the 
second paper published in Boston. The doctor seems to have 
mentioned the events of his youth from recollecdon only; 
therefore, we cannot wonder if he erred ui respect to some 
circumstances of minor importance. In more material «<m» 
cems, he was substantially correct. 

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QVI711I BTATB8» 309 

liiqf^'Qhetided thrt ahotiher must occafiiofi absolute 
niin to tbb prkitcTi Fi^iiklia^ tiotwithstanduig their 
frano^QStraBces, proooeded. 

TIhs Weekly pi^ication, like the others issued 
in Boston, contidned ciily a foobcap half sheet, but 
occaskMlaUy wis enlarged to a whole sheet. The 
patrons of this paper formed themselves into a club» 
akid fiimisbed it with abort original essays, generally 
oive for each wedk, in imitation of die Spectator and 
otber penodkal pufcdications <^ that clffls. These 
essays soon broi!qg)k tbe Courant into notice; did 
rigid purituss Warmly opposed it ; but men of dif<. 
ferent sortiin^its supported it. Among othars, the 
rev. Ikucrease Mather, ttribo was one of Fraiiklin's 
first subscrtbdrs, very soon denounced The Cour- 
mt^ by SA adverdseibent in The Boston Gazette, 
No. 114.^*^ 

The Courant contained very littte news, and but 
ftfw advotisenaents. It took adecided part against 
the advocates of intx^nlation for die small pox^ 
which was then beghmii^ to be introduced-^^it was 
hostile to the dergy, and to some of the most ii^u- 
cntial iiMXi in civil govemm^it ; and, it attacked 
some of die reKgious opinicms of die day ; in con« 
sequence, frequait ^saults were made upon i^ 
writers ; and, in their defence, they abounded more 
in severe, and not always the most refined, satire, 
^lan in argummt Wliile^ therefore, the Courant 
gftkied a currency with one part of the community^ 
it excited the resentment of another, and 3oon at^ 
tfacted the ncttioe cf government. 

• For this advcrtisementi sec Histoiy pf Ncwspapersji*. 

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Frankiin had not puldished The New £t^;bnd 
Courant twelve months, brfore he was taken mto 
custody, publicly censured, and imprisoned four 
weeks, by the government, for publishing what 
were called " Scandalous Libels," &c.* 

Being released from his confinement, he con- 
tinued the publicaticm of the Courant until Jan^ 
uary 14, 1723, when an order of council, in whidi 
the house of representatives concurred, directed, 
** That James Franklhi be strictly forbidden by this 
Court to Print or PuUish the New Englmid Cour- 
ant, or any Piimphlet or Paper of the 13ce Nature, 
except it be first supervised by the Secretary of 
fliis Province."! This order, this stride of despo- 
tism, could^ it seems, at that time^ be carried into 
e&ct; but, at this day, a similar attempt would 
excite indignation, or a contemptuous smile* 

Franklin was not inclined to subject Ms paper 
to licensers of the press, and he was unwilling to 
stop the publicaticHi of it ; but, he dared not pro- 
ceoi in defiance of the order of the legislature. 
The dub wished for the continuance of the paper ; 
and, a consultation on the subject was holden in 
Franklin's printing house, the result of which was, 
Aat to evade the order of the legislature, the New 
En^and Courant should, in future, be published 
by Benjamin Franklin, then an apprentice to James^ 
Accordingly, the next Courant had the following 
imprint, " Boston, printed and sold by Benjamin 

• See resolve of council, July $ihy 1722, in Histoiy of 

t For this Act of the Legislature see Newspapers. 

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Frariklin, in Queen-Street, where advertisements 
are taken in," About a year afterward, J. Franklin 
removed his printing house to Union street. 

The Cburant was published in the name of Ben* 
jamui Franklin, fcM- more than three years ; [j'] and, 
probably, until its publication ceased ; but it appears 
from dr. Franklin's Life, that he did not remain for 
a long time with his brother after the Courant begaa 
to be printed in his name. 

J. Franklin remained in Boston for several years. 
He continued to publish the Courant, and piinted 
several small works, JHe had a Ix-other, by the 
name of John, who was married and settled at New- 
port in the business of a tallow chandler. Not sat- 
bfied with his situation in Boston, and receiving an 
invitation from his brother and other persons in 
Rhodeisland, he removed to Newport, and set up 
the first printing press in that colony ; ^d, in the 
latter part of September, 1732, he published the 
first number of "The Rhode-Island Gazette."—* 
£See jRhodeislafid.2 

James Franklin had learned, in England, the art 
of calico printing, and did something at the busi- 
ness, bodi in Boston and Newport, The Boston 
Gazette of April 25th, 1720, then printed by him 
for the postmaster, contains the following advertise- 

" The Printer hereof prints Linens, Calicoes, 
Silks, &c. m good Figures, very lively and durable 
colours, and without the oflFensive smell which com- 
monly attends the Linens printed here." 

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Well known and highly celebrated in this 
country and in Europe, was bom in Boston, January 
17th, 170i. His fether was an Englishman, and 
served an apprenticeship with a silk dyCT in North- 
amptonshire. ^He came "to Boston with his wife 
and three children ; and, after his airival in America, 
he had four other children by the same wife. She 
dying, he manied a native of Newengland, by whom 
he had ten children ; two daughters excepted, Ben- 
jamin was the youngest child by the second wife.* 

Franklin's father settled in Boston ; but, finding 
the business to which he had been bred insufficient 
to afford him a maintenance, he relinquished it, and 
assumed that of a soap boiler and tallow chandler| 
in which occupations, Benjamin was employed from 
the tenth to the twelfth year of his life. 

Franklin was dissatisfied with the business of his 
father, and felt a strong inclinaticm for a seafaring 
life. His father was extremely averse to that plan, 
and through fear that Benjamin might, in a clandes- 
tine manlier, get to sea, he concluded to bind him 
apprentice to his nephew, who was settied in Bos- 
ton, as a cufler ; but not agreeing with his nephew, 
on conditions, and Benjamin expressing a wish to 
be a printer, hb father consented to gratify this in- 

* Franklin's Life, first London edition, 12mo. from which 
I have taken most of the particulars respecting him. 

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ririTED ^TATSi* 313 

dmaiioiu At iMs time^ 17179 James Franklin re- 
twned from Eixgland with prhiting material^ and 
eomnieilced business in Bo^on ; and Bei^anun^ at 
die age of twelre years, signed in^nttn^s, and be- 
come his s^rentice. 

Pleaised with his new en^iloyment, Franklin 
tooti became useful to his brother* He borrowed 
botd:s, and read them with avidity and profit; 
At an eariy aige, he wrote stanzas on the capture oi 
Bl$ck Beard, a iu>ted pirate ; and, on other occur- 
rences. These verses, he observes, ** were miscra^ 
bk duties," but his brother printed them, and sent 
Bengamm about the town to sell them. Que g£ 
these compositions, he remarks, ^^ had a prodigious 
rub, because the event was recent, atnd had made a 
great noise.'* 

When his brother printed a newspaper, Benja« 
nun fidt increased satisfaction with his business; 
axid, lie soon began, privately, to compose short 
tssays, which he artfully introduced for public^on 
without exciting suspidon of his being the author. 
These wcrc examined and approved by the club of 
writers for the Coorant, to the great gratification of 
^ writer, who, eventually, made himself known. 

It has already been stated, in the account given 
of James Franklin, that he was forbidden by the 
general court to proceed in the puUication oiiht 
Couraht, except on certain conditions. With the 
terms dictated, James determined that he would not 
tomply ; and, with a view to evade the injunctions 
of the government, the name of his brother Benja- 
min wa& sub^tuted in the jdace of his own, and 
the imbltcation was continued. ^^ To avoid die 

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censure of the general assembly, w^ lifdgfat diarge 
James Franklin with still printing the paper under 
the name of his apprentice^ it was resolved that Ben-- 
jamin's indentures slK>uld be given up to him, with 
a full and entire discharge written on the back, in 
order to be produced on . any emerg^icy ; but that 
to secure to James the service of Benjamin, it was 
agreed, the latter should sign a new contract, which 
should be kept secret during the renuundcr erf the 
term/' This, Benjamin observes, in his Life, was 
a very shallow arrangement, but it was put into im- 
mediate execution. Though the paper was still 
issued in Benjamiin^s name, he did not remain with 
his brother long after this arrangement was made. 
They disagreed, and in the eighteenth year of his 
age he privately quitted James, and took passage 
in a vessel for Newyork* At diis time there was 
but one printer in Newyork, and from him Franklm 
could obtain no employment ; but he gave our ad- 
ventiu'er encouragelnent^ that his son, who printed 
in Philadelphia, would furnish him with work. In 
pursuit of tliis object, he entered a ferry boat oh 
his way to Philadelphia ; and, after a very disagree- 
able passage, reached Amboy. From that place he 
travelled on foot to Burlington,, where he was hos- 
pitably entertained, for several daysy hy an aged 
womian who sold gingerbread. When an oppor- 
tunity presented to take passage in a boat,^^ he em- 
braced it, and reached Philadelphia in siafety. 

As Franklin afterwards obtained the highest 
offices in civil government, and was greatly cele- 
brated as a statesman and a philosopher, the particu- 
}ars of this aj^arently inauspicious period of hk life 

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are iingulaplf interesting ; I will, therefore, give his 
own narrative of his entrance into the capital of 
Penn^lvania, of which he was desjined to become 
the govemOT. 

" On my arrival at Philadelphia, I was in my 
working dress, mjr:best clothes being to come by 
sea. I was covered with'dirt ; my pockets were 
filled with shirts and stockings ; I was unacquainted 
with a single soul in the place, and knew not where 
to seek for a lodging. Fatigued with walking, row- 
ing, and having past the night without sleep, I wa» 
extremely hungry, and all my nioney consisted of a 
Dutch dollar, and about a shilUng^s worth of cop- 
pers, which I gave to the boatmqti for my passage. 
As I had assisted them in rowing,, they refused it at 
first ; but I insisted on their taking it. A man is 
sometimes more generous when he has little, than 
when he has much money ; probably, because, in 
the first casie, he is desirous of concealing his pov- 
erty. I walked towards the top of the street, look- , 
ing eagerly on both sides, . till I came to Market 
street, where I met a child with a loaf of bread. 
Often had I made my dinner On dry bread. I en- 
quired where he had bought it, and went straight 
to the baker's shop, which he pointed out to me. I 
asked for some biscuits, expecting to find such as 
we had at Boston ; but they made, it seems, none 
of that sort in Philadelphia. I then asked for a 
threepenny loaC They made no loaves of that 
price. Finding myself ignorant of the prices, as 
well as tiie different kinds of bread, I desired him to 
let me have three penny wortli of bread of some 
kind or other. He gave me three large rolls. I 

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was surprized at receiving so much ; 1 toc^ tben, 
4u>weveF, and haring no room in my pockets, I 
walked on with a roll under each ann, eating the 
third. In this manner I went through Bdaiket ^ticet 
to Fourth street, and passed the house of var. Read, 
the Either of my future wife. She was standing at 
die door, ob^nred me, and thought, with reasoD, 
that I m^e a very singular and grotesque appear** 

" I then turned the comer, and went througli 
Chesnut street, eating my roU a^ the way ; ^^9 
having made this rou^d, I found myself again oa 
Market street wharf, near the boat in wWeh'l had 
arrived. I stepped kito it to take a draught of the 
river water ; and, finding myself satined with my 
first roH, I gave iS»^ other two to a woman and h«r 
child, who had come down the river with us in the 
boat, and was waiting to conl&iue her journey^ 
ITius refreshed, I regjuned die street, vrhStck was 
now full of well dressed pec^e, aU going the same 
way. I joined them, and veas thus led to ^ large 
Quakers' meetinghouse, near the market place. I 
sat down with the rest, and after looking round me 
for some time, hearing nothing said, and bdn^ 
drowsy from my last night's hbor and want of rest, 
I fell into a sound sleep. In this state i continued 
till the assembly dispersed, when one of the congie* 
gation had the goodness to wake me* This wbs 
consequently the first house I entered, or, in wfaidi 
I slept, at Philadelphia^ 

•* I begiati again to walk along the street by the 
liver side, and looking attentively in the &ce of 
every one I met, I at length perceived ^ yojung 

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vuitiiy iTArEfl. ^ 517 

quaker, whose countenance pleased me. I accosted 
hllH) and beg^(ed him ta mform me where a stran* 
ger mig^t find a lodging. Wc were then near the 
nign of tfie Thi'ee Mariners. They receive traveU 
lerft here^ said he, but it b not a house that bears n, 
good character ; if you will go with me I will shew 
yon a better one. He conducted me to the Crooked 
Billet) in Water street. There I ordered something 
for dinner, and during my meal a number of curi* 
dus questions were put to me ; my youth and ap. 
pearance ei^eiting the su^icion that I was a runa* 
way. After dinner, my drowsi^^ess returned, and I 
t^ew myself on a bed without taking off my clc^hes, 
mid ^}cpt till six o^clock in the evening, when I 
tpas called to supper. I afterward went to bed at 
a very early hour, and did not awake till the next 

<^ As soon as I got up I put myself in as decent 
a trim as I could, and went to the house of Andrew 
Bradford the printer. I found his fadier in th^ 
shop, whom I had seen at Newyork. Having trav- 
ell&i on horseback, he had arrived at Philadelphia, 
beiore me. He introduced me to. his son, who re- 
ceived me with civility, and gave me some break- 
fast ; but, told me he had no occasion at present 
for a journeyman, having lately procured one, He 
added, that there was another printer newly settled 
in the town, of the name of Keiracr, who might, 
pertiaps, employ me ; and, that in case of a refusal, 
I should be welcome to lodge at his house, and he 
woidd give me a litde work now and then, till some« 
thing better shouW qffert 

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" The old man offered to introduce me to the 
new printer. When we were at his house, * Neigh- 
bor/ said he, ^ I bring you a young man in the 
printing business ; perhaps 3k>u may have need of 
his services.' Keimer asked me some questicms, 
put a composii^ stick in my hand to see how I 
could wcM-k, and then said, that at present he had 
nothing for me to do, but that he should socm be 
able to employ me. At the same time, taking cid 
Bradford for an inhalntiint of the town wdl dilsposed 
towards him, he communicated his project to him^ 
and the prospect he had of success* Bradford was 
careful not to discover that he was the father of the 
other printer ; and from what Keimer had said, that 
he hoped shortly to be in possession of the greater 
part of the business of the town, led him by artful 
questions, and by starting some difficulties, to dis- 
close all his views; what his hopes were founded 
upon, and how he intended to proceed. I was pres- 
ent, and heard it alL I instaAtly saw that one of the 
two was a cunuing old fox, and the other a perfect 
novice. Bradford left me with. Keimer, who was 
strangely surjrfised when I informed hiin who the 
dd ivun wasr.'^ 

Keimer encouraged Franklin with the hope of 
employment in a short time, and he r^umed to 
Bradford's. In a few days after he began to wt^i: 
for Keimer, but continued to board with BmdforcL 
This was not agreeable to Keimer, and he procured 
a lodging for him at mr. Reed's, who has been 
already mentioned. ** My trunk and effects being 
now arrived," says Franklin, " I thought of mak^ 
ing, in the eyes of miss Reed, a more respectable 

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' UNITED STATES* >' 819 

;^^pearwce than whtn clmicrf exhibited, me to her 
view, eating my rolls and wandeiing in the streets.'* 
Franklin remsuned about seven months in Phi- 
hdelj^iia, worked for Keimer, and formed many 
acquaintaj^ces ; some of them very respectable.* 
Accident procured him an interview with governor 
Keidi, who made him great promises of friendship 
and patronage ; persuaded him to visit his father^ 
which he accordmgly did, and was bearer of a letter 
the governor wrote to him, mentioning the son in the 
most flattering terms ; and, . recommending his es-' 
taUishmoit as a printer at Philadelphia^ under a^ur- 
ances of success. . Franklin was at this tinie only in 
the nineteenth year of his age, and his father declin- 
ed to assist in establishing him in .business on ac- 
count of his youth and inexperience ; but, he an- 
swered governor Keith's letter ; thanking him for 
the att^tions and patron^ he had exercised toward 
his son. Franklin determined to return to Phila- 
delphia. At Newyork, on his way, he received 
some attentions from the governor of that colony.^ 
On his arrival at Philadelphia he presented his fath- 
er's letter to governor Keith. The governor disap- 
proved of the caution of lus father ; still urged the 
prosecution of the scheme ; promised himself to be 
at all the expense of procuring printing materials ; 
and advised Franklin to make a voyage to England, 
and select the types,, under his own eye, at the 
foundry. To this plan Franklin agreed, and it was 
setded that the design should be kept secret, imtil 
an opportunity presented for his taking passage for 

* Bnm^t, who was sooii after governor of Massachusetts. 

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S30 Hisltmr ov WMintiNC 

London. lathe mdhitime be ooBtmued to worit 
for Keimar* 

When a vessel ivas idbottt to sail, the governor 
promised from day to dajr to give Franklm fetters 
of credit upon hb corresponded in London) and^ 
tHien he vr3& caUed on bc^ord dh^ tiie ^gwetmt told 
him) Uiat he wcnM seadfais letters to himtm bdanL 
At the moment of sailing, letters were broii^t frbm 
the governor ^md put into th^ file's letter ba^; 
m^cmg which, Franklin rapp^ied were tfac^e^ thett 
had been promised him. JBkit when te r^^^hed his 
port; he found, on investigation, that be had neith^ 
letters of credit neat introduction. The govemw 
had deceived him^ and he latided a stitui^ in a 
stitingie country. 

Destitute and friendless, Franklhi's only itieans 
of support consiated in his capacity to labor, lie 
immediately apfdied ^to a printer for employmatit ast 
a journeyman, smd obtsUned it. In this i^tuatkm he 
continued for eighteen months, and gained mudh 
knovdedge in die art of Printing. He then formed 
a connexion with a mercantile fiiendi whom he as^ 
sisted as a clerk ; and, widi him, he returned to 
Philadelphia. This friend soon died, and Franklin 
relinquished the plan of mercaiftile pursuits. He 
returned to the business <rf a printer as a joimiey- 
man; but^ soon sfter, <^ned a printing house 
of his 6wn in PluIadeipMa. ^See PMbtdelplm 

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VlttfliD iTif£9w Hdl 

tlMOTHY GREEK, juk. 

H« 1lr^ the soA of Tiitaoa^ GtcJCft, i*rho t6. 
MUmsd froth fio^toft fo N^wlondon in 1714 5 and 
gteat grttndsoh of Salttiuel Gtten^ of Cambridge; 

I hate seen no printing #ife his nam^ befbrt 
I72fir. One or two pamphlets were then priaited bf 
S. Kneeland and T. Green. Sererad small pnbUca- 
tions appeared afterwards with Kneeland's name 

In 1727, a regular partnership took place be- 
twt&k theiti, under the fi^m of ^' S. Kteehmd and 
It. Gfi6ea»'' TMs partiiei^^, 2^ hk^ been men<> 
tio^d, C0Rflintied fin 17^, when he removed to 
KiwiemdeM^, dnd succeeded his father. ISee JSh&e^ 
land and Green^ and printers in QmneeHcut.^ 

BAftTfiOLOMfiW GilEEN, ji^n. 

Wi* the son of Bartholomew Green, printed 
of The Boston News-Letter, grandson to Samuel 
CSteen^ who printed at Cambridge^ and served an 
apprenticesdiip wRh his fallier* 

Thft earfiest works I hav^ seen printed by Bar- 
diolomew Green, jun. are, a small book publidied 
ift 1?726, and The Boston Gazette, for the postmas. 
tfer, Henry Marshall, in 1727. 

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He made use of his press and t3rpes in the print- 
ing house erf his father, till 1734 ; and was, occa- 
sionally, connected with John' Draper, his brother 
in law, in printing pamphlets, &c. Draper suc- 
ceeded to the business of B. Green the elder in 
1732, in the same hoiise- On the night of the 30th 
of January, 1734, this house, with the greatest part 
of its contents, was destroyed by fire. After this 
misfortune, B. Green jun. formed a copartnership 
with John Bushell and Bezoune Allen. The firm 
of this company was, 

Greeriy Bushell and Allen. 

They printed a number of small books for the 
trade, which were very well executed. They used 
handsome types, and printed on good paper. How 
long this partnership continued, I cannot say; it 
was dissolved before 1751. 

In September 1751, Green, with his printing 
materials, removed to Halifax, Novascotia, intend- 
ing to establish a press in that place ; but, he died 
in about five weeks after his arrival there,, at the age 
of fifty two years. On his decease, his late partner 
Bushell, went to Halifax, and commenced busi- 
ness with Green's press. 

Green left several children, and two of his sons 
were printers. Bartholomew, the eldest of them, 
never had a press of his own. The following pecu- 
liarity in his character introduced him to a particu- 
lar intercourse with the merchants of the town ; he 
made himself so well acquainted with every vessel 
which sailed out of the port of Boston, as to know 

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«di at sight. Perpetually on the watch, as soon as 
a vessel could be discovered whh k spyglass in the 
harbor, he knew it, and gave immediate informa- 
tion to the owner ; and, by the small fees for this 
kind of information, he jwincipally maintained liim- 
self for several years. Afterward he had some of- 
fice in the custom house. John, another son, wiU 
be mentioned hereafter. 

One of the daughters of Green, is the mother of 
mr. Joseph Dennie, formerly editor of The Farmer^s 
Museum, at Walpole, Newhaippshire, and now ed- 
itor of The Port Folio, published at Philadelphia. 
Mr. Dennie is reckoned among the first scholars in 
the Belles Lettres, which our country has produced. 


Served his apprenticeship with Bartholomew 
Green, the elder. About the year 1729, he began 
business in a printing house, near the Mill Bridge. 
He printed for the booksellers. In 1742, he com* 
menced a partnership with Daniel Fowle, under the 
firm of 

Sogers and Fowle. 

They opened a printing hpuse in Prison lanCj^ 
for some time called Queen street, and now named 
Court street. 

For those times, they entered largely into busi- 
ness, and the books they printed, in magnitude and 

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8S4 Histaur of fntwrittc. 

yw^f «s;ceed«d tbo usual works of.tteewurtfyi 
A number of ootavo and duodedniovoluines nniedl 
froBi their house t and^ their printing was e^oouted 
with aecuracy and neatness. Several of then 
books were printed on their own acecnnit. 

In 174S» they issued The American Magazine 
It was published in numbers, monthly ; printad in 
a handsome manner, and, in its execution, deemed 
equal to ai^ work c^ the kind then puUished in 
London* Several respectable bookseflcrs were ion 
ti^sted in this magazine. Jt was continued &r 
three years* 

In the beginning of the year 1748, they CGan« 
tnenced the publication of a newqiaper^ entitled 
The Independent Advertiser. A number of aWe 
writers supported and enlivened this publication. 
Its prominent features were political. In 1750, 
they closed the business of the firm, and the Inde- 
pendent Advertiser was then discontinued. 

During the partaft^^p of Rogers and F<^le, 
t^y prkited an edition of aboist; two thuwsand Wfk9 
of th^ New TestOTaent, 12mai. fev D. Henetenm 
and t^^ or tiiree other prmcifal bookseltees^ as h^ 
beea already obseirved# 

This impression of the Testament, the first in 
the English language printed in this country, was, 
as I have been infimtied, completed at the press, be- 
fore Kneeland and Green began the edition of the 
5ible which has been mentioned. 

Zechariah Fowle, with whom I served my ap. 
^prenticeship, as well as several others^, repeatedly 
mentioned to me this edition of the Testament. 
He was, at the time, a journeyman with Rogers and 

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Fovirle^ and worked at the press* He informed ttie, 
that on account of the weakness of hig constituti<Hi) 
he greatty injured his heahh by the performisfiCe. 
Privacy in the business was necessary^ and as feir 
hands were intmsted with the secret, the press work 
was, as he thought, very laborious* I mentiosi these 
minute circumstaiKres in proof that an edition of the 
Testament did issue from the office of Rogers and 
Fowle, because I have l^^d diat the fact has been 

Rogers and Fowle were correct printers. They 
used good types, paper, and excellent ink of their 
own manufocture. They were the crnly printers, I 
bd&eve, who at that time, could make good ink. 
The printing ink used in this country, until lately, 
was chiefly imported from Europe. In the first 
stages of printing, printers made their own ink and 
types ; but, the manufacture of types and ink soon 
became separate bnmches of business. Most of 
the bad printing in the United States, particularly, 
m Newengland, during the revoluticmary war, was 
occasi^Hied by the wretched ink, and more wretched 
paper, which printers %vere then under the necessity 
<^ using. 

After the dissolution of the partnership of Rog- 
eris and Fowle, Rogers removed to the west part 
of Ae town, then called New Boston ; and there 
opened a printing house. For two or three years 
be did a Uttle business ini this place, when his 
printmg house was, imfortunately, burnt down. 
By this accident he was deprived of his press, and 
the principal part of his types. Having lost most 
of his property, he did no more business as a 

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printer^ His spirits were broken, and he appeared 
dejected. At an advanced period of life, he opened 
a small shop oj^osite to the Old South church, 
where he supported his family, by retailing ar- 
dent spints in small quantities, trifling articles of 
grocery, and by vending a few pamphlets, the 
renmant of his stock* I went myself frequently to 
his shopy when a minor. He knew that I lived 
with a iM-inter, and for this, or some other reason, 
was very kind to me ; he gave me some books <rf 
his printing; and, what was of more value to me, 
good advice* He adm(»ushed me diligently to at- 
tend to my business, that I might become a reputa-^ 
ble printer, I held him in high veneration ; and, 
often recollected his instructions, which, on many 
occasions, proved beneficial to me. 

Rogers was industrious, and an excellent work- 
man ; an amiable, sensible man, and a good christian. 

In 1775, soon after the batde at Bunker's Hill, 
when Boston was wholly in possession of the British 
troops, and besieged by the provincials, Rogers was 
among a number of the infirm and invalid inhabit- 
ants of that town who obtained permission from the 
British general, to leave it. He sought an asylum 
qX Ipswich ; removed there, and died at that place 
in the autumn of that year, aged 70- 

He left several daughters, but no sons ; two of 
his daughters married clergymen ; one of them was 
the wife of the rev. Elijah Parsons of Easthaddam, 
in Connecticut, and the other the second wife of the 
reverend mr, Dana of Ipswich, 

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Was the son of Richard Draper, a trader 'm 
Boston. He served his apprenticeship with Bar- 
tholomew Green, senior, whose daughter he mar- 
ried ; and, at the decease of his father in law, occu- 
pied his printing house in Newbury street. 

In September, 1731, Draper commenced the 
publication of a political paper, entitled, The Week- 
ly Rehearsal. It was printed, according to the cus- 
tom of those times, on a half sheet of small paper ; 
and was carried on at the expense of some gentie- 
men who formed themselves into a political or lite- 
rary club, and wrote for it. At the head of this 
chib was the late celebrated Jeremy Gridley, esq.* 
who was the real editor of the paper. The re- 
ceipts for The Rehearsal never amounted to more 
than enough to defray the expense of publication. 
Draper printed this paper only about a year and a 
half, and at the expiration of about four years it was 

On the 28th of December, 1732, Bartholomew 
Green died, and Draper succeeded him in his bu- 
siness; particularly as publisher of The Boston 
Weekly News-Letter. In 1734, he printed the 

* Mn Gridley was afterward attorney general of the prov- 
ince of Massachusetts, grand master of the society of free ma- 
sons, president of the marine society, and a member of the 
general court. He died in September, 1767. 

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S28 HISrOIY Of !^RfK¥rNC« 

laws of the province. He was afterward appointed 
printer to the governor and council, and was honor- 
ed with that mark of confidence and favor as long as 
he lived. 

Draper not only succeeded Bartholomew Green 
in his business^ but he was heir to bis calamities 
alsa On the night of the 30th of Jamjary^ 17S4^ 
ibc flames were seen to burst from his printii^ 
house, but too late for any effectual assistance to be 
afforded. The fire had kindled in the interior paort 
of thebuildiE^y which was burnt to the ground; 
and, neariy the whde of the printii^ materials wcit 
destroyed* Ttus loss was insoine measure r cp ahtd 
by due friendship of his btethren of the tfptf wbo 
loaned to him a jn^ess, and several founts of letters, 
tSl he couUr replace diose articles by anew printii^ 
aj^aratus from England. 

He printed a number of books for tbe tnute } 
but published only a few small pamj^ets for Ms 
own sales.. He annuadly printed Ames's famous 
Almanack, Jbr himself and for booksettets; of 
which about sixty thousand copies were axmEuKy 
sotd in the Newengland c<dociies» 

Draper owned the house in which he rcttded 
It waam Cornhin, the east comer of the short alley 
leading to the church in Bradtle sireet* He wai^^ 
industrious and useful member of society, and was 
held in estimation by his^ fiiends^ and ac^^intance^. 

He died November 29th, 1762, and was sue* 
ceeded in business by his^ son. 

The following character of IXraper fe extracted 
from The Boston Evening Post of December 6, 

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tXKXTED STAttS. 329 

" On Monday Evening last departed this Life 
after a slow and hectic Disorder, having just entered 
the 61st Year of his Age, Mr. John Draper, Printer, 
who for a long Time has been the Publisher of a 
News-Paper in this Town ; and by his Industry, 
Fidelity and Prudence in his Business, rendered 
himself very agreeable to the Public* — ^His Charity 
and Benevolence ; his pleasant and sociable Turn 
of Mind ; his tender Affection as a Husband and 
Parent ; his Piely and Devotion to his Maker, has 
made his Death as sensibly felt by his Friends and 
JRektionSi as his Life is worthy Imitation." 


Was bom in Boston^ where he served an ap- 
prenticeship. He began business about the year 
1734 ; and, as I have been informed, printed The 
Boston Weekly Post Boy, during a short period, 
for Ellis Huske, postmaster. He was afterward 
of the firm of Green, Bushell and Allen. They did 
but little business while together, and the connex- 
ion was dissolved about 1750. Upon the termination 
of the partnership. Green, as has been mentioned, 
removed to Halifax, Novascotia ; and, as he died a 
few weeks after his arrival, Bushell went to Halifax, 
and with Green's apparatus established a press in 
tliat place. He was the first who printed in that-, 
province. [^See JVovascotia.^ 


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Was^ probabfy, the son of John Allen. He 
entered on business, according to report, about the 
year 1734 ; and was, for several years, of the firm of 
Green, Bushell and Allen. This copartnership was 
formed, I belierc, in 1736. I have seen books 
printed by them as late as 1745 ; but, I have not 
discovered that any thing was printed by Allen sep- 
arately. They never were in extensive bjusiness ; 
and, what they did consbted^ principally,, in small 
works for the booksellers.^ 


Was the son of the elder Timothy Green, whor 
removed from Boston and settled at Newlondon, in 
1714, and great grandson of Samuel Green, printer 
at Cambridge. He was bom at Boston, and served 
his apprenticeship with hb father in Newlondon. 
.When of age, he came to Bostcm, and was several 
years in the printing house of his brotiter, who was 
then the partner of S. Kneeland. 

I have seen but one book printed by Jcxias 
Green, m Boston, viz. " A Grammar of the He- 
brew Tongue, by Judah Monis, professor ei the 
Hebrew language^ at Harvard college,** in Cam- 

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bridge, Massachusetts. Good judges pronounced 
this work to be correctly printed. I have seen a 
copy of it in the Theological library in BostaQ,. 
where the ori^nal manuscript is preserved. The 
Hebrew types were a cast belonging to the college, 
which have since been used in printing professor 
J5ewall*s Hebrew Grammar, and, I suppose, are 
now in the museum of the university. 

Green resided several years in Philadelphia; 
and, during that time was employed in the printing 
houses of Bradford and Franklin, 

In 1739, as there was not a printer in Maryland, 
the legislature of that province employed an agent 
to procure one* Green, being well recommended 
by his employers, made applicaticm to the agent, 
and obtained the place of printer to that government. 
In consequence of the liberal encouragement he re- 
ceived, he opened a printing house at Annapdi^ 
in 1740, [^See printers in MarylandS^ 


I HAVE not been able to obtain much informa- 
tion respecting Love. He was bom in, or near 
Boston, and served his apprenticeship in that town. 

I have seen nothing of his printing ; but, he was 
known in Boston as a printer ; indeed, I recollect, 
myself, that, when a lad, I heard mention made of 
him ; but I cannot ascertain that he was at any 
time actively engaged in the printing business. 

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In The Bostott Evening Post of May liA, 
1770, under the Boston head, is the foUowing para^ 
gjiuph, VIZ, 

"We hear from New-Providence, that on the 
23d of January 1^, died there after a few dajrs 
illness of a Bilious Cholic, Ebcneaer Love, Esq. 
formerly of this town, Printer, For a, number <rf 
years past, he had resided at that Idand, and carried 
on Merchandize ; was well esteenw^d by the Gen- 
tlemen there, and elected a member of ^ir House 
of Assembly.'* 


Was bom in Charlcstown, near Boston, and 
served his apprenticeship with Samuel Kneeland. 

He began printing, on his own account, in 
1740, *' north side of King street, opposite the 
town house." 

In 1742, he, and Gamaliel Rogers, formed a 
partnership, in business, under the firm of Rogers 
and Fowle.* A brother of Fowle, named John, 
was a silent partner in this firm. They opened a 
printing house in Prison lane, the house next but 
one to the old stone gaol, on the site of which the 
court house now stands. In the account given of 
Rogers, I have mentioned the works done by this 
company; and, particularly, the New Testament, 
the American Magazine, and the newspaper, enti- 

f See Rogci^ and fowle. 

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tied, Tte Independent Advertiser. In taking no- 
tice of Fowle, therefore, I shall begin with the 
period at which the partnership was dissolved, that 
is, in 1750* 

Socoi after that event, Fowle opened a printing 
house on the south side of Anne strecit, not far from 
the Flat Conduit, so called, which at that time 
stood in Union street. At the same place, he also 
opened a shop, and kept a small collection of 
books for sale. Here he printed a number of 
works, chiefly pamphlets, most of which were for 
his own sales. 

In October, 1754, Fowle, while at dinner, was 
arrest^, by virtue of an wder of the house of rep- 
resentatives, signed by Thomas Hubbard, their 
speaker, and taken before that house, on suspicion 
of having printed a pamphlet, which reflected upon 
some of the members. It was entitled, " The Mon^ 
ster o/Monsters.-^By Tom Thumb, Esq," After 
an hour's confinement in the lobby, he was brought 
before the house. The speaker, holding a copy of 
the pamphlet in his hand, asked him, " Do you 
know any thuig of the printing of this Book ?" 
Fowle requested to see it ; and, it was given him. 
After examination, he said, that it was not of his 
printing ; and, that he had not such types in his 
printing house. The speaker then asked, " Do you 
know any thing relating to the said Book ?" Fowle 
requested the decision of the house, whether he was 
bound to answer the question. No vote was taken, 
but a few members answered, " Yes t" He then 
observed, that he had " bought some copies, tad 

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had sold them at his shop.'' This observation oc- 
casioned the following questions and answers, viz.^ 

Question. [By the speaker.] Who did you 
buy them of? 

Answer. They were, I believe, sent by a young 
man, btit I cannot tell his name. 

Q. Who did he live with? 

pPowIe again desired the decision of the house, 
whether he was obliged to give the required inform- 
ation, and a number of individual members again 
replied, " Yes !''— Upon which Fowle answered] 

The young man, I believe, lives with Royall 

Q. Did you have any c<Miversation with him 
[Tyler] about them ? 

A. I believe I might, in the same manner I 
had with many others ; not that I thou^t him the 
author. It was never offered me to print. 

Q. Did any of your hands assist in doing it ? 

A. I believe my negro might, as he some- 
times worked for my brother.f 

Q. Has your brother any help ? 

A. No, 

•Vide « Total Eclipse of Liberty," ^pampblet written 
and published by D. Fowle, cooataining % full account of this 
arbitrary procedure. 

t This negro was named Primus. He was an African. I 
well remember him; he worked at press with or without an 
assistant} he continued to do press work until prevented by 
age. He went to Portsmouth with his master, and there diedy 
being more than ninety years Qf age ; about fifty of which he 
was a pressman. 

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tJririTEB STATES. 33S 

Qk Did ycm sec any of it whilst prindng ? 

A. Yes. 

Q. Whose house was it in ? 

A. I think it was my brothe^r's. 

Q. Where does he live ? 

A. Down by Cross street* 

Q. What is his name f 
. A. Zeehariah. 

One of the members then said to Fowle, " You 
do not know when you lie P^ Fowle replied, " Beg- 
ging your pardon, sir, I know when I lie, and what 
a lie is as well as yourself/' 

After this examination, Fowle was again confin- 
ed for several hoiu^ in the lobby ; and, from thence, 
about ten o'clock at night, was, by order of the 
house, taken to the " common gaol," and there 
closely confined ** among thieves and murderers."* 
He was denied the sight of his wifi^, although she, 
with tears, petitioned to see him ; no friend was 
permitted to speak to him ; and he was debarred 
the use of pen, ink and paper. 

Royall Tyler, esq. was arrested, and carried be- 
fore the house. When interrogated, he claimed 
the right of silence — " Nemo tenetur seipsum accu- 
$are^'^ was the only answer he made. He was Com- 
mitted for contempt ; but, was soon released, on a 
promise that he would be forth coming when re- 

* Fowle was confined in the same room with a thief and a 
notorious chelit; ^d, in the next cell, was one Wyer, then 
under sentence of death for murder, and was soon after exe- 
cuted. [Vid. Fov)U*8 Total Melifiae of Liberty,'] 

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336 HisTonr of iteikxing*^ 

The* liouse ordered their messenger to take 
Fowle's brother Zechanah into custody, with some 
others ; but his physician gave a certificate erf his 
indisposition, and by this mean he escaped impris- 

After two days close confinement, D. Fowie 
was taken to the keeper^s house, and told, that, •* He 
might go;^* but, he refused ; observing, that as he 
was confined at midnight uncondemned by the kw, 
he desired that the authority which ccmfinol, should 
liberate him, and not thrust him out privib/. He 
remained with the gaoler three days longer ; when 
learning from a respectable physician, that his wife 
was seriously indisposed— *diat h^r hfe was endan- 
gered' by her anxiety on account of his confine- 
ment^-*-and, his friends joining their perstiasion to 
this call upon his tenderness, Fowle was induced to 
ask for his liberation. He was acc(Hdingly dis- 
missed ; and, here the prosecution ended. He en- 
deavored to obtain some satisfaction for the depriva- 
tion of his liberty, but he did not succeed in the 

Disgusted with the government of Massachu* 
setts by this treatment, and being invited by a num- 
ber of respectable gentlemen in Newfaampshire to 
remove into that colony, he accepted their invita- 
tion ; and, at the close of the following year, estab- 
lished his press at Portsmouth. He was the first 
printer who setded in that province ^ and, in 175$, 
he began the publication of The New-Hampshire 

D. Fowle was, I believe, the third person whom 
the legislature of Massachusetts imprisoned for print- 

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I0g "what iv;as deemed a Hbel oil <(hat body , or 

0f Its jnember$, cor for publishing heretical opin* 

Living in the family of Daniel Fowk's brother^ 
I early became minutely acquainted with thf^ 
whole transaction, and deep impressions were thea 
mside upon my mind in favor of the liberty dT 
Jhe pre3S# Fear this liberty I am now an advocate^ 
feut I still, as I ever did, hold the opinion, that a 
line should be d^a^vn between the liberty and the 
licentiousness <tf the press. We seem to Imve pass- 
ed from we extreme to the o(ther ; and, it is now 
difficult, I confess, to mark the proper boundary* 
[^See Newhampshire.'} 


He was bom at Charlestown, near Boston, of 
VMy respectable parents, and served his appren^ 
ticeship with his brother Daniel, who was, at that 
period, in partnership with Gamaliel Rogers* 

The first book which bears the name of Z* 
Fowk as printer, was begun by Rogers and Fowle, 
viz. Pomfret^s Poems, on a new small pica. On 
the dissoluticm of that firm, they assigned this book 
over to Z. Fowle, who completed it, and sold the 
greater part of the copies, in sheets, to booksellers. 

He soon after opened a printing house, and a 
small shqp, in Middle street, near Cross street, 
where he printed and sold ballads and small pam* 

I %T 

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338 HisToAv o:f printing. 

Not being much known as a printer, and living 
in a street where but little business was transacted, 
he was selected by a number of gentlemen, who 
were in opposition to the measures of the general 
court, and particularly to an excise act, to print a 
pamphlet entitled, " The Monster of Monsters,** 
satirizing this act, and bearing with some severity 
upon individual members of the court. D. Fowle 
was prevailed upon to assist his brother in carrying 
this work through the press. Joseph Russell, his 
apprentice, then nearly of age, worked at the case, 
and a negro man at the press. The pamphlet was 
small, and appeared without the name of the 

It was the custom of that day to hawk about the 
streets every new publication. Select hawkers were 
engaged to sell this work ; and, were directed what 
answers to give to enquiries into its origin-— who 
printed it, &c. The general court was at the time 
in session. The hawkers appeared ctfi the Ex- 
change with the pamphlet, bawling out, " The Mm* 
ster cf Monster s^P'* Curiosity was roused, and the 
book sold. The purchasers inquired of the hawk- 
ers, where the Monster came from ? — all the reply 
was, " It dropped from the moonP^ Several mem- 
bers of the general court bought the pamphlet. Its 
contents soon excited the attention of the house. 
Daniel Fowle, who was suspected to be the printer^ 
was brought before the house of representatives and 
^pcamined, as has been observed.* Z. Fowle was 
tl)ien ordered into custody, and Russell who assisted 

* Vid. Daniel Fowle^ 

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him. Russell was brought before the house, ex- 
amined and released. 

Z. Fowle hearing, that his brother and Russell 
were arrested, and that the ofEcer was in search of 
him, was instantly seized with a violent fit of the 
cholic. His illness was not feigned; he possess- 
ed a slender constitution, was often subject to this 
complaint ; and, at this time, it was brought on by 
the fear of an arrest. When the officer appear- 
ed, the attending physician . certified tliat he was 
dangerously ill. With this certificate the officer 
departed, and Fowle escaped imprisonment — ^the 
punishment which his brother unjustly experienced. 

When Daniel Fowle removed to Portsmouth, 
Zechariah took the printing house, which he had 
occupied, in Anne street. 

Until the year 1757, Z. Fowle printed littie else 
than ballads ; he then began an edition of the Psal- 
ter for the booksellers. In this work he was aided 
by two young printers just freed from their inden- 
tures, and to whom Fowle allowed a proportionate 
part of the profits of the impression. One of these, 
Samuel Draper, a very worthy young man, became 
a partner with Fowle after the Psalter was printed. 
The firm was 

Fowle and Draper. 

They took a house in Marlborough street, op- 
posite the Foundier's Arms ; here they printed, and 
opened a shop. They kept a great supply of bal- 
lads, and smsJl pamphlets for book pedlars, of whom 
Jliere were many at that time. They printed sev- 

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340 HisTOftT Of WKinxtVG. 

era! wotks of higher consequence, viz. nn edidofl 
consisting of twenty thousand copies of The Youth's 
Instructor in the English Tongue^ conunonfy called 
the Newex^iand Spelling Bode ^ thi$ schod bcxdc 
was in great repute, and in general use for laaEof 
years. — ^Janeway's Heaven iqxm Eartii, octsrvo^^ 
Watts's Psalms, and several; smsdter duodecimo 
volumes^— dl fctf* the trade. They printed, abo^ 
many pamphkts oi various sizes on their am ac« 
count ; and, had folL employment for themselvat 
and two lads. Draper was a diligent man, and gave 
unremitted attendance in the printing house. Fowfe 
was bred to the business, but he was am indiffisrent 
hand at the press, and much worse at tiie csast^ He 
was never in the printing house when be could fold 
a pretence for being absent. 

After the death of John Draper, Richard, his 
son^ took his kinsman Samuel, as a partner, and 
Fowle again printed by himself. The business in 
his printing bouse was then principally managed by 
a young lad, his only apprentice. 

Soon after he separated from Draper, he remov- 
ed to Back street, where he continued printmg and 
vending ballads and small books until 1770; at 
which time Isaiah Thomas became his partner. 
This connexion was dissolved in less than three 
jnonths, apd Thomas purchased his press and 

Fowle, having on hand a considerable stock of 
the small articles he usually sold, continued his 
shop till 1775. Boston being then a garrison town 
|n the possession of the British troops, he obtained 
ft permit to leave it, and removed to PcMtsmoutb, 

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' tTNlTED STATES. 341 

Newhaxnpshire. While in diis place he resided 
trith his brother^ and died in his house in 1776. 

Fowk was a sk^ular mm, very irritable and ef^ 
feminate, and better skilled in the <kymedtic wc^k 
<sf fismaies, than in the bu^ness of a {Mtinting house. 
His first wife died in 175& — ^he married a second ; 
btit had no chadren by cither. Fowk could not be 
cafled an indv£Strious man ; yet, in justice to his 
eharacteri it ought to be mentioned, diat he did 
business enough to give himself and family a decent 
maintenance. Although he did not ac<juire prc^* 
&ty^ he took care not to be involved in debt. He 
was ho»)est m his dealings, and punctual to his en* 


Was bom in Charlestown, near Boston. He 
began business with John Gill, in the year 1755, 
under the j5rm of 

£des and GilL 

They continued in partnership until the com, 
mencement of the revolutionary war. 

Their printing house, for a time, was in King 
street, now State street; the^ afterward occupied 
the printing house formerly kept by Rogers and 
Fowk, the second house west of the present court 
bouse in Court street. After the deaUi of Samuel 

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Kneeland, they removed to the printing hou^ 
which he, for about forty years, occupied, and there 
they rem^ed until hostilities commenced between 
the parent state, and the colonies. 

Two newspapers had been published, entitled 
The Boston Gazette, and were, in succession, dis- 
ccmtinued. Edes and GUI began a new paper imder 
the title of ** The Boston Gazette ; and Countiy 
Journal ;" which soon gained an establishment, and 
became distinguished fOT the spirited political essays 
which appeared in it. 

They publbhed many political pamphlets, and, 
Cm* a number of years were appointed prinjters to the 
general court. They did some business for book- 
sellers. A small number of octavo and duodecimo 
volumes were occasionally issued from their press; 
but, their principal business consisted in the publi- 
cation of the Gazette. When the dispi^te between 
Greatbritain and her colonies' assumed a serious as- 
pect, this paper arrested the public attention, from 
the part its able writers took in the cause of liberty 
and their country ; and, it gained a very extensive 
circulation. Edes was a warm and a firm patriot, 
and GiQ was an honest whig. 

Soon after tlie revolutionary war began, the Brit- 
ish troops closed the avenues between Boston and 
the country ; but Edes fortunately made his escape 
by night, in a boat, with a press and a few types. 

He opened a printing house in Watertown, 
where he continued the Gazette, and printed for the 
provincial congress of Massachusetts. Here he 
found full employment, and his zeal in the cause 

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of his country animated him to redoubled dili- 

The printing he executed at Watertown, did not, 
indeed, do much credit to the art ; but the work, at 
this time, done at other presses, was not greatly su- 
perior. The war broke out suddenly, and few of 
any profession were prepared for the event. AU 
kinds of printing materials had usually been import- 
ed from England ; even ink for printers had not, in 
any great quanlity, been made in America. This re-' 
source was, by the war, cut off; and, a great scar- 
city of these articles, soon ensued. 

At that time, there were but three small paper 
mills in Massachusetts; in Newhampshire, there 
were none ; and, Rhodeisland contained only one, 
which was out of repair. The paper which these 
miUs could make, fell far short of the necessary sup- 
ply. Paper, of course, was extremely scarce, and 
what could be procured was badly manufactured, 
not having more than half the requisite labor be- 
stowed upon it. It was often taken from the mill wet, 
and unsized. People had not been in the habit of 
saving rags, and stock for the manufacture of paper 
was obtained with great difficulty. Every thing 
like rags was ground up together to make a sub- 
stitute for paper. This, with wretched ink, and 
worn out types, produced miserable printing. 

In 1776, Edes returned to Boston, on the evac- 
uation of the town by the British army. 

GiH had remained recluse in Boston during the 
siege. They now dissolved their connexion, and 
divided their printing materials. Edes continued 
to print for the state several years. 

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SM HisTOitr or titiytxKc. 

In X779i he took bis two aoi^ B^scjiuniii an<l 
Peter into partnership ; their firm was 

JSmjamin Md^s und Smsp 

About three ye«jrs ftfter thi? event,^ 
business fw himself in Boston, but was not succe«Sr 
ful. Benjamin continued with his feili^r some time 
longer, and then *et up a press, and printed a hbwb^ 
pap^ in HaverhUl, Massachusetts ; b^U be wf^ not 
more fcMtunate than hi^ brother. 

The father continued the busio^^ ^imc^ and la* 
bored along with The Bo6t(w Gazette. This pa- 
per had had its d^, and it now languished far wairt 
of that support it derived from the ^l^ndid talents 
of its former writers-Hsome of whom were dead, 
some were gone abroad, aivi others were employed 
in affairs of state. It was further depressed and ^t 
alized by the establishment of other newspapers; 
and, by the exertions of another class of writers, 
who enlivened the columns oif these new journals, 
with their literary productions, 

Edes was a man of great industry* At the be*, 
ginning of die revolutionary war, he had accumu* 
Uted a very decent property, which was not lessened 
when he returned to Boston, in 1776. At that 
time, he took a good house in Comhill, part of 
which formed the alley lading to Brattle street ;; it 
was next to that formerly owned by John Draper ; 
but, some years before his death, he moved into a 
house, which he then owned, in Temple street, and 
hired a chamber over the shop of a tinplate worker 
in Kilby Street, wh^^ he erected his press. 

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. V»tttt> StATt*. 84t 

The 1^^ depreciation of paper money pro ved 
iutal to tihe pit^ertjr of Eded^ as wdl m to thit of 
fnoany others* He had a large fsaeafy to support i 
tad* he continued to work» as had bebn his cui^ 
tami at oase aad presS) lurtil die mfinnities t^ agil 
t^ompeUed him to oease from labor, fo the ad* 
vanced period d his tile, competence and east 
fbrsodc himi and he was oppressed by povert/ and 

Hediedin DecenU^er^ 1803| at the age of eighty 
jrears. His second soni Peter Edes^ is now a printer 
at Augusta^ in the district of Main^ ^ 

Edes begsoi the Boston Gavdte and Country 
Jcmraal, and with him it ended. No publisher of a 
newspaper felt a greater interest in the establishment 
<^the independence of the United States than Ben- 
jamin Edes; andt no newspaper was more mstru«> 
mental in bringing forwatxl this important event 
than The Boston Gazette. {^See JVewsp0pert,2 


Txi partner of Benjamin Edes, and die junior 
publisher of The Boston Gazette and Country Jour* 
nal, was bom in Charlestown) Massachusetts) serv* 
ed his apprenticeship with Samuel Knedand, and 
married one of his daughters. GiU was a sound 
whig^ but did not possess the pditical energy of his 
partner. He was industrious; constantly in the 
printing house, and there worked at case or presf, 
as occasbn required. 

I 2U 

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346 nisrovLY of FftiKTlKC. 

His partnership with £des continued for tiv^nty 
yeai^ They separated at the commencement of 
hostilities by the British, in 1775. Gill remained 
in Boston durii^ the siege ; he did no business, and 
thought it prudent to confine himself to his own 
house. He had, fortunately, acquired a competency 
for the support of his family under that trial. 

After the evacu^on of Boston, his connexion 
with Edes ended. They divided their stock, and 
settled their concerns. Edes continued the publica- 
tion of the Gazette ; and, Gill issued another paper, 
entitled, " The Continental Journal.*^ Having pub- 
lished this paper several years, he sold the right of 
it, in 1785, with his printing materials, to James D. 

Gill was brother to the hon. Moses Gill, who, 
subsequent to the revolution, was, for severd years^ 
lieutenant governor of the commonwealth of Mas- 

He died August 25, 1785, and left sev^al chfl- 

The Continental Joum^^ which announced to 
the public the death of Gill, contains the following 
observations respecting him, viz. 

" Capt. John Gill, for disseminating principles 
destructive of tyranny, suffered during the siege of 
this town in 1775, what many other printers were 
threatened with, a cruelimprisonment. He, how- 
ever, was SQ fortunate as to survive the conflict; 
but had the mortification, lately, of seeing the press 
ready to be shackled by a stamp act, fabricated in 
bis native state ; he, therefore, resigned his business^, 
not choosing to submit to a measiu^ which Britain 

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artfofiy adopted as the foundation of her intended 
tyranny in America. His remains were very reS- 
pectfuHy entomb'd last Monday aftemocm." [^See 
JEdes. — £ost. GazJ} 


Was the son of Bartholomew Green, jun. who 
died at Halifax, and the great grandson of Samuel 
Green of Cambridge. He was bom in Boston, 
served an apprenticeship with John Draper, and 
married his daughter. 

J. Green began business with Joseph Russell in 
the year 1755. The firm was 

Green and RusselL 

Their press was established in Tremont street, 
in a house which was taken dowti to make rObm for 
Scollay's buildings. 

In August, 1757, they issued from their press, a 
newspaper, entitled, *^ The Boston Weekly Adver- 
tiser." They repeatedly altered the title of this 
paper,* but continued its publication until 1773, 
when they sold their right in it, to Mills and Hicks. 

In 1758 they removed, and opened a printing 
house in Queen street, in the brick building 
which makes the east comer of Dorset's alley, and 
nearly opposite to the court house; diis building 

• Sec Newspapers. 

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1S48 HI»01tY OF tKtVYING. 

has evc» siice bum oooupiad 2A a prin&ig iMon 
Tfaey pritHed fer some thne ^ ptmuls of 4^ 
|ttiu$e of if^MMBitallws, loid l^btM of Ae fswecm- 
ment They also did the pxitrttng of tbeeusioili 
house, and published a number of pamphlets ; but, 
they never engaged largely in book work. 

A few years after this partnership was formed, 
Russell opened an auction office, the profits of which 
were shared by die firm. Green managed die print- 
ing hou3e, and Russell the auction room* They 
continued togclhelr untit 1775, and by th^ atten- 
tion to bu3iness acquired a handsome proper^. 

Green remained in Bostoti during the siege, and 
When the British troops left the town, he became 
inta-ested in the Independent Chronicle, then pub- 
lished by Fowars and Wiffis,^ but his nan^e did not 
appear. He was a man of steady habits, true to his 
engagements, and well r^pected. 

He died November, 1787, aged sixty years. He 
had np chitdresv He was^ I believe, the last^f the 
d^cei^nts of Samud C^ren of Caxnbridge^ who 
printed in thi§ state. 


Was bom in Boston, served an apprenticeship 
with Daniel Fowle, and entered into partnersMp 
with John Green^ in 1755.* 

* Rttosell Iked witk Dftaiet fowle, at ^ ^e^ Foirfe i 
Imprisoned on suspicion of printiDg << The Monster ^f MoU" 

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fitatteH t«as a ^ooA worktiian in tlr printing 
business; but his talents WSM mcie fiarticulttrfy 
adapted to tb^ dtsties d* an a«uetioftecr« When 
Ofeeh aiid ilu8sdl uiited auctioQterkig wkh prixit^ 
ifig, Russdltook the sde msmageKnentoftifaevm^ 
di^ room? he noon scmvod to eetebrity m this &m^ 
and had more 6»if^ojmient ki it than any other per- 

When his peotnership v^^ Green was dissolve 
ed^ he formed a connexi<»i widi Samuel Chp i imd 
tfafo cbrnpany, itnder the firm of SUs^ettmA Clap^ 
Gontinuod the bunnd^ of auetHXEieer$ loU the deadi 

jjftusadl: nnM&iS of life, Terf £icetious and witty ; 
tmt attentiTe to his concerns* Few men had more 
IHends> or were more eateemed* In al comp^ues 
Ke rendered himsdf agreeable. He acquired con- 
aiderabte prcperty^^but did not hoard op his wealth, 
Ibr bmeiralence was one of his virtues. He was a 
mcxAij ciliaen, aiui a friend to hia comitry« 

He d&td- at the md of Kovember, 4795, s^ed 
«iKty one jreanu 


Was a native of Boston, His mother was the 
sister of lames and of the celebrated Benjamin 
Frai^n. Mecom served his apprenticeship with 
his unde B. Frankpn, at Philadelphia^ 

When of age, having received some assistance 
from his unclci b? went to Antigua, «id there print- 

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ed a newspaper ; but, in 1756» he quitted that island, 
and returned to Boston. 

In 1757, he (qpened a printing house in CornhHI, 
nearly. <^posite to the Old Brick church* At the 
same place he kept a shop and sold books. His 
first work was a large edition^ thirty thousand cop* 
ies, of the Psalter, for the booksellers. He printed 
them on terms so low, that his profits did not amount 
to journeymen's wages. This edition was two years 
worrying tlirough his jwess. 

After the Psalter, Mecom began to prifit and 
publish, on his own account, a periodical work, 
which he intended i^ould appear monthly. It was 
entitled, " The New- England Magazine of Knowl- 
edge and Pleasure." It contained about fi% pages 
12mo. but he published only three or four numbers. 
These were issued in 1758 ; but no date either of 
jmofith or year appeared in the title page, or in the 
imprint. In this Magazine were inserted several 
articles, under the head of " Queer Nations J^ Eadi 
number, when published, was sent about town for 
sale, by hawkers ; but few copies were vended^ and 
the work, of course,- was discontinued. 

His business was not extensive ; he prijited sev- 
eral pamphlets for his own sale, and a few for that 
of others. He remained in Boston for a number of 
years ; but when James Parker anrf Co. whb printed 
at Newhaven, removed to Newyork, Mecom suc- 
ceeded them. Soon after dr. Franklin procured 
Mecom the office of postmaster for Newhaven. 

He married in Newjersey,' before he set up his 
press in Boston. He possessed good printing mate- 

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rials ; but, * there was something skgular in his 
work, as well as in himself. 

He w^ in Boston several months before the 
arrival of his press and types from Antigua, and had 
much leisure. During this interval, be frequently 
came to the house where I was an apprentice. H^ 
was handsomely dressed, wore a powdered bob wig, 
raffles and gloves ; gentlemanlike append^es which 
the printers of that day did not assume — and, tiius ap*> 
parelled, would often assist, for an hour, at the press. 

An edition of The New-England Primer being 
wanted by the booksellers, Z. Fowle consulted with 
Mecom on the subject, who consented to assist in 
the impression, on condition that he might print a 
certain number for himself. To this proposal Fowle 
consented, and made his contract with the booksel- 
lers. Fowle had no help but myself, then a lad in 
my eighth year. The impression consisted of ten 
thousand copies. The form was a small sixteens, 
on foolscap paper. The first form of the Primer 
being set up, idiile it was worked at the press, I 
was put to case to set the types for the second* 
Having completed this, and set up the whole cast of 
types employed in the. work, and the first form being 
still at presp, I was employed as a fly ; that is, to 
take off the sheets from the tympan as they were 
printed, and pile them in a heap ;— -tiiis expedited the 
work. While I was engaged in this business, I 
viewed Mecom at the press with admiration. He 
indeed put on an apron to save his qjothes from 
blacking, and guarded his ruffles ; but, he wore his 
coat, his wig, his hat and his gloves, whilst working 
sA press ; and, at case, laid aside his apron. When 

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3£2 HisroRY OF Tmtvtisc. 

he pnbli8fa€d hb Magbzinc with *^ Q^tter N<AioiiB»^^ 
this singularity, and some «^nd^ kaown to tbe 
trade, induced diem to gtve hinv the appellation of 
^ Queer NotumsJ"' 

Mccom was» however^ a genilem^m ki his ap* 
pearance and manners ) \aA been welt educated to 
his bu^ess ; and. if ^^ queer," was honest a^d w&a*^ 
fiible; and called a correct and good printer. {Sfit 




Th£V were brothers, and having learned from 
their father the art of Printing, succeeded him in 
business at his house in ComhiU, in 1758. I men* 
tion them together^ because they commenced print* 
ing in partnership, and continued in connexioa im* 
til separated by death. 

They carried on the publication bi The Bost<m 
Evening Post imtil the commetitcement Of the revo* 
lutionary war; when they suspended the jHiblkaticHi 
of that newspaper, and it was never iafter resumed. 
The impartiality with which thi* paper was c<Hi* 
ducted^ in those most critical times, the authenticity 
of its news, and the judicious selections of its pub* 
lishers, gained them great and deserved reputatioii. 

Both brothers were bom in Boston. Their fadi- 
er gave them a good school education; they w^e 
correct printers, vary attentive to their concerns, 

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pclnctual in their dealings, good citizens, and much 

They printed several works in octavo, and somfe 
vohimes in duodecimo^ on their own account } and, 
some in connexion with other printers* Their shop 
Was always supplied with smaller articles for the 
benefit of their sisters, who were never married. 

They re^nained in Boston during the siege j 
and^ aftierward, revived the publication of the Mas*. 
jBachuaetts Re^sfcef, which originated with Mein 
ai^ Fleming some years before^ and had been con^^ 
tinned by Mills and Hicks* 

Thomas died a bachelor, March % 1797, aged 
-taxty five years. John was married ; he died March 
1% 1806, aged seventy one, and left several chil» 
dren ; one of whom, by the name of Thomas, is 
now a printer in Boston, at the same house ia 
which his grandfaher began The Boston Evening 


He was the son of John Draper, the succes^r 
of Bartholomew Green, proprietor aiid printer of 
The Boston News-Letter. 

R. Draper was brought up a printer by his fath- 
er; continuedwithhim after he became of age; and^ 
for some years before his father's death, was a silent 
partner with him. On the death cf his father,, 
Richard continued the News Letter* 
I 2W 

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He was early appointed to the office of printer 
to the governor and council, which he retained dur- 
ing life. His paper was devoted to the govern- 
ment ; and, in the ccmtroversy between Greatbritain 
and the American colonies, strongly supported the 
royal cause. He added, " The Massachusetts Ga- 
zette,'' to the title of " The Boston News-Letter,*^ 
and decorated it with the king's arms.^ 

Many able advocates for the government filled 
the columns of the News Letter, but the opposition 
papers were supported by writers at least equally 
powerful, and more numerous. 

The constitution of R. Draper was very feeble, 
and he was often confined by sickness. Soon after 
his father^s deatli, he took his kinsman, Samuel 
Draper, who was connected with Z. Fowlc, iito 
partnership, under the firm of 

i?. and S. Draper. 

Samuel was not permitted to share in the honor 
of printing for the govemcw and council. In all 
the work done for them, Richard's name alone ap- 
peared as printer. Samuel Draper died a few years 
after this connexion was fonned^ 

R* Draper, having been successful in his busi^ 
ness, erected a handsome brick house, on a conven- 

* It had become fashionable, many years before the rev- 
olution, among publishers of newspapers, especially those 
whose dtles embraced the word Gazette, to ornament the titles 
widi this ensign of royalty. But the printers in Boston hxi 
not Mowed this fiishion. 

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ient spot in front of the old printing house in New- 
bury street, in which he resided. He was attentive 
to his af&irs, and was esteemed the best compiler of 
news of his day. His character was amiable, and 
his friends were numerous and respectable. 

He died June 6, 1774, aged forty seven years. 
He left no children, and was succeeded by his 

Draper, alone, did very litde book printing.; 
but he was concerned with Edes and Gill, and the 
Fleets, in publishing several volumes of sermons, &c. 

One month preceding his death, he commenced 
a limited copartnership with John Boyle. Boyle^s 
name appeared in the Gazette with Draper's ; whose 
ill healdi rendering him unable to attend closely to 
business, Boyle undertook the chief care and man- 
agement of it. 

The following sketch of the character of R. 
Draper, is taken from the Evening Post of June 
13, 1774. •* He was a man remarkable for the 
amiable delicacy of his mind, apd gentleness of his 
manners. A habit enfeebled and emaciated by re- 
morsele§s disease, and unremitted distress, could 
never banish the smile from his countenance, A 
well founded confidence in the mercies of his God, 
and the happy consciousness q£ a life well spent, 
smoothed the pillow of anguish, and irradiated the 
g^oom of death, with the promise of succeeding 
joy ; in every relation he sustained in life, his en-, 
dearing manners and inflexible integrity rendered 
him truly exemplary," 

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35$ HlSXaty Of WtilVfJrNG, 


Was the nephew and apprentice of John Dra- 
per* He was bom at Mar&a's Vineyard* 

In 1758, soon after he became of age, be weitt 
Into trade with ZechaHah Fowle, who ^ood ia 
much need of a partner like Dnq)er« Their om^ 
nexion was mutually advantageous. Fowle ha4 
been in business seven years , but had made no 
progress in the advancement of his fortune* 

Draper was more ent^rising, but had no copu 
tal to establish himself as a printer* He was a young 
man of correct habits, and handsome abilities* H# 
was industrious ; and, for those times, a good wtxrkt 
man^ Draper was an important acquisition to his 
partner, although Fowle did not appear to be h^hlj 
sensible c^ it* 

The connexic^ continued five years; dining 
which time, they printed, as has be^i remarkedt 
three or four vdumes of some magnitude, a large; 
^ition of the Youth's Instructor in the Englisii 
Tongue, another of the Psalter ; also, a variety of 
pamphlets, chapmois' small books, and ballads* 
They so far su^eeded in trade, as to keep free oS 
debt, to obtain a good livelihood, and increase th^ 
stock* Their printing house was in Marlborough 
street 5 it was taken dowp several years siiice, and a 
new house built on its site, which now makes the 
south comer of Franklin street, at the ^ntranc? from 
^arlborough street. 

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The &rticl(?$ <^ eop^rUier^ip oontenqpiated a 
contmttance of the <?ormexion of Fowk aod Draper^ 
for 3even y^ars ; t>ut, on the deatii of Jgjia Dr^^per^ 
tlichs»*49 ^ ^<^' succeeded to his business. Rich« 
ord was often confij^ to his house by ill healtl^ 
«ad Mwited an assi$taat ; he, thc^-efic^^e, made Ubenl 
proposals to Samuel» which were accepted; and 
tb^ entered into partnership. 

In pursufttice erf this new w^angement, the con* 
Helical be^wew Fowle and Dn^per was dissolved i 
and Draper recommenced bu^ess with a more 
Active and enterprising partner. 

S« Draper c<mtiiiued with his kinsman until hi$ 
doa^, winch happened March 15^ 1767> at the age 
of flirty years. 

While he was in partnership with Fowle, he 
married an agreeable young lady, of a r€g^)ectable 
family, by whom he had two daughters. His widow 
is yet living. 

He had two brothers who were printers; the 
eldest of whom, named Richard, died several years 
ago. The other, whose name was Edward, with a 
partner, published, for some time during the late 
war, a newspaper in Boston. 


Was the son of Samuel Kneeland, and served 
his apprenticeship with his father. He began trade 
as a bookbinder, in plain work, having been bred 
to binding, aij well as printing. 

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A dispute had arisen betlreen the printers and 
bookseUers respecting Ames's Almanack, the par- 
ticu^ of which I do not fully feeoliect ; but, in 
substance, it is as follows. John Draper and his 
|H^ecessor Barthdomew Green, had always pur- 
chased the copy of that Almanack, and printed it on 
their own account; but, thqr had supplied the 
booksellers, in sheets, by the hundred, the thousand, 
or any quantity wanted. About the year 1759, this 
Almanack was enlarged, from sixteen pages (Hi a 
foolscap sheet, to three half sheets. Draper form- 
ed a ccmnexion with Grreen and Russell, and T. su^i 
J. Fleet j in its publication. A half sheet was print- 
ed at each of their printing houses ; and, they were 
not disposed to supply booksellers as formerly. 
The booksellers, immediately on the publication of 
the Almaimck, had it reprinted ; and soon after a 
number of the principal of them set up a printing 
house for themselves; and, they engaged Daniel 
Kneeland, and John his brother, to conduct it foe 
them, uirfer the firm of 

Z). and J. Kneeland. 

The Kneelands continued to print for these 
booksellers several years, in part of the building 
occupied by their father as a printing house ; after 
wliich some difficulty arising, the booksellers put 
a stop to their press, and divided among them 
the printing materials. Daniel Kneeland then dis- 
served his connexion with his brother John ; and, 
being furnished with the press, and a part of the 
types, which had been o^vned by the booksellers^ 

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he aigaged in printing on hb ownacoouift^ but 
worked chiefly for the trade. 

About the year 1772, Daniel to<^, as a partner, 
a young man by the name <rf Nathaniel Davis. The 
£nn was 

Kneeland and Davis* 

This company was, in the course of two or dttiee 
years, dissolved by die death of Davis* 

Kneeland's business before the revoluticmary 
war was inconsiderable, and it afterward became 
still more contracted. 

He died in May, 1789, aged sixty eight years. 


Was another son of Samuel Kneeland, and he 
was taught the art by his father. 

He began printing, in connexion with his brother 
Daniel, for the booksellers ; for whom they worked 
during their partnership, as lias been related. When 
the connexion between the brothers was dissolved, 
John entered into partnership with Seth Adams, 
under the firm of 

Kneeland and Adams* 

They opened a printing house in Milk street, 
at Ae comer of the alley which leads to Trimty 

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560 Histott ^3^ fttirrxKG* 

dmitSi f ibim bn^^Ang has been tadcen down tomairt 
room for a livery stable^ 

The prkicifMil woric of K^edand and Adanis, 
was Pfiakers, l^>^ng Bodks, and Psalm Books^ for 
booksellers. Their partnership continued only a 
few years* Adams quitted printing, and became a 

J. Kneeland did litde, if any^ business, afkr4he 
crnnmracement of the revokitionaiy war. He died 
in March, 17 W, i^:ed sixty two years* 


Was a native of Scotland, where he was bred 
to bookbinding. He came to Boston early in life, 
and set up the trade of a binder ; and, afterward, 
opened a shop, for the sale of a few common books, 
in MarlbcH-ough street, opposite to the Old South 
church. His business was soon enlarged by sap* 
plies of books from Glasgow. He removed several 
times to houses in the same street. 

A disagreement taking ^ce between the bodk* 
sellers and the printers of Ames's Almanack, the 
principal booksellers set up a press for themselves^ 
and reprinted tliis Almanack ;* but, they refused 
to funiish Macalpine with copies either of their 
Almanack, or of any books printed at their press. 
Macalpine, being thus denied a supply of Ames's 

* Copy rights were not tben secured tqr law in the colonies. 

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^Hmmw'ki b^ \>f tte <mei^ f^nsMni tjf it, 
wj4 by the l?QQka^B«w wfeQ jf pri»te4 it» 9^ * 
Edinburgh for a press and types, ahd for a fore- 
man to superin^Bod n p^tlng house. In 1762, 
he commenced printing ; and, annually, furnished 
l^l^s^^ yfiibi .^ims^'^ AUomwkt ajvd oth^ books 

^^Fteming^ pf^iouiiito )M «oiimexU«i wi(J| 
Iiq)^ M^Ib, wasi o^ or tiKQ jpestrs ciHicentc^ wi% 

M»fa^^. mfitm^ » bttWi^BB ut^ t^ oo(B,^ 

foyaUfst, wd ren»aH^4 h» ^iastqn dyriiig t^e si?g?« 
tmt hf qiti^bed the tQwn wth th^ Britisb vRiy* 
Hft d«lfl il Ol99gQW, ^tl]«ip4 In \'^^%. 


Was from Scotland, whcfe he wa$i br<»ight u^ 
Xfipm^dxig. He came toBoskoa in 1764 ; and wsSn 
for a short time, coniuected widi hk cox^abjm^ 
WflUan Macfd^ine^ 

Mei% a bo(d:seHer> frqm Edmtmrgh) h^viiig 
Cfieaed a veiy large coUectkm of books fov sa}^i 
Flenung sqiaratjed finom Maca]^]ine> and formed % 
paitnerpUp wijdi Menu 

Fteming made a voyage to ficodand, dierft pti]> 
chased pniiting materials £[»: thefirm, hired du'ee or 
&ur jomneymen prHiters^»«and» accompanied b^ 
them^ he returned to Bostpru 
I « X 

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The company then opened a printing house iti 
Wing's lane,* and began printing under tlie firm <rf 

Mem and Fleming. 

Fleitong' was not concerned with Mein in book^ 
selling. Several books were printed at their house 
for Mem, it being an object with him to supply his 
own sales ;p none of diem, hotrevet", wete of great 
magnitude. Some of these books had a false im-* 
print, and werfe palmed upon the public for London 
editions, because Mein apprehended that hocki 
printed in London^^ however executed, sold better 
than those which were printed in America; and^ 
at that time, many purchasers sanctioned his 

In less than two years after the establishment of 
this company, they removed their printing miaterials 
to Newbury street. 

In December 1767, they began the publication of 
a weekly newspaper, entitled, " The Boston Clttx)n< 
icle." This paper was printed on demy, in quarta,. 
imitating, in its form. The London Chronicle. 

The Boston Chronicle obtained reputation ; but 
Mein, who edited the paper, soon devoted it zeal- 
ously to the suppcMt of the measxu^s of the British 
Bdministration against the colonies ; and, in conse- 
quence, the publishers, and particularly Mein, incur- 
red the displeasure and the resentment of the whigs, 
who were warm advocates for American liberty. 
The publishers were threatened with tibe efforts of 

• Now Elm street 

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popular resentment Mein, according to his deserts^ 
experienced some specimens of it. The Chron- 
icle was discontinued in May, 1770, and Mein re- 
turned to Europe. 

Fleming was less obnoxious. He remained in 
Boston ; and, as the Chronicle had been discontin- 
ued, the popular resentment soon subsided. He 
married a young lady of a respectable family in Bos- 
ton ; and, soon after his late partner went to Eiu-ope, 
he opened a printing house in King street, and 
printed books on his own account. 

He issued proposals for publishing Clark's fam- 
ily Bible in folio, but did not meet with encourage- 

Fleming continued in Boston until 1773, when 
he sold his printing materials to Mills and Hicks, 
and went to England with his family. 

He more than once visited this countiy after 
1790, as an agent for a commercial house in Eu- 
rope ; and, subsequently, resided some time in 
france, where he died ^ few years since, 


Of the firm of Mein and Fleming, was bom in 
Scotland, and there bred to the business of a book- 
seller. He had received a good education, was en- 
terprising, and possessed handsome literary talents. 

He arrived at Boston, from Glasgow, in No- 
vember, 1764, in company with Mr. Robert Sande- 

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S64 , Hisroir of T^tiHTtKc. 

TMn^^ a kki^maA ai mr. Sonckimn of die bom 
chrbdan name, wl^ for ashwt time wai the partnet 
of Mein^ airi A nun^r dP other So^tchme^ od « 
visit to this country with a view (^ setlfi^ here* 

Mem brought w^ him a good asscMMitt of 
books ; a quairtitj of M^ llneiiB and 4)lber gooiS^ 
ami opened a shop in Marlbisrou^ atreet^ bi cm^ 
nexion Wh Sandeimiit Their sho^ ^i^ ^he old 
iVooden building at the notdi com^ of Ae eMraisce 
ko what is now xsaXitA Franklin ^reet^ s^dia, at tUi 
time, occupied m h bodkstore. Their ftrn was 
JHeih and Sandettwm. 

They continued in company oidy a few nidntiia { 
and, when they separated, Mein took a houtt » 
King street, at Ae ccwier of (*e alley Idding to the 
tnaiket, and there opened a tefir^bo^katot^, imdcir*. 
culating library* 

H^ was connected wiAa bookfedter in Scot- 
land, who was exlen^vtiy in tradke ; and, by tlKifc 
ineain, he w^s supl^kd, as ht wanntd, wkh both 
Scotch and EngKsh editionjS of te nvost saleable 

He soon found that a concern in printing would 
be convenient and profitable. His countryman, 
John Fleming, who was a good printer, was then in 
Boston ; and, with him he formed a connexion in a 
printing establishment, Fleming went to Scotland, 
and procured printing materials, workmen, &c. On 
his return, they, in 1766, opened a printing bouse, 

* Mr.SHnfteiaffli was the author «ftke tiiea celebrated lel- 
tei^ on the rev. air. I^rvey's Theron and Aspasio. A type 
fouader bf the name of Mitchelson, I beUeve) arrived it tbo 
same yossqI with Mein snd Sandemaiu 

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and printed a number of books for Mein's sales, and 
published The Boston Chronicle, as has been already 

The Chronicle was printed on a larger sheet 
than other Boston newspapers of that day, but did 
not txc&oA them in price. For a time it wai well 
filed with news> entertaining and useful extracts 
fixim die best £t(it>pean publications) and some m- 
teresdng original evuxp. Mein was doing bustm^ 
to gi^eat ddvamag^) but he soon took a decided part 
in ftivor of the otaoitio^as measures of the British 
administration, against the oolomes, and the Chron^ 
ide became a veWcle for the most bitter pieces, ca- 
himniating4ind Vilifying some of those dbamcters 
m wliom Uie people of Massadmset^ placed high 
confidence ; and, in consequence, it lost its credit 
as rapidly as it had gained it. Mein, its editor, 
became extremely odious, and to avoid the effects 
of popular resentment, he secreted himself until ai\ 
opportunity presented for a passage to England, 
which he embraced ; and, left this country, to which 
he never returned, 

Meinlml unquestioimbly been ebcoupged, in 
Boston, as a partisan suid an advocate for the mea&a 
ures of government Jn London, he engaged him<* 
sdf, under the pay of the ministiy , as a writer against 
tiie colonies ; but, after the war commenced^ he 
sought other employment. 

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Served his apprenticeship with Samuel Knee- 
land. He began printing in Queen street, with 
John Kneeland ;' they afterwards occupied a printing 
house in Milk street, at the comer of Board^ afley, 
now known by the name of Hawley street. They 
were three or four years in business, and printed 
chiefly for the booksellers. 

Adams's father in law was the first postrider 
between Boston and Hartford. When he died, Ad- 
ams quitted printing, and continued the occupatiom 
of his father in law. 

He died a few years after. 


WAa bom in Boston, and served an apprentice- 
ship with his brother Joseph Russell, the partner of 
Jcdm Green. 

. In 1765, he began printing with Thomas Fur* 
ber, at Portsmouth, Newhampshire, under the firm 
of Furber and RusseU. 

Not succeeding in business, they dissolved their 
partnership, and Russell returned to Boston. He 
worked with various printers until 1769, when he 
procured a press and a few types. With these 
he printed on his own account, in a house near 
Concert hall. He afterward removed to Union 

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«tl*eet, and in addition to the business of printing, 
added that of an auctioneer, which he soon quitted, 
and adhered to printing. Excepting an edition of 
Watts^s Psalms, he published nothing of more con- 
sequence than pamphlets, most of which were small* 

In November, 1771, he began a political piibli-> 
Cation, entitled, " The Censor.'^ ' This paper was 
supported during the short period of its existence, 
by those who were in the interest of the British 

Russell afterward removed to Salem, and at- 
tempted the publication of a newspaper, but did not 
succeed. He again removed, and went to Danvers^ 
and printed in a house known by the name of the 
Bell tavern. In a few years he returned once more to 
Boston ; and, finally, took his stand in Essex street, 
near the spot on which grew the great elms, one of 
which was then standing, and was called " Liberty 
tree.'* Here he printed and sold balladsji and publish- 
ed whole and half sheet pamphlets for pedlers. In 
these small articles, his trade principally consisted, 
and afforded him a very decent support. 

The \rife of Russell was indeed an " help meet 
for him." She was a very industrious, active wo- 
man ; she made herself acquainted with the printing 
business ; and, not only assisted her husband in the 
printing house, but she sometimes invoked her 
muse, and wrote ballads on recent tragical events, 
which being immediately printed, and set off with 
wooden cuts of coflins, &c* had frequently " a con- 
siderable run." 

Russell died September, 1796, aged fifty two 
]rears« His wife continued the business. 

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161 HisTopv pf rifirriKc. 


DpsesiTDtd from a r^speot^ye fbi^f which 
kad settle near Boston not many yeara afl^ tktt 
town WM founded* His gnmdfidi^r caitied on bia* 
ainesa In Ikat place, in a atone wliieh fas owned, on 
the Town dock ; and died in the year 1746, kaying 
tour acms and tiro daughtcra, who ivore aH airived at 
fhea^ of matQiity* HisseeoiidBoa, Moaea, l|«red 
aome time on Longid^, whaselie maniedaadhad 
two chikbiea ^ afber mbidi he Ktumad to Be(3tiHi^ 
and had thrde more childraa; theyotrngestofwhom 
13 the subject of this memoir* 

Mo$es T^omoa, having expendfid nefif ly all hia 
patrimony, went abroad, and died in HordicarQlina f 
leaving Ha wiidow, in nanrow ekeamstHoees, wkb 
five dependent ehiUreiu Her fHends in Long- 
iidond took the diarge ^providi^g fiar die two who 
were bom there, ^id had been left in their care I the 
odieffs phe supported by Att prdlts of a amaH ahop 
Af^ kept in Boston* Her diligence and prudent 
manageinent ensured success; insomuch that beside 
making providbn fi>r her &mily, she was enaUed to 
purchase a maSk estate in Cambridge* Th|a jiauyt 
ahe af^rward unfidrtunatety lost; for being fcd^ 
possessed with th^ idea tl^ the ecmtinpntal paper 
money, issued during the rev^utionai^ war, wouUt 
ultimately, be paid in specie, and having what sho 
thought a very advantageous offer for her house and 
land in that Idmd of aecuri^, shesold the same, and 

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^Jip^^ SO \k^ bpea qfer^y renjark^^j pnncipaUy madq 
Hj^oft^S prۤs Si pnntpg ballads J aju|bywhoff^ 
h^ wm M>W ^mplqycd to §0 typesr-f<M: w^ch pur^ 
piftse li? ^f*^ io,ountp4 on a, bench eighteen vtckm 
tti^ ^d tip wM^. I^^gth of at (IqhWp ft^m?, whicli 
4)$y^^^e4 OfUUSs of bpth Hpman and Italic. His^ 
i^ffst ^Sll^y ^th the cpipposing sticjc, wasopabal- 
}f^y ei^titledj " The Jjcnvyer'^ PetUgr^e;^^ whicl^ 
^jK^ s^ y^'tSW^ ^^ the s^afe of dpuble pica* 

I^ rem^|Be4 eleyep yeara with Fpwle ; £(fteij 
^hlph pmod th^y sep^nrted^ iu cons^uence of ^ 
4i;sS^^meat On quittif>g Foi?0e he went tq Noya* 
scotia, with 21 ykw to go froiu thpice to England, 
m Ql^ tq m^v^ ^ inqre perfpct knowledge of his 

He found ^Pg^aphy in a miserable a^^te in that 
j^ri^iiu^^; 9pd) 3p f^ was he froin obtaining {he 
V^!^9P^, 9f goii% to EjQgland, th^ he ^n dijscovared 
||a^ J^e cualy prinjbep in ll^liJ^ could hardly pro-* 
gfff^y ^>y his^ bu^jne^, ^ decef^t Uvelihood* How- 
fffff^ ^ inemain^ thpre 3evai month^^; di^in^ 
H^^f^ tiH^ ^e memora):^ Br^tis)i stafnp a^t took 
j^^f^ ij^ Noya^otia, which, in thp other cpjonips, 
1^ ^f^ ^ SB^tcd and snccei^3£ul opposition. 

7^ H^i^ Qa3;ette was prifil^ by. ^ Qutch- 

]^^ ^f^bme naffie wa^ H^W^» Pe was ^ good na- 

t^FI^? ^^Sl?$9# VWj ^^ ii^ coniniLpn concerns di^ 
I ' ay 

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not \irant for ingenuity and capacity ; but he mi^t^ 
with propriety, be called a very unskilful printer* 
To his want of knowledge or abilities in his profess- 
ion, he added indolence ; and, as is too often the ca&e, 
left his business to be transacted by boys or journey- 
men, instead of attending to it himself. His print- 
ing afiairs were on a very contracted scale ; and he 
made no efforts to render them more extensive. As 
he had two apprentices, he was not in want of assist- 
ance m his printing house ; but Thomas accepted 
an offer of board fcwr his services ; and the sole man- 
agement of the Gazette was immediately left to 
him. He new mddelled the Gazette according to 
the best of his judgment, and as far as the worn out 
printing materials would admit. It was soon after 
printed on stamped paper, made for the purpose in 
England. To the use of this paper, ** die young 
Newenglandnian,'' as he was called, was opposed j 
and, to the stamp act he was extremely hostile. 

A paragraph appeared in the Gazette, purport- 
ing that the people of Novascotia were, generally, 
disgusted with the stamp act. This paragraph gave 
great offence to the officers of government, who 
called Henry to account for publishing what they 
termed sedition. Henry had not so much as seen 
the Gazette in which the offensive article had ap- 
peared ; consequently, he pleaded ignorance ; and, 
in answer to their interrogatories, informed them 
that the paper was, in his absence, conducted by his 
journeyman. He was reprimanded, and admonish-' 
ed that he would be deprived of the work of govern- 
ment, should he, in future, suffer any thing of the 
kind to appear in the Gazette. It wa(f not long be- 

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fore Henry was again sent for, on account of another 
offence of a similar nature; however, he escaped 
the consequences he might have apprehended, by 
assuring the officers of government thjit he had been 
confined by sickness ; and he apologized in a satis- 
factory manner for the appearance of the obnoxious 
publication. But, his journeyman was summoned 
to aj^ear before the secretary of the province ; to 
whose office he accordingly went He was, proba- 
bly, not known to mr, secretary, who sternly de- 
manded of him. What he wanticd ? 

A. Nothing, sir. 

Q. Why came you here ? 

A. Because I was sent for. 

Q. What is your name ? 

A. Isaiah Thomas. 

Q. Are you the young Newenglandman who 
. prints for Henry ? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. How dare you publish in the Gazette that 
the people of Novascotia are displeased with the 
stamp act ? 

A. I thought it was true. 

Sec. You have no right to think so. — ^If you 
publish any thing more of such stuff, you shall be 
punished.— -You may go \ but, remember you are 
not in Newengland. 

A. I will, su\ 

Not long after this adventure occurred, a vessel 
arrived at Halifax, from Philadelphia, and brought 
some of the newspapers published in that city. 

The Pennsylvania Journal, published the day 
preceding that on which the stamp act was to take 

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UTS HIS^dlY tl? MltllHNC. 

^oundie^ the p^^ and ^ttt plfi&^ hUMti&ik ikb 

IfHdiuite^ over ^ iSfOt^ taO., 'at Hit hammeE ^ 
te(t p^ iii^ a Istiige %are of It tK^^ 

$& Mvi^ cBed of a di^ddldr calleA the ^ftefS^tdSr. 
A dea^'^ h^^ &c. ^ k stiAilstlKtAe «!^ a^tl^ \^ 
^aced at the end of tlie hm ^Imiuli'dA tbeflMt 
ftigt. Thomas h&& a slrdng deslfe t6 deedrMe life 
Hdifax Gazette in the same m&fntier ; hitt bt dld^ 
not do it, on account of his ii^pfi^rdtenjtions^the 
displeasure of the offices^ ^f^ovM^nieWt Ho^fever, 
an expedient was thduglft tX 16 dbvMt that diffi- 
culty, which was to ihikfrt iri tfit dlrafiette an ihicle 
of the following import-^*^ We "ai* desired by a 
^ihBer t^r oar readers, to j^ve a destci^ip^on k)E the 
extraordinary appearance of the Pefuil^vitetia JdiOf^ 
nal of the 30th of October last— [a765,]^—Wfe can 
Ml ho better i^i^ay cdmply Mtb'tMs tiequeate, thrin by 
*the exeinf)Iification vft have given of that JoWtuS Si 
this day's Gazette.'* As near a representation tife 
possible, was made of th^ seteral figcire^i emblems 
of mortality, atid mourning cdlumtis^ aU t^ch, 
isKicompariicd by the qualifying par^raph, ^^^pe^ii^ 
together in The Halifa'x Gaosetfe, and nuRie^ho'tr^i^ 
bustle in the place. 

Soon after this event, the efligy of Ae stamp- 
ttiasfer was hting oh ^ gallows near ®e t^tadel ; 
Snd'dther tokens <rf hbstflitjr to tte Stft*np*elt H^S* 
exhibited. These disloyal ^tasactions iv^ dSfiife 
sifeni^ ahd secretly^ but they created soittfe kieirm ; 
%^ ca^n^s gu^ %as <^dtitint^^ %ti^k^i^ lit 

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tiritfiD %Tiit>t%v ^S^ 

ft Is >gi^f^<!«^ 'tt« ^i«3ie3MfoAs ^Mtigh«f <0ti Mb 
' The &ffi«eJI% oif %cf««i«»ii«rft 4«(d¥il^d Hf^fl^. 

l^ic^tftis %&<$»- «ds ^sfs^ to t&pem. «o some df }A 
fH^Mb^ 1^ old EMi^Hiti ))NM'«i^b^« ^ 'fbt>«ii^ 

^fti «plMlbft ptfitiiled, thst Thb«H6 not <tti\f 

effigy, a sheriff went to the printing house, stfiA itt- 
fli^M&fi ''![%teim!t& #ai 4)6 1^ ti ^recejpt stg^am^t ^im ; 
mi.^ tHiteria^^fakefiittitotHlsi^tmtess'he^biftA 
^|i(<e%ir(d^atMm ¥fe^{)ed^ the >pes>S($n6'<]^cei«efl 
491 ii^^ri^ieiaekpb^Ri^^e ^^ (tf (the ^^npi»«». 
%&. fle^Me»^<MM, tlii&t ^Ai% 't^uiMitknces hc(d 
i|»^»im:ed a tcHiV}<#ScHi ^ YS& thiiid, th^ Tiic»»t& 
'¥f9i& ofit of 'Oto^ "^o had t:>cf<£9i 'et^ged m ^feife 
%cdi«d<ft ^dfcteifflftgs. The feh«*iff 'recsfcJvi^ rib feat- 
l!iRtet<$iy%inttW«!r'^ M^ thq«ii$&^, 6M^«d Thc»M& 
^j^'04lh4iiifi bi!^R»e% iM^««e^ feftdlfe, having 
%fe pfeftim^ %el*fWil%, '<* K> 'gJve h^ «dvice, in tii^ 
•Kdn^ ^}Af[^i«% e^ Ws hseft -mSb goih^tb bbejr thfe 
^^>ft^<<$f%M^ «^rr9^«I^^Eil-; !bdt, belri^ yaMeir<l;)r 
m^ick \Mi -^ id^, 1h«t Vl^^ofjbedk^ ftflght ^ 
WmiS^ ^^t^ tb^Mrft Kirii Jivto ^ ackti&wle%. 
iti^m^iiisiritv?^^^ 1B-U«^a<»rcms ih qu^^t^, 
be told the sheriff he did not know biili<; ■«itft'i0b> 

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manded information re^>ecting the authority hj 
which he acted. The sheriff answered, that he had 
^rufEcient authority ; but, on being requested to ex* 
hibit it, the officer was, evidently, dkconcerted, and 
shewed some symptoms of his not acting under 
** the king's authority"-^however, he answered, that 
the would shew his authority when it was necessary ; 
and ^ain ordered this ^' printer of sedition'' to go 
with him. Thomas answered, he would* not obey 
him unless he produced a precept, or proper authc»r. 
ity for taking him prisoner. After further parl^ 
the sheriff left him, with an assurance ^t he would 
soon return ; but Thomas saw him no more ; and 
he, afterward, learned that this was a plan con- 
certed for the purpose of surprising him into a 

A short time before the exhibiticm of the effigy 
of the stampmaster, Henry had received from the 
tstampoffice, the whole stock of paper that was sent 
ready stamped from England, for the use of the Ga- 
zette. The quantity did not exceed six or eight 
reams; but, as only, three quires were want^ 
weekly for the newspaper, it would have been suffi- 
cient, for the purpose intended, twelve months. It 
was not many weeks after the sheriff, already men- 
tioned, made his exit from the printing house, wh^i 
it was discovered that this paper was divested of the 
stamps ; not one remained ; they had been cut off» 
and destroyed. On this occasion, an article 2q)pear- 
ed in the Gajsette, announcing that " all the stamped 
paper for the Gazette was used, and as no more 
could be had, it would, in future, be published with* 
cut stamps.'' 

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In March, 1767, Thomas quitted Halifax, and 
went to Newhampshire ; where he worked, for 
•ome time, in the printing houses of Daniel Fowie, 
and Furber and Russell. In July following he re- 
turned to Boston. There he remained several 
months, in the employ of his old master, Z« Fowle. 

Receiving an ihvitation firom the captain of a 
vessel to go to Wilmington, in Northcarolina, where 
he was assured a printer was wanfed, he arranged 
his afiairs with Fowle, ajgaiA left him, by agreement, 
and went to Newport ; where he waited on Martin 
Howard, esq. chief justice of Northcarolina, who 
was then at that place, and was departing for Wil- 
mington. To this gentleman he made known his 
intention at going to Northcarolina, and received 
encouragement from the judge, u4io gave him as- 
surances of his influence in procuring business for 
him at Capefear ; for which^ place t!hey sailed in the 
same vessel. 

A gentleman at Newport, also, favored him with 
a letter of recommendation to Robert Weljs, printer, 
in Charleston, Southcarolina. 

When he arrived at Wilmington, he, in pursu- 
ance of advice from judge Howard, and several oth- 
cr gentlemen, waited on governor Tryon, then at 
that place. The governor encouraged him to settle 
there ; and flattered him that he would be favored 
with a part of the printing for government. But 
as a printer he labored under no inconsiderable dif- 
ficulty, that is, he had neither press, nor types, hot 
money to purchase them. 

It happened that Andrew Steuart, a printer, was 
then at Wilmington, who had a press with two or 

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9ea»n W w% doairou^ tft mHi ^e^ w^ti^ml^t hf had 
ikm ii\dat ptao«v ami ^ ftttwro V> P^Melp^ 
iriv»« he had wothet s«mU priatiag ^»ibft^i»intt 

Puni}^l tQ the «idY4«r, 9i wf^wk ff^fUfinm^ 
HiemasL appBfid to Stetmrt, to pmetii^ tto i(rwi» 
l^e. but &leia»rt^knD\ikig he. op\M not mi% I^ i»i 
eommodatpd with thMc artic|M eHtQV^W^ to(^ a^ 
vantage of hk ukuatioiw aad d<^«iapd§d abQ^ ^ip9ft 
limeaaftimiifih&irtbraiaalhex c^^^iii^W« Aft 
ter some debate^ St^u^ lowered \^n fm^t/^^l^m^ 
douUtt the v^lnew gevoral genttiweift f>f Wi)mW» 
ten offerad ta adranc^ mQii§y» Qd a g^fif^?^^ «ic^ 
to enable Thomas to make the purch^^e. W^^ 
Steuart fouod diriiKm^f (^^Ai}dbf|iW9%l>lNl¥efiised 
|o kt t|i? types gfo without ^n^Pi^^ndagec^ a 9^^ 
woman and her child, wb^m hf^ Wl^l^ l9 Sf^ bfH 
fore he qiwtted the fkoPf Aft argijn^Pt ewued ; 
but Steuait ptrsUt^ whip y^^ t^ p^. v^. t)w 
^iBiingHEiat^lafa^ unless tb§ npgrMs w^^ ifl^^dc^ 
ifL die aale. Thmft»> tfl^ «4v^iHg with j[FJ/end«^ 
agfeed ta take diem, fi^»g h$ m^ 4»P^^ ^ 
them {ot Bfiariy the ppio§ b^ W»s I9 |^vf jpor t^JCT^f 
He then though the l^giili W^ P§nck^; M 
Steiwt threw a new (U£cii}^ \n tbf ^y ^ ]^e h94 
a quantity of common hom^hojd Aii^t)|re, xiqt i^ 
hek^f fer woar, wfeifih he ^sp W8»te4 tQ dispo^ of; 
fnd would ncrt ptft wlih tbg Qtbejr 9rti6i?S VPlfi»§ tb© 

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purdliaser would i^akt these abo. Tbe fumt^tte wa^ 
entird]ro«it of Tfaoinas's line of business ; and he had 
IK) use for-h. He, therefore, declared himself off 
tibe bargain ; and, aften/rard, when Steuart retracted^ 
wspecting the sale of die furniture, Thomas began 
to be disooomged by die prosf)e<^ die place aft)nl* 
ed; he was not {deatsed with the appearance of the 
country ; his money wats all gone ; and his inclina- 
tion to visit En^and was renewed. For these rea* 
sons fae renounced all dioughts of setding at Cape*, 
fear at dakt time; aldiough a merchant thare, offered 
to fsend to England^ by the first o^xMtunity, for a 
printing apparatus, which he would tl^gage Thomas 
should hare on a lofig credit 

With a view to go to England, he entered him* 
self as steward on board a ship bound to the West- 
indies ; expecting when he arrived there, he shoukl 
easily find an opportunity to go to London. He 
did duty on board die vessel ten days ; but, imbib*. 
lag a dislike to the captain, who was often intox- 
icated, and atteiiq>ted to reduce him into a mere 
cabin boy, and to employ him about the most ser- 
vile and menial offices, he revested at these ind^ni* 
ties, and procured his discharge. 

On this occasion he remembered the recom- 
mendation he Imd received at Ne^ort to a printer 
at Charleston ; and, finding a packet bound there, 
he quitted a very kind friend he had gained at Wil- 
Mington, and after a long passage, hi which he met 
with many adventures, beside that lamentable one of 
spending his last shilling, he arrived at Charleston, 

When he presi^ted the fetter of recommendation 
to Wdls, die prkiter, he had the mortification to 

I 3Z 

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378 mSTORT OF TRlVrilfG. 

learn he was not in want of a journeyman. How* 
ever, Wells civilly employed him at low wages, and 
soon put him into full pay. He continued at 
Charieston two years; and had nearly completed 
a contract to go and setde in the Westindies ; but 
his health declining, he returned to Boston in 1770, 
after having visited several of the southern colonies. 
He fcHHied a connexion with Zechariah Fowle, and 
began business by publishing The Massachusetts 
Spy, a small newspaper printed three times in a week. 

Thomas's partnership with his kutmer master 
Fowle, continued but three months ; he then pur- 
chased the printing materials which Fowle had in 
his possession, and gave his security to Fowlers cred- 
itor for the payment. Fowle had, during nineteen 
years, been in possession of his press and types, and 
had not paid for them. The creditor was a near rela- 
tion by marriage, and had exacted only the payment 
of the annual interest of the debt. 

Thomas continued the Spy, but altered the pub- 
lication of it from three times to twice a week.- 
Each publication contained a half sheet. After 
having published it three months, in the new form, 
in December 1770, he discontinued it. On the Stfa 
of March 1771, he began another paper with the 
same title, which was published weekly, on a lai^ 
sheet folio. 

It was at first the determination of Thomas 
that his paper should be free to both parties which 
then agitated the country, and, impartially, lay- 
before the public their respective communications j 
but he soon found that this ground could not be 
maintained. The dispute between Britain and her 

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American colonies became more and more serious,' 
and deeply interested ever}- class of men in the 
community. The parties in the dispute took the 
names of WTiigs and Tories; the tones were the 
warm supporters of the measures of the British cab- 
inet, and the whigs the animated advocates for 
American liberty. The tories soon discontinued 
tfieir subscriptions for the Spy ; and, the publisher 
was convinced that to produce an abiding and salu- 
tary eflFect, his paper must have a fixed character. 
He was in principle attached to the party which op- 
posed the measures of the British ministry ; and 
he, therefore, announced that the Spy would be de- 
voted to the support of the whig interest. 

Some overtures had been previously made by th« 
friends of the British government to induce him to 
have the Spy conducted wholly on their side of the 
question ; and, these having been rejected, an attempt 
was made to force a compliance, or to deprive him 
of his press and types. It was known that he was 
in debt for these articles, and that his creditor was 
an officer of government, appointed by the crown. 
This officer, notwithstanding lie was a very wor- 
thy man, was pushed on to make a demand of pay- 
ment, contrary to his verbal agreement, under the 
apprehension that the money could not be raised. 
When Thomas assumed the debt of Fowle, he gave 
his bond, payable in one year, under an assurance, 
that the capital might lay as it had done, if the inter, 
est annually due should be punctually paid ; and 
when, contrary to stipulation, the capital was de- 
jnanded, he borrowed money, and paid one debt by 
CQutracting another. 

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380 Hisxotr ot ritiHTWG. 

An ea8»y» pub&^ied ia the Spy^ No¥embct 
I77I9 under the si^Eiature of Muciua Sc»v€ia, at« 
tracted die attention of the executive of the pcov-^ 
iskCc, Governor Hutchinson asaesi^ed his couaoi 
on the occasion i and, after con^taticHi) the bowl 
determined, that the printer shcMild be <»*dered be*- 
&»re them. In pursuance of thi^ resolution, their 
messenger was sent to inform Thomas^ that his at- 
tendance \¥as required in the councU ch^nber. To 
thb message he replied, ^^ thait he iiva» busily em^ 
ployed in hia office, and could not wak upon his. ex^ 
cellency and their honors/' The messca^r re- 
turned to the council with this answer, and, in an 
hour after, again came mto Thonms's printing 
house, and informed him, that the gOYcmor and 
council waited for his att^idance ; and, by their <& 
rection, inquired. Whether he was rcai^ to ^sj^pest 
before diem ? Thomas answered, that he was not. 
The messenger went to make his rq)cfft to the 
€U)uncil, and Thconas to ask advice of adistinguished 
law character. He was instru^^ to persist in his 
refusal to appear befdre the council, as they had no 
legal right to summon him before them; but,!^uld 
a warrant is^ie from ti^ proper authority, he must 
then submit to the i^aiff who should serve such a 
process up(m him. This was a critical mc^n^t ; 
the affair had taken air, and the public took an in^ 
terest in the event. The council proceeded with 
caution, fcM- the jM-incijde was at issue, whether th^ 
possessed authority, arbitrarily to sununon whcmi 
they pleased before their board, to answer to them 
for their conduct. The messenger was, however. 

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the tl^rd time sent to Thomas, aiid brought him 
liaia vttbal order. 

Mfssi The govamcHr and council order your 
isftinedaate attendance before them in the council 

T. I wiH not go* 

Mess. Yon do not give this answer with an 
intention that I should report it to the governor and 
council ? 

21 Have you any thing^ writtoi, by which to 
shew the authcmty under which you act ? 

Mess* I have ddivcred to you the order oi 
the governor and council, as it was ^ven to me. 

21 If I understand you^ the governor and 
council order my immediate attendance beftff^ 

Msss^ They dow 

21 Have you the order in writing ? 

Mess* No. 

T. Then, ar^ witfi all due respect to the 
governor asid councii, I am engaged in my own con- 
cams, and shall not attend. 

Mess. Will you commk yoiu* answer to 

T. No, Sir. 

Mess. You had better go, you may repent your 
fdfusal to comply widi the order of the councS. 

T. I miist abide by the result.*^ 

The mess^iger carried the refusal to the coun- 
cil. The board for several hours debated the ques- 

* This conversadon with th«^ messoixger 13 t»k;e|3i fircmil 

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tion, Whether they should commit Thomias for con^ 
tempt ; but, it was suggested by some member 
that he could not legally be committed unless he had 
appeared before them ; in that case, his answers 
might have been construed into a contempt of their 
body, and been made A^ ground of commitment. 
It was also suggested that they had not authority to 
compel his appearance before them to answer for 
any supposed crime or misdemeanor, punishable by 
few, as particular tribunals had the exdusive cogni- 
zance of such offences. The supposed want of au- 
tiiority was, indeed, the reason why a compulsory 
process had not been adopted in the first instance. 
There were not now, as formerly, licensers of the 

The council, being defeated in the design to get 
the printer before them, ordered the attorney general 
to prosecute him at common law. A prosecutiopi 
was accordingly soon attempted, and great efforts 
made to effect his conviction. The chief justice, at 
the following term of the supreme court in Boston, 
in his charge to the grand jury, dwelt largely on the 
doctrine of libels ; on the present licentiousness of 
the press ; and, on the necessity of restraining it 
The attorney general presented a bill of indictment 
to the grand inquest against Isaiah Thomas for pub- 
lishing an obnoxious libel. The court house was 
crowded from day to day to learn the issue. . The 
grand jury returned this bill. Ignoramus. Foiled 
by the grand jury in this mode of prosecution, the 
Jittomey general was directed to adopt a different 
process ; and to file an information against Thomas. 
This direction of the court was soon known to Ae 

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writers in the opposition, who attacked it with so 
much warmth and animation, and offered such co- 
gent arguments to prove that it infringed the rights 
and liberties of the subject, that the court thought 
proper to drop the measure. Unable to convict the 
printer either by indictment or information in Suf- 
folk, a proposal was made to prosecute him in some 
other county, under the following pretext. — ^The 
printers of newspapers circulate them through the 
province ; and, of course, publish them as exten* 
sively as they are circulated. Thomas, for in- 
stance, circulates the Spy in the county of Essex^ 
and as truly publishes the libel in that county, as in 
Suffolk where the paper is printed. The fallacy of 
this argument was made apparent ; the measure was 
not adopted, and government, for that time, gave 
over the prosecution ; but, on a subsequent occa- 
sion, some attempts of that kind were renew- 

It became at length apparent to all reflecting 
men, that hostilities must soon take place between 
Greatbritain and her American colonies. Thomas 
had rendered himself very obnoxious to the friends 
of the British administration ; and, in consequence, 
the tories, and some of the British sddiery in the 
town, openly threatened him with the effects of their 

For these and other reasons, he was induced to 
pack up, privately, a press and types, and to send 
them, in the night, over Charles river, to Cliarles- 

* On account of some essays addressed to the King, pub- 
lished in the Spy in September 1773) and at other periods. 

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S84 filSXOAT t^ PftlNriKC. 

town, wiidice Aey were conveyed to WorceiAeR 
This was only a few days before the afiair at Lex- 

The poress and types constituted the whole of 
the property hesaved from the proceeds of five years 
labor ; the remainder was destroyed, or carrkd off 
bj the fdiowcrs and adherents of the royal army, 
when it quitted Boston. 

On the night of April 18, 1775, it was discover- 
ed that a considerable number of British troops were 
embarking in boats on the river near the common, 
with the manifest design to destroy the stores col* 
lected by tl^ provincials, at Concord, eighteen miles 
from Boston; and he was concerned, with others, 
in giving the alarm. At day break, die next mom^ 
ing, he crossed over to Chariestown, went to Lex-* 
kigton, and joined the provincial militia in opposing 
the King's troops. On the 20th, he went to Ww- 
cester, opened a printing house, and soon after re- 
commenced the publication of his new^)aper,* 

The provincial congress assembled at Water- 
town proposed that Thomas's jwess should be re- 
moved to that place ; but, as all concerns of a pub- 
lic nature were then in a state of derangement, it 
was finally determined, that his press should remain 
at Worcester ; and, tlmt postriders should be estab- 
lished to facilitate an intercourse between that j^ace, 
Watertown and Cambridge ; and, at Worcester 

♦ The publication of the Spy ceased for three weeks. It 
appeared from the press in Worcester, May 3d, 1775. This 
uras the first printing done in any inland town in Newengland. 

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ht eominued tb print for Congress until a press was 
established at Cambn(%e aod at Watertowiu 

During the time he had been in business at Bos-^ 
ton, he had published a number of pamphlets^ but 
not many books of more consequence* 

Having made an addition to his printing mate« 
mh^ in 1773, he sent a press and ^pes to New4 
buryporty^ and committed the management of the 
same to a young printer, whom he soon after todk 
into partner^p in his concerns in that place $ and 
fa) December c^ the same year, he began the pul:^<> 
cation of a newspaper in that town. His partner 
managed their affairs imprudendy, and involved the 
company in debt ; in consequence of which Thomas 
sold out at considerable loss* 

In January 1774, he began, in Boston, the pub^ 
lication of The Royal American Magazine ; but the 
general distress and commotion in the town, occa- 
sioned by the operatioffi of the act of the British par-^ 
liament to blockade the port of Boston, obliged him 
to discontinue it, before the eJcpiration of the year, 
mt^ch to the injury of his pecuniary interest* l^See 
Worcester — Newspapers^ Gfc] 


Served an apprenticeship with Green and 
Russell* He purchased the types of Fletcher of 
Halifax, an4 began business as a {winter s^ book* 

* This was the first press set up in Newbuiyport, 
I 3A 

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seller, in Marlborough street in 1771, and printed t 
few books on his own account. 

In May, 1774, Boyle formed a partnership with 
Richard Draper, publisher of The Massachusetts Ga- 
zette, or Boston News Letter. Draper died the fol- 
lowing month, and his widow continued the newspa- 
per, &c. Boyle was in partnershq) with the widow 
until August following ; they then dissolved their 
connexion, and Boyle returned to his former stand* 

In 1775, Boyle sold his printing materials, but 
retained his bookstore, which he now, 1810, keeps 
in the same place. 


Serv£1) his apprenticeship with Daniel Kned- 
arid ; and, during the year 1772 and 1773, was in 
partnership with him ; — ^soon after which he died. 
They had a small printing house, as has been ob- 
served, where ScoUay's Buildings now stand, at the 
head of Court street. 

They published a number of pamphlets, and did 
some work tor booksellers. \^See Daniel EheelandJ} 


He was bom within a few miles of Boston, and 
served his apprenticeship with John Remmg. 

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Mills had just completed his time of service, 
when Fleming quitted business. John Hicks and 
Mills were nearly of an age, and they formed a co- 
partnership under tlie firm of 

Mills and Hicks. 

The controversy between Britain and her Amer- 
ican colonies, at this period, assumed a very serious 
aspect, and government was disposed to inlist the 
press in support of the measures o^ the British 
ministiy. Mills and Hicks were urged by the par- 
tizans of government to purchase Fleming's print, 
ing materials, and tHe right which Green and Russell 
had in the newspaper, entitled The Massachusetts 
Gazette, and Boston Post Boy, &c. They pursued 
the advice ^ven them, and being by this purchase, 
furnished with types and with a newspaper, they 
opened a printing house in April 1773, in School- 
street, nearly opposite to the small church, erected 
for the use of the French protestants.* 

The British party handsomely supported the 
paper of Mills and Hicks, and afforded pecuniary 
aid to the printers. Several able writers defended 
the British administration from the attacks of their 
American opponents ; and the selection of articles 
in support of government for tliis paper, as well as 
its foreign and domestic intelligence, displayed the 
discernment and assiduity of the compilers* 

♦ A number of separatists afterward purchased this 
church, and settled as their minister the rev. Andrew Cros- 
well. It was taken down a few years since. 

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Mills was a sensibfe, geateel young msn, amd a 
good prinler ; he had the principsd managonent of 
the printing house. The newspaper was t!mr dhid 
concern ; besides this, diey printed^ during the two 
years they were in Boston, only a few political pam- 
phlets, and the Massachusetts Rfc^sten The com- 
mencement of hostilities, in April 1775, put aa end 
to the publication of their Gazette* 

Soon after the war began, MiHs came out of 
Boston, and resided a few weeks at Cambridge ; he 
then returned to Boston, where he and his partner 
remained until the town was evacuated by the Brit- 
ish troops. They, with others who had been in op* 
position to the country, removed with the British 
army to Halifex, and from thence to Greatbritain, 
After two years residence in England, they removed 
to Newyork, then in possession of the British troops. 

In Newyork they opened a stationary store, and 
did some printing for the royal army and navy. They 
afterwards formed a partnership with Alexander and 
James Robertson, who published the Royal Ameri- 
can Gazette in that city. The firtn was Jtobertsonsj^ 
Mills and Hicksn 

This firm continued until peace took place in 
1783, Mills and Hicks then returned to Halifax, 
Novascotiaj but their partnership was soon after 
dissolved, and Mills went and resided at Shelbume, 
in that province. 

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ririTSD STATES*^ 889 


Was; bom in Cambridge, near Bodtdii, zstA 
served an appreivticeshi]) with Green and RusselU 
He was the partner of Natlaniel Mills. \^Forpar* 
ticuhrs respecting tkis company^ see Nathaniel 

Hicks, |(revioM to his ending into partnersh^ 
iptdth Mills, was apposed to be a zed^ous young 
wing* He w^s reputed to have bee^i one of the 
young men, who had an aifray with some British 
soldiers, and which led to the memorable massacre 
in King street, Boston, on the 5th of March, 1770* 

Interest too often biasses the human mind. The 
officers and friends of government at that time, un^ 
^esti(mably, gave en^uragement to liie feie*^ prints 
ers, who enlisted themselves for the support of the 
British parlkment. Draper's Massachusetts Ga- 
tette and Boston Weekly News-Letter, was the 
only paper in Boston, when, and for sonfie time be- 
fore. Mills and Hicks began printing, which discov- 
ectd the feast appearance of zeal in supporting the 
measures of the British admmistration against the 
colonies — and I>aper was the printer to the gov-r 
emor and council. 

The Massachusetts Gazette and Post^Boy, &c, 
printed by Green and Russell, was rather a dull 
recorder of common occurrences; its publishers^ 
si^;hou^h encoimiged by prinitin^ for tbe custojo^^ 

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house^ and by other profitable work for government^ 
did not appear to take an active part in its favon 
The dilute with the parent country daily became 
more and more important ; and it evidently appear- 
ed, that the administration deemed it necessary that 
there should be a greater nilmber of newspapers zeal- 
ously devoted to the support of the cause of Great- 
britain. It was therefore decided that Green and 
Kussell should resign the printing of their Gazette 
to MiUs and Hicks ; and they were animated by 
extraordinary encouragement, to carry it on with 
spkit and energy in support of the royalcause. A 
number of writers, some of them said to be officers 
of the British army, were engaged to give new life 
and spirit to this Gazette. Mills and Hicks , man- 
. ^d the paper to the satisfaction of their employers, 
until the commencement of the revolutionary war, 
which took place in two years after they began 

The father of Hicks was one of the first who 
fell in this war. When a detachment of the British 
troops marched to Concord to destroy the public 
stores collected there, by order of the provincial 
congress, Hicks's father was among the most for- 
ward to fly to arms, in order to attack this detach- 
ment on its return to Boston, after having killed a 
number of Americans at Lexington, and partially 
executed the design of the expedition to Concord ; 
and, in the defence of his country, he lost his life. 

Notwithstanding this sacrifice of his father on 
the altar of liberty, Hicks still adhered to the Brit- 
ish, and remained with the royal army, supporting, 
as a printer, their cause, uritil a peace was conclud- 

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fed) by Ac acknowledgment of the Independence of 
the United States. 

When the British anny quitted Newyork, Hicks^ 
with many other American loyalists, went with them 
to Halifax. After remaining there a few years, he 
returned to Boston. Having acquired a very con- 
siderable property by his business during Jtbe war, 
he purchased a handsome estate at Newtown, oa 
which he resided until his death. 


Was a justice of the peace for the county of 
Plymouth, and lived at Abington, Massachusetts. 

He possessed some talents as a popular writer ; 
and, in consequence, was advised in 1771, to re- 
move into Boston, and write, occasionally, on the 
side of the patriots. He furnished a number of 
pieces for the Massachusetts Spy. These display- 
ed an ardent zeal in the cause of American liberty ; 
and, in the then state of the popular mind, amidst 
many pungent, and some more ejegantly written 
communications, they produced a salutary effect. 

Not long after he came to Boston, a piece under 
the signature of Mucins Scaevola^ as has been al- 
ready mentioned, appeared in the Massachusetts 
Spy, which attracted the attention of the governor 
and cbtmcil of Massachusetts ; they sent for Thomas, 
the printer, but he did not appear before them. 
Greenleaf, who was suspected of being concerned 

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in the puUKcation of that paper^ was also required 
to attend in the council cimmber ; but, he did not 
make his appearance before this board. The ooun- 
cil then advised the governor to take from Green- 
leaf his commission of a justice *of the peace, as he 
*^ was generally reputed to be concerned with Isaiah 
Thomas in juinting and publishing a newspsqier 
called the MasssK^husetts Spy.'^ Greenkaf was ac^ 
cordingly dismissed as a magistrate* 

In 1773, Greenleaf purchased a press and tjrpes, 
and opened a printing house in Hanover street, near 
Concert hall. He printed several pamphlets, and 
" An Abridgment of Bum's Justice of the Peace.'* 

In August, 1774, he continued the publication 
of The Royal American Magazine, begun by 
Thomas. The revolutionary war closed his print- 
ing business. 

Greenleaf was not bred a printer ; he had but 
little property, and set up a press at an advanced 
period of his life, as the mean of procuring a liveli- 
hood. A son of his, nearly of age, had learned 
printing of Thomas ; this son* managed his feth* 
er's printing house, during the short time he car- 
ried on business. 

He is now living, and is the pldest magistrate in 

* Thomas Greenleaf, afterward the publisher of a news- 
paper in Newyork^ 

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nriTci) nATM^ IfiS 


Was the widow of Richard Draper. She pub* 
lished the MassachbWtts Gasette and Boston News 
Letter, after his death. Boyle, who had been con- 
nected with her husband a short time before he 
died,, continued the man^gemeht of her printing 
house for about four months; andf, during that 
time, his name appeared after Margaret Draper's in 
the Ipiprkit of the Gazette, At the expiration of 
tiiis period, their partnership was dissolved. 

Margaret Draper conducted the concerns of the 
printing house for several months, and then formed 
a connexion with John Howe, who ^nanaged the 
business of the company, agreeably to the advice of 
her friends, whilst she remained in Boston. 

M. Diaper printed for the governor and coun- 
cil ; but the newspaper was the principal work done 
► in her printing house. 

A few weeks after the revolutionary war com- 
menced, and Boston was besieged, all tiie newspa- 
pers, excepting her^s, ceased to be published ; and, 
but one of them, th§ Boston Gazette, was revived 
after tlie British evacuated the town. It is remark- 
able that The News Letter was the first and the last 
newspaper which was published in Boston, prior to 
the declaration of independence. 

Margaret Draper left Boston with the British 
army, and went to Halifax ; from thence, she soon 
I 3B 

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took passage, with a number of her friends, for 
England. She received a pension from the British 
government, and remained in England until her 
death, which took place a few years since. 


Was bom in Boston, and there served a regular 
apprenticeship at the printing business. His father 
was a reputable tradesman in Marshall's lane. 

In the account g^ven of Margaret Draper, men- 
tion was made that Howe became connected with 
her in publishing her Gazette, &c. 

Howe had recently become of age, and was a 
sober, discreet yoimg man ; M. Draper, therefore, 
was induced, a short time before the commence- 
ment of the war, to take him into partnership; 
but his name did not appear in the impni^ of the 
Massachusetts Gazette till Boston was besieged by 
the continental army. 

Howe remained with hb partner until they were 
obliged to leave Bostcni, in consequence of the evac* 
nation of the town by the British troops in March 
1776. He then went to Hali&x, where he publish- 
ed a newspaper, and printed for the government of 
Novascotia. He is still in business at Halifax* 

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Was the third place in the province of Massa- 
chusetts, in which a press was established. The 
first printing house was qpened in 1768, by 


He was bom. in Medford, Massachusetts, 
served an apprenticeship with his uncle, Daniel 
Fowle, of Portsmouth, and first began business in 
Newport, in 1763, in company with Anne Franklin. 

He left Newport in March, 1768, opened a 
printing house in Salem in April following, and 
began the publication of The Essex Gazette, in 
August of tiiat year. In three or four years after 
he settled in this town, he admitted his brother, 
Ebenezer Hall, as a partner. Their firm Was 

Samuel and Ebmezer Hall. 

They remdned in Salem until 1775. Soon 
after the commencement of the war, to accommo- 
date the state convention and the army, they remov- 
ed to Cambridge, and printed in Stoughton hall, one 
of the buildings belonging to Harvard university. 

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996 HIS4P0KY t»F FldXTtNG. 

In February, 1776, EbenezerHall died, aged 
twenty seven years ; he was an amiable young man, 
and a good printer ; he was bom in Medford, and 
was taught the art of l^rkikftig by his brother. 

In 1776, on the evacuation of Boston by the 
British troops, Samuel Hall removed into that town, 
and remained there xoAjA 1781, whftn ht returned to 
Salem* H^ continued in Salem until Nov^ffibef, 
1785 ; at wluck time he tgaln w«fit to Boston, md 
opened a printing house, and a book and stationary 
store, in Comhill. 

In April, 1789, h^ be^n printing, in the French 
language, a newspaper, enttded. Courier de Bos* 
ton* This was a weekly paper, printed on a sheet 
of crown in quarto, for J, Nancrede, a Frencbyman, 
who then taught thfe language of his nation, at the 
university ; and, was afterward a bookseller in Bosi- 
ton ; but his nam$ did not appeal^ in the im|)rinl of 
The paper. ^ Courier de 3oston,^^ wa$ published 
6nfy six mtmths. 

After Hall rclinqnished the publicati^ of * 
newspaper, he printed a few octavo and dubdecHttO 
vohimes, a variety of snxall bookd with cuts, for 
tihttdren, andtnany pamphlets, particularly sermons. 

Hali was a correct printer, and judicious editor. 
He was industrious, faithful to his engagements, a 
respectable citizen, and a firm friend to his country. 

He died October 30| 1807, aged sixty seven 

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TOIt%^U> STATXi. : 999 


Has been already mentioned. He Tem^ved 
ieota Boston to Satem k 1774^ and o^^^' in Ruck 
kx^et, dieitocondpriMingfacn^ 

Tm' the Muie year, lie ;begaii Aie piiblicatkm'of a 
neirapsper^ bat (did n€€ imeet with* suocMg. Ht 
firtmed bafiMte and smi^ 

Havkig'refMii^ j^>out fvirof yeiisre in Sdem^ he 
removed to D&nvan, M^of^iineda'pi^tl^'houde; 
from thence, about the year 1778, he returned with 
his press to Boston* [^See Boston — Portsmouth^ £sfr. 

vJOm*. «OOERS>. 

Was bom » BoMdii, wiA served an upprtntice- 
thip there, with WilHbm Macdpine^ He begw the 
publication of a newspaper in Saleih^ »f the printing 
house of Russell, who was interested in the paper ; 
but it was printed only a few weeks. 

After this MtM* k the «*empt to establish a 
paper, I do not recollect to have seen Rogers's name 
to any pubttcatioa« He did not owa ^im p^^s or 

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The .widow of Charles Crouch, of Charieston, 

^le Idi Charleston in 1780, a shcnt time beEm 
t^citjr was surrradered to the British troops; and 
she brought iinth her the press and types of her late 
husband. She opened a jHintmg house in Salem, 
near the taai church, nHiere she puUished a news- 
paper for a short time. When she sold her pxs&f 
fcc. she removed to Providence, Rhodeisland, the 
place of her nativity, and there readed. 


At the request 6£ several gentlemen, pardcu- 
larlythe late rev. Jcmathan Parsons, a press was 
first established in this town, in 1773, by 


He opened a printing house in King street, 
NewbuiypcMt, opposite to the Presbyterian church. 
This town was settled at an early period. In point 
Of magnitude it holds the third rank, and it was the 

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tTNlTBD StATtS. 3!® 

fonrtlx, where the press was established, in the coU 
ony. Thomas took as a partner, Henry Walter 
Tinges ; the firm was 

Thomas and Tinges. 

Thomas continued his business in Boston, and 
Tinges had the principal management of the con- 
cerns at Newburyport. They here printed a news- 
paper, and in this work the press was principally 

Before the dose of a year, Thomas sold iSa& 
printing materials to Ezra Lunt, the proprietor of a 
st^e, who was unacquainted with printing ; but he 
took Tinges as a piartner, and the firm of this com- 
pany was 

Lunt and Tinges. 

They continued their connexion until the coun* 
try became involved in the revolutionary war, soon 
after which Lunt transferred the press, and his con- 
cern in printing, to John Mycall. Tinges nqw be- 
came the partner of MycalL 

Mycall and Tinges. 

This partnership ended in six months. The 
business was then conducted by Mycall, who soon 
became so well acquainted with it, as to carry it on, 
and continue it on a respectable footing, for about 
twenty years ; when he quitted printing, and retired 
to a ferm at Harvard, in the county of Worcester, 
from whence he lately removed, and now resides in 

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400 HiswRjir.- -pf (f »t¥«KG; 

Tii!^e» tw« Jjom io Boston, bte pw^ftits i^erti 
HoUandera } he aerv^d part of hiis apprenjtices^p 
with Fleming, and the residue wilb Thonum* He 
went from Newburyport to Baltimore, and from 
thence to sea, but «ver rrHxmicd.- 

Lunt joined the American army, and finally 
removed to Marietta ; he was a native of Kewbu* 

My call was not brought up to printings but he 
was a man of great ingenuity. He waa bom at 
Worcester, in England ; and was jsl schoolmaster at 
Almsbury, at the time he purchased of Lunt Some 
years after he began printing, his printing housd 
and all his printing materials were consumed by 
fire. Those materials were soon replaced t)y a very 
valuable printing apparatus. 


This was the fifth town in Massachusetts m 
which the press was established. 

In 1774, a number of gentlemen in the county of 
Worcester, zealcHisly en^ged m the erase oT the 
country, were, from the then appe»itnoe of pubtid 
a&irs, desirous tQ have a press established in Wor* 
cester^ the shim town of d)e county. In Decendijcr 
of that year, they apfdied to a printer in BosM^ 
who engaged to open a printing house, and to pab« 
lish a newspaper there, in the course of 1^ ensuing 

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m\f^^ t? Af^. 4Qi 


In c<»p«l««ips of Ml jipawient wiib tiw> ge% 
Ikmm f» before retet^i to. mi^ a ^^ss, y^« 
siutaUbi p^«$m miims^ th^ q^c^nisQCU) to tbki 
town, he, Jp Ffibruaiy 1771, iawed ^ proposal ft» 
|yijrfcd&}]94ne ^ nfiW2q;)^[)^, to bf pnti^fdt -^ J fee Wor- 
cfttfw Gaxfitte 5 or, Amfd^ean Ontck frf Liberty./- 
^$ i^air conuKM^ndng {x^om^r tl;)m w»a e^^p^Qt^^ bi^ 
was obtigod to le^vQ ^&toiu caio/e yijua^ to Worn 
(^8teqf , opeitfd a prmtbg kouae, ^ 
J775, executed the first piintiog dons m thk^ towPt 

Thomas »iM«ifid tt Wo^rcctf ft* uJitU 1776, w 
ke latjL part of his pmting appar^tw^ md his newsr; 
paper, to tvm grotJemcn of the/lw^, William Stiw^S 
aod Daiai^l Bige]i9(W, and ^ith the okh^ part rep^ov- 
«d <o Sakm, witl^ an ii^t$»^n to cbi^xa^ii<^ bn^ 
ncfla hi that j^e ; but, e^aoy obstruotiQPA %q tbf^ 
plan arising in ^nmqwTH^ ojf the war, bi& «>ld Aft 
Itfinting matenslfi wHioh h§ c^iil^ ^.th^tpfm; 
and, in 1778, returned to Worcester, tpok ifito pg^; 
^Qssioa t^<;r priest wbichb^. b^d \^ tk^^, ^re* 
suoked the pid^tication of th@ Spy* 

QeieeqvMl hia types wpm dcwn, andfouml 
piqpifQr^ wvetchedly as it waa thfin naabu^ftebjiir^ dif-. 
feult tp te obtained; htilb, in a &w iQc»[itbii> bt Yfm 
fortunate enough to pw?^iase i^xm mw t^^iH^qb 
were taken in a vessel from Loed^n* AJ^m U&W^ 
tnmfi, h£ ako prdcured pap<^r, wluQb wits, supf riar in 
<]iiality ta liiiitf was gepia^^ 

I 3 C 

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402 UlSTbKY^df ^MNTIkC. 

period ; and, thus he was enabled to keep his print- 
ing business alive whilst the war continued. 

During two or three, years he was concerned 
with Joseph Tirumbull in a medicinal store. 

On the establishment of peace, an intercourse 
was (^ned with Europe, and he fM*ocured a liberal 
suppfy of ne/w^ printing materials, and engaged in 
book printing ; opened a bodkstore, and united the 
two branches ot printing and booksellii^. 

In Septefmbett*, 1788, he recofnmenced printing 
m- BdstcHi, and itt' the same time opened a book- 
store there. At first, the business was managed by 
three' partners, ubder the firm of /. Thomas and Co. 
-rrbut (Mie oif the partners leaving the company, 
Thomas formed ia ; copairtnership with the. oiher^ 
Ebenezer Ti Andrews, m4io had served fais' appren- 
ticeship with him, and the bouse todc the fiitn of 
Thomas and Andrews, which still continues. " 

In 1793^ he set up a press, and opened a book- 
store, at Walpole, Newhampshire, where he began 
tiie publication of a newspaper, entitlec), The Farm- 
er's Museum. This paper is still published* 

' In 1794, he opened aiiother printing house and a 
bookstore at Brookfield, Massachusetts. ' T i 

All these coneems" were managed by partners, 
and distinct from his business in Worcester'; where 
He* continued to reside, and to cany on printing and 
booki^liiig on his sole account. At Worcester, he 
also erected a papeimill, aild set up a bindery ; and 
Was thus enabled to go through the whole process 
of Manufacturing bodks. 

" In 1794, he and his partner at Boston extended 
i branch <^ their bodk^Uing business to Baltimore. 

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.. UNITED STATES.' U »403 

The* Iwfuse there esdblisKedfwaskiibivAiiy the firm 
of Thomas^ * Jfndrems* and Butler / and,' in 1796, 
they established anotlier branch of their business at 
Albaipyv 'Under the firm of Thomas ^ Andrews and 
Fmnimanj and there opened a printing house and 

i Tht books printed by him at Worcester, and by 
him and his partners in other places, form a very 
considerable catalogue. At one time they had six- 
teen presses in use ; seven of them at his printing 
house in Worcester, ^d five at the company's print- 
ing house in Boston. They printed three newspa- 
per^ in the country, and a magazine in Boston ; and 
they had five bookstores in Massachusetts, one in 
Newhampshire, one at Albany,, and one at Bal- 

Among the books which issued from Thomas's 
press at Worcester, were, in 1791, an edition of the 
Bible, in folio, with copperplates ; and, an edition, 
in royal quarto, with a concordance. In 1793, a 
large edition of the Bible in octavo, and in 1797, the 
Bible in duodecimo. Of this last size, several edi- 
tions were printed, as the types, complete for the 
work, were kept standing. In 1802, he printed a 
second edition of the octavo Bible. 

Among the books printed by the company in 
Boston, were, The Massachusetts Magazine, pub- 
lished monthly, in numbers, for five years, contain- 
ing five octavo volumes ; five editions of The Uni- 
versal Geography in two volumes octavo, and sev- 
eral other heavy works ; also, the Bible in 12mo. 
numerous editions; the types for which were re- 
moved from Worcester to Boston. 

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404 HisroxT OF FKiirnNG. 

In lt62, Thoianitailp^ea die jxiittingcklVbt^. 
cei^er to his son baiah Thoma^ juiu aad^ jsooii 
idte'y tmlsfiattd to hbii Ibb nana^pfailQDt of tfe 
MassaidiaaJbtts Sijpy. His son cotttinniss the pubft. 
Nation of tihat paper^ and carries dn ptinki^gp 'wM 

fer$y in vol. ii.J 

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THERE was no press in this colony until 1709; 
and, I believe^ not more ikm firar printing houses 
in it before 1775. 


^ut hat pb^^^mt in CcmieettiMrt ti^ bt 
fld^t^iim; f6^#t^yeattibdbxtaptieSttW^ 
Mmbd dseMrheiie tti ikt toLtitiy. 


Wjts the first iK^hOf rlnted in Connactieut; He 
set ^p his press m die town of Nei^ndoain 1709* 
He was reecMAmiended by BarthdomewOremi, wb^ 
at that time printed in Boston, and from whom he^ 
probably, Icftttted flfe ttt df IVifitittg; 

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In the year 1710, he printed an original woii, 
well known in Newengland^ by the title of " The 
Saybnx^ Platform of Church Discipline.*' This 
is said to be the first book printed jn the colony. 
After the Platform he printed a number of sermons* 
and sundry pamphlets on k-eligious subjects, and 
was employed by the governor and company to do 
the work for the colcmy. 

He died at Newlondan> three or four years after 
his settlement there. 


He has already been taken notice of, as the son 
of Samuel Green, Jun. of Bostqn^.and grandson of 
Samuel Green, seni(»r, of Cambridge. He con- 
ducted a press in Bostc»i thirteen years. Receiving 
an invitadon from d^ counc^ and a^mbly of Con- 
necticut colony, jn the year 1714, he removed to 
Ne\dondon, and was, appointed printer to the ' gov- 
emoar and company, oii a salary of fifty pounds per 
annum.* It was stipulated that for this sum he 
should print the election sermons, proclamations* 
and the laws which should be enacted at the several 
sessions of the assembly. 

Beside the work of government, Green printed 
a number of pamphlets on religious subjects, par- 
ticularly sermons. It has been said of him, that 
whenever he heard a sermon which he highly ap- 

♦ Tmn^tmir^ History of Connecticut 

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pft>ved, he would solicit a copy of'the au&or^ and 
print it for his own sales. This honest zeal in the 
cause of religion often jwoved injurious tolusm« 
terest. Large quantities of these sermons lay on 
hand as dead stock ; and, after his decease, they 
were put into baskets, appraised by the bushel^ 
and sold under the value of common waste paper* 

He printed a revised edition of the laws, entitled, 
"Acts and Laws of his Majestie's Colony (^Con- 
necticut in New-England.'* Imprint—" New-Lon- 
doh, Reprinted by Timotiiy Green, Printer to his 
Honour the Governour and Company. 1715.'* He 
published, also, an edition of the laws ftt>m 1715 
to 1750. ' 

As early ais 1727, he printed Robert Treat's Al- 
manack. The celestial signs for which were ruddy 
cut on em quadrates, and raised to the height of 
the letter. 

Some years before his death, he resigned his 
printing house and business to hb son Timothy, 
who at the time was a printer in Boston, and the 
par^^ of Samuel Kneeland. 

Green was a deacon of the church iti Newlon- 
don ; and, as a christian, was held in high estima- 
tion. His piety Was free from the gloominess and 
a^rity of the bigot; he was benevolent in his 
heart, and virtuous in his life. He was of a very 
facetious disposition, and many of his sinecdotes are 
handed down to the present time/ ? ' 

He died May 5, 1757^ aged seventy eight years. 
He left silt sons, and one dsrtighter ; tliie dauglit^ 
died in Easthaddam in 1808; thiee of his sohs 
were printers ; the eldest, as befort^nentioned, sue* 

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40t Hi&Toiy «F FMnrtSG. 

ocsded kim} itbe weond settled at Aitfwpi^ 19 
Mvjdand; aad» the iSurd wac coBiieitt«d^thhi# 
firiher; but4iedfa«fi>itofaHP< 

;?tAMU«^,, PReW 

T»W> SOS <?f Timo^y OrQep, w^ tx>n) jq 
31^11 ^p jresra ^fi^re Jvi latter Jeft that town, 
Ijf was ^%i^ht printing by his feth^r, .^nd was £» 
9^v^ y*Fs, AW paHnership with him, 

He died in May, 1752, at forty years <4 3«e j 
IfUvipg thf«9 SPPS, who WfiT? pwter^ ^ of whom 
#f flptjpe will |?9 t«kq» i» a?w:§e» - 

TrnQWY QBj;^. j?«f. 

Was '?<¥!n ifx Postoa, w4 Q^e tp thi§ place 
wjift his |irtll;(pr? whp i»s$nicte4 h^ in the art- ' ?fe 

l>?g^ PIW^ i» Bp^tOfi, 3^4 Tivas for tvvwty fiy(? 

y.?piT»ti^ iwftjjpriof 3^»jfi i^ne^ja^d, «js h^^b?^ 
«=^^ . . '. 

,i P»)*e 4^ pf his i?wdier S«nwel, his j^ef 
being aged, and u^^l^letQ in^nggpl^iponcernspf 
ijie prwtiog h>fi^, he plop^ 4 , h^ p^itner^p widi 
&?(efitewl; pH il» Wmplwv;/? with his fether's ^?y 
Q^§t, pev(K>vp^.p 'i^^]p^^o^f Thp whole tjy^, 
imSB<WMJllNeie^|»ipnf |j[9^ii(^ee^hi$£^1^ 

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as {nifter 6f tibe cokmy ; and^ at this time^ thera 
was not another |«inting house iii CoStuiecticut. 

On the «tli of August, 1758, he published -a 
newspapen Thfa was the second estirfiishment of 
the kind in the colony^ 

After a life of Sndustiy, he died October 3, 1763^ 
aged sixty years. He was amiable in his manners, 
and much esteemed by his friends and acquaint- 
ances. [^See Boston — Newspapers."] 

TIMOTHY 6»E£N> tUrd of that name. 

Was the son of Samud Green, and nephew to 
the last mentioned Timothy. He was born in New- 
london, and was taught the art by his uncle, to 
whose business he succeeded. 

Hieuewspaj^ begun by M^ \itlcle t\^s discon- 
tinued, and he established another, which is now 
published by his son. 

In 1773, he set up a press in Norwich, in com* 
pany with his brother in law j this press was after- 
wand remoyea to Vermont. 

Green was printer to the colony. In his profess- 
ion, and as a citizen, he was respectable ; a firm and 
honest whig, and he was attached to the federal 
constitution of the United States. 

He died on the 10th of March, 1796, aged fifty 
nine years. He had eleven children, eight sons, dnd 
three daughters; two sons were printers, one of 
whom, Samuel, succeeded his father, and is now a 

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printer in Newlondon; the other settled at Freder« 
icksburghy Virg^a, and, in 1787, first printed 
" The Virginia Herald.'* Two sons, by the name of 
Thomas and John, Were booksellers and binders ; 
another son, by the name of William, was an epis* 
copal clergyman, who is now dead. 


The second printing house, established in Con* 
^ecticut, was in thb town. 


At the commencement of the war between 
England and France, in 1754, Benjamin Franklin 
and James Hunter were joint deputy postmasters 
general for America, As the principal seat of the 
war with France, in this country, was to the north- 
ward, the establishment of a postoffice in Newhaven 
became an object of some consequence. James 
Parker, in 1754, obtained from Franklin the first 
appointment of postmaster in this place, associated 
with John Holt, who had been unfortunate in hb 
commercial business, and was brother in law to 

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Having secured the postoffice, Parker, who was 
then the principal printer at Newyork, sent a press 
to Newhaven at the close of the year 1754. The 
first work from his press was the laws of Yale coU 
lege, in Latin. On the first of January, 1755, he 
published a newspaper. 

Holt directed the concerns of the printing house 
and postoffice, in behalf of James Parker and Co. 
Parker rem^ed at Newyork. Postriders were es» 
tablished for the army, and considerable business 
was done at the postoffice and printing house during 
the war. 

P^arker had a partner, named Weyman, in New- 
york, who managed their affairs in that city until 
the year 1759, when the partnership was dissolved. 
This event made it necessary that a new arrange- 
ment should take place. Holt went to Newyork in 
1760 ; took the direction of Parker's printing house 
in that city ; and conducted its concerns. 

The press and postoffice in this place were left 
to the agency of Thomas Green. Parker and Co. 
still remaining proprietors, and continuing their firm 
to the Gazette till 1764, when they resigned the 
business to Benjamin Mecom, 


Who has been mentioned as a printer, first at 
Antigua, and afterward in Boston, removed to New- 
haven in 1764, and succeeded Parker and Co. 
Franklin appointed him postmaster. He revived 

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4If HiSTomr 09 pmrKTiNG. 

IbeGaaette which had been Asoonliiiiiedr bofc did 
ypcry little other printing. 

He tenuuiKd in thiacity until 17^, and lAitikreM 
moved to Philadelphia. ISee PkUadelpbimjktc.'} 

SAMUEL green: 

Was the third son of Samuel Greenland grand^ 
son of the first Timothy Gteen, both printeara ia 
Newlondon, where he was bom. He was taught 
printkig by his unele Timothy, who succeeded his 
fether and grandfather, in NewlondoDu 

Samuel Green was the successor of Mecom, aC 
Newhaven in 1767. He was joined by his broths 
Thomas, from Hartford^ and Uxey becaiae partOierSj^ 
under the firm of 

TTiomas and Samuel Green. 

The ncw^per, which was begun hf PSwker 
and Co. and continued by Meeenn, had ^gBOR been^ 
discontinued. .These broth^s established ane&er. 

Their partnership remained until dissolved l>y> 
the death of Samuel, one of the parties, in Februaiy 
1799, aged fifty six yearsj, 

After the de^h of Samuel, the son of Thomas 
became a partner with his father, under the firm of 

Thomas Green and S(m. 

This son was also named Thomas. The es- 
tablishment continued ten years. 

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In 1809^ unephew of Richaord Dtapor, Thomas 
Collier^ who had beea a pnnler aft Litckfidd, was 
caiB&ectcd widii Greea and his son ; but the same 
year, Thomas Green^ tite. &tber,^ retired fxomi bosi^ 
Bjsss.. On thk occasion he pubtidiedi a Tery afiec* 
tiosuKte and pathetic address to ^ pubtic. 

Th& newspaper established in this placey by 
Thomas and Samuel Green, is now printed by EB 


It is only forty six years since printmg was first 
untroduced into H^tfoi^. 


Wh^o has been recently mentioned as the part* 
ner of Samuel Green in Newhaven, was bom at 
Newlondon. He was the eldest son of Samuel 
Green, printer, in that place. His father dying, 
during the eariy part of his life, he was kistructed in 
printing by his uncle. 

Green first commenced printing in Hartford, in 
17d4. Uatil this time Newlondon and Newhavea 
were the only plaices in thi^ colony, in wlucli presse& 

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had been estaUished. He began the publication of 
a newspaper which was the third printed in Con- 
necticut; he remained in this town till 1767, then 
removed to Newhaven, and there went into a part- 
nership with his brother* Previous to hiis leaving 
diistown, he formed a connexion with Ebenezer 
Watson, who conducted the press two years under 
the firm of 

Green and Watson. 

Thomas Green is now, 1810, living in Newha- 
ven, aged about 71 ; he is a great, great grandson of 
Samud Green who printed at Cambridge, Massa- 

Frederick Green, printer of the Maryland Ga- 
zette, at Annapolis, is from the same stock, and is 
also a great, great grandson of the same Samuel 

Samuel Green, printer of the Connecticut Cra- 
zette at Newlondon, and Thomas Green, jun. late 
one of the publishers of the Connecticut Journal, at 
Newhaven, are of the sixth generation of the name 
of Green, who have been printers in this country, 
being great, great, great grandsons of Samuel Green 
of Cambridge. 


Succeeded Thomas Green, in Hartford, from 
whom he learned printing. He continued the news- 
paper established by Green. Publidung this paper 

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was his principal emplojonent, and he became its 
proprietor at the close of the year 1769. 

It does not appear that Watson was a thorough 
taught printer, although he practised the art ten 

He died September 16, 1777, aged thirty three 
years. He was remarkable for his humanity, anx* 
ious for the safety of his country, then contending 
for its independence, and devoted hb press to 
her cause. He was an ensign in the governor's 
company of cadets. This company attended his 
funeral ; and he was buried with military honors. 

Watson's widow continued the Connecticut 
Courant in company with GcOTge Goodwin, until 
she married B. Hudson. 

Goodwin served his apprenticeship with Wat- 
son, and is a correct pxinter. Hudson was not bred 
a printer, but came into the business by marrying the 
widow of Watson. Goodwin became the partner 
of Hudson, and they are now very respectable prints 
ers under the firm of Hudson and Goodwin. 


This is the fourth toWn in Comiecticut where 
a press was established before the revolution. Two 
printing houses were opened in this place in the 
same year. 

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416 KtsroRT or rtiyriNc. 


TiMOTHirGRaxy tte third, pricted in New- 
lomdon. Judah Jhaiddock Spoons was Ms brother 
in law, and served his apparentioeship widi him* 

Green took Spooner into partnership, furnished 
press and types, and they opened a printing house 
in Nwwich in 1778* Spooner, by agreement^ 
managed the concerns of t}^ firm. Their business 
not answering their expectations, after the trial of a 
few years, they removed their ptess to Westminster 
in Vermont. 


AL£3tANn£it and Jam£s Robektsoh were 
. sons of a respectable printer in Scotland. I have 
mentioned them at Albany, where they began and 
prosecuted printing for several years. 

John Trumbull was, I believe, bom in 
Charlestown, Massachusetts ; he served an appren- 
ticeship with Samuel Kneeland in Boston. Trum- 
bull entered into partnership with the Robertsons, 
and in 1773, they opened a second printing house 
in Norwich, and soon after published a newspaper. 

This company was not dissolved until the Brit- 
ish troops took possession of the city of Newyork 
in 1776. The Robertsons were royalbt^; and, 

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soon after that event, they left Norwich, and went 
to Newyork. 

Trumbull remained at Norwich, and continued 
printing. He differed in his politics with his part« 
ners, one of whom, James, had been in the political 
school of Mdh afcd Ftemiilg t)f B(»toti ; for whom 
he worked two or three years as a journeyman ; but, 
politics apart, James was a wordiy man, and a very 
good printer. Of Atexander I had no knowledge ; 
but I have been informed that he was, unfortunately, 
deprived of the use of his limbs, and incapacitated 
for labor* He was, however, intelligent, well edu- 
cffted^ and possessed some abilities as a writer. 

Trumbull was an honest, well meaning man, 
and attached to his country. His printing was 
chiefly confined to his newspaper, and small articles 
with which he supplied country cl^men. He died 
ia August h9Q2p al the age of fifty two years. 

t 3E 

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PRINTING was introduced intx> Connecticut 
about twenty two years before a press was festab- 
Ushed in Rhodeisland. There were but three print- 
ing houses in the colony before 1775, and only two 

Gregory Dexter, a printer in London, was the 
correspondent of the celebrated Roger Williams the 
founder of Providence* Dexter printed, in England, 
in 1643, Williams^s " Key to the Language of the In- 
dian Natives of Narraganset,'* and the first " Alma- 
nack for Rhode Island and Providence Plantations 
in New England*'' Soon after, Dexter quitted print- 
ing, left his native country, and joined Williams in 
Providence, where he became a distinguished char- 
acter in the colony. He was one of the parties 
named in the charter, and for a number of years 
one of the assistants, under the authority granted 
by that charter* He was one of the first town 
clerks, and wrote an uncommonly good hand ; pos- 
sessed handsome talents } and had been well edu- 
cated. From him descended the respect^le fcun- 
ily of tiie Dexters in Rhodeisland. 

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UWITtl) STATES. '^ '419 

It is ssad that after Samuel Green began print- 
ing at Cambridge, Dexter went there, annually, for 
several years, to assist him in printing an almanack.^ 


The press was first established in this to\m in 
Ae year 1732 ; and was the only one in the colony 
till 1762. 


It has been stated that Franklin was the pub- 
ifeher of The New- England Courant. Soon after 
that paper was discontinued, he removed from Bos- 
ton, with his printing materials, to Newport, and 
there set up his press in a room " under the Town 
School-House.'* He did some printiiig for govern- 
ment, published a newspaper a few months, and an 
Almanack annually. * 

He was the first who printed in Rhodeisland ; 
but only pu\>lished a few pamphlets and other small 
articles, beside those mentioned above* He died in 
February, 1735. [^See Boston.'^ 

* MS. papers of the late president Stiles, of Newhaven. 

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4M HZSTMtY 09 ItllTTtlfG. 


The widow of Jamot Franklin succeeded her 
husband. She printed for the colony, suppUed 
blanks for the public offices, and published pam- 
phlets, &c. 

In 1745, she printed, for government, an edi&HtL 
of the laws, containing three hundred and forty 
pag^ fcdiQ. She was aided in her printing bj hor 
two dsai^t^*St and afterward by her 8O0» when k 
attained to a competent age. Her daughtora w^ 
correct and quick compositors at case ; they were 
instructed by their father whom they assisted. . A 
gentleman who was acq^uainted with Anne Franklin 
and her family, infbrmed me, that he had often seen 
her daughters at work in the {Hinting house, and 
that they were sen^ble apd amiable wom^n. 


The son of James and AnneFrankHn, was bom 
In Nfcifijport ; as soon as he was of age, he became 
the partner of his mother, Bjfid conducted thcfr con- 
cerns in his own narne^ 

He began printing aboqt the year 1754, published 
The Mercuiy in 1758, and died August 22, 176& 

After his death, his mother resumed the busi- 
ness j but won reigned the^iaa»agq»eirt of it to 

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Samuel Hall, with whom she formed a partnership, 
under the firm of 

BmkBn wd JM.^ 

This firm was of short duration ; it was dis* 
qdved hy* the death of Anne Fmnklin, Ajml 19, 
1763, at the age of sixty eight. 

Th^ printed an edition of the laws, in fdSo, 
which iras completed about the time that Anne 


A»ER th c death of Ws partner, Hall printed in 
his own name. 

An account of him has already been given among^ 
the printers of Massachusetts. He remained here 
five years, continued the publication of the Mercury , 
and found considerable employment for his press. 

In March, 1768, he resigned the printing house 
iaNewport to Solomon Southwick, and removed 
to Salem, Massachusetts. {^See SalemJ\ 

t Anne FranklinVbretlieT in law^ the cdebyaMBenjamia 
FcanUiB) wlw then printed in PUladelplm, hadi lit that time, a 
pamMBrbjtbeaameofHalli aodtbefismiaPbiladelpbiawat 
UlMnmQ FropkUa and£blL 

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Was bom in Newport, but not brou^ up 
to the business of printii^. He was the scm of a 
fisherman ; and, when a lad, assisted his father in 
selling fish in the maiket place. The attention he 
paid to that employment ; the comeliness of his per* 
son, and the evidences he gave of a sprighdy gen- 
ius, attracted the notice of the worthy Henry Col- 
lins, who, at that time, was said to be the most 
wealthy citizen in Newport, one of the first mercan- 
tile characters in Newengland, and greatly distin- 
giiished in the cojony of Rhodeisland for philan- 
thropy and benevolence. Mr. Collins took a num* 
bcr of illiterate boys, whose parents were poor, under 
his patronage ; and, gave each an education suited 
to his capacity ; several of whom became men dis- 
tinguished in the learned professions. Among the 
objects of his care and liberality was young South- 
iwick, who was placed at tlie academy in Philadd- 
phia, and there provided for till he had completed 
his studies. Mr. Collins then established him, as a 
merchant, with a partner by the name dF Clarke. 

Southwick and Clarke did business on an 
cxtenave scale; they built several vessels, were 
engaged in a trade to London and elsewhere ; but, 
eventually, they became bankrupts, and their part* 
nership was dissolved. 

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After this misfortune, Southwick married a 
daughter of colonel John Gardner, who for several 
years had been governor of the colony ; and, by 
this marriage, he became possessed of a ha^dsome 

About this time Samuel Hall, who liad a desire 
to leave Newport and remove to Salem, offered his 
printing establishment for sale. Southwick became 
the purchaser in March, 1768, and succeeded to the 
busine^ of Hall ; he continued the publication of 
the Newport Mercury, and made some attempts at 
book printing. He publicdied, for his own sales^ 
several smaU volumes; but, the turbulence of 
the times checked his progress in this branch of 

Southwick discovered a sincere and warm at* 
tadunent to the interest ci Uie country ; he was a 
firm whig ; a sensible and spirited writer ; and, in 
odier respects was qualified to be the editor of a 
newspaper, and iht conductor of a press in times of* 
revolutionary commotion. 

The severity of the British government, to the 
province of Massachusetts particularly, was mani- 
fested by several acts of parliament which were 
passed in 1774. By one of these acts, the people 
were deprived of many of their chartered rights and 
privileges. By another, the port of Boston was 
shut, and the transaction of every kind of commer- 
cial business on the waters of this harbor, was inter- 
dicted. These arbitrary edicts aroused the indig- 
nation of the people in all the colonies. They loudly 
expressed their resentment in various ways ; and, 

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424 HisToitr 9w tturTurc* 

the pfcas becamd tibfr oTfgm through trhidl tiieir 
ftenthneiits^ were energetically tadomtccd.^ 

Southwk:k was among the number of printeni 
who were not backwund to Idow the trun^et in our 
ZtoTty and to sound an alarm in the holy mountam of 
our fibefties. He wrote and priated an address to 
the peojde of Rhod^sland^ which was headed with 
the motto*^'^ joiir or uiz V* Thia motto had ap* 
peared m several of the newafapers^ as will be meo^ 
tiraed hereafter^ In this appeal, BositOD was rq^ 
resented as in a state of siege ; which whs tx^xaitf 
true ; ft>r the harbor was completdy blockaded 
by ships of war, aikl a large number of tnoops weit 
quartered in the town. It wafi also further sbited^ 
diat these measures <rf the British govemmait wot 
a ^^ direct hostile invasion of i^ the coloniea.'' The 
address was cxmcluded by cribscrving» that ^^ the gra* 
erals of despotism «re now drawing the lines of ci^ 
eumvallation around our bulwaiks of liberty^ and 
nothing but unity, resolulien and perseverance, caa 
save ourselves and posteri^ from wfaal is wone 
than deatb-*-Slav^/' 

Soqthwick, hy hb puUkatiiHis and exotions ia 
the cause of the country, became very obnoxious 
to those who were of the oppomte party ; andhe,intli 
other zealous whigs, were marked as objects for 
punishment. When the British fleet and army took 
possession of Newport in 1776, he bwdy ehidad 

* The history of those times has been abljr delineated by 
our historians, Ramsay, Marshall, Bancroft, Gordon, Warren) 
&c. to whose writings t refer the reader ; as a history of po- 
litical events does not come within the scope or plan of this 

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tlib Areftiesied evU* A^ sodn to a ptet of tte army 
had landed, detachments of both horse and feci 
wftim fi^ft into aU pans of ^etdwn to arr^t the pat. 
liotS) wh(i were endfeaVoHng td eifecl an ^Bcdfye. 
I$09fdi#iiclt, his w^, with a child in her mm, mA 
t9(m& othar petid(md, had got on board m ^pen boaty 
^ were judt pta»lttgoffftx>«a the shore, into a very 
rough sea, occasiofied by a high wind, when a par^ 
of soWiew Who w^^ in purauh of tfeem, catne in 
i^ght. S^thudck's wife hid a brother who was a 
rdyaKst ; aM, as such, w^ known to the British 
dffi^jers; hti htwtveit, Wished to secure the re- 
tt^ erf his sister and her husband. A waf e of their 
danger, this brother put Mmself in the Wiy of 
ilhAk pursuers ; and, for a few momientSj arrested 
thfcir atlentfoft, by giving them information of the' 
several parts of the town whence the proscribed 
Whigs would probaMy attempt to make theh- re- 
frent, 8tc. This friendly interference gave S6uth^ 
wick and his frienib thtte to get a few rods from tti6 
Aore bdbre the party arrived at the spot they had 
just quitted. The boat was yet WiAin reach of 
fheir shot. The soldiers fired at them, but without 
eflfect. The passengers fortunately received tto in- 
jury, and \vere soon wafted to a place of s^ety. 

Sou&wick was, at this time, a member of tihe 
general assembly of RhodeisljUidi He owned two 
new houses in Newport ; these, with other property 
which he left at that place, were destit)yed. Hfe 
sought stti asylum in Atdeborough, cm the frontier 
of Massachusetts, and there erected a press ; but 
being soon after appointed commissary ^imi of 

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issues for the state of Rhodeisland, he removed to 

As soon as the British troops evacuated New- 
port, he returned to that town, and resumed the 
publication of his newsp{q)er, which he ccmtinued 
till the year 1787, when, by ill health, and embar- 
rassed circumstances, he was obliged to relinquish 
business, and to place the Mercury in other hands. 

His pecuniary cooicems were greatly impaired by 
the rapid depreciation of the paper currency, before 
the establishment of peace. He, like many others^ 
cherished a belief that the nominal sum, specified in 
the bills, would eventually be made good in specie. 
The impracticability of the thing was' not consider- 
ed, even when one hundred dollars in paper would 
piu^chase but one of silver. The delusion was not 
discovered by some till they found themselves in- 
volved in ruin. The government of the imion were 
indebted to Southwick both for his services and for 
money loaned. This debt, like others of the kindy 
was liquidated by notes known by the name of final 
setdement. In the course of some months after 
they were issued, they were sold in the market for 
one eighth part of their nominal value. To this de- 
preciated state was national paper reduced, before 
the assumption of the public debt by the new gov- 
ernment ; and, when it was in that state, Southwick 
was compelled to sell his final settlement notes, for 
the support of himself and family. He was engaged 
in the cause of his country in the times of her ad-^ 
yersity and danger, but he had no portion of the 
benefits resulting from her prosperity. Assailed by 
poverty, and borne down by infirmity, he lived in 

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obsciuity, from about the year 1788 to the tune of 
Ins deslth ; and, being unable to provide for his chil- 
dren, he left them to make their own way in the 

He lost his wife, who was an excellent woman, 
in 1783 ; and, he " went the way of all the earth,'* 
December 23, 1797, aged sixty six years. 

His son, who bears his name, settled at Albany. 
He has for many years been the publisher of The 
Albany Register ; and, was lately the sheriff of the 
** city of Albany and tlie colonic." 


For many years, the principal part of the trade 
of the colony was carried on at Newport ; at length 
Providence rose to eminence and became the suc- 
cessful rival of Newport. Printing was introduced 
here in 1762. 


Th e son of doctor Giles Goddard, postmaster at 
Newlondon, in Connecticut, was the first who estab^ 
lished a printing press in Providence. 

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Parkfiv priater in Neisryf»i, |i^ Qp^»ed ^ iffiHtt 
ki^ k)use in this jk.te> m 17$9, md sq^ af^r p^bt 
lished a newspaper ; there was at that time hi|| ^m 
pthep paper |»rkitfd ki thr C0kmy> yisj^ 4t Newport ; 
y^ aftar a trial of several years, Goddsni ^4 P(^ 
meet with such encoura^eisicnt as to iaiiduee yxa to 
coalinue hi& Gazette. He kfit Ua pvii;K&^ hause, 
&C4 in the care of his motJber, and SQUghl for IhiJtt^ 
self a more &vomble place of re^deocee* 

On leaving Providence^ he ims fer^ a. short tiane 
concerned with Holt, in Newyork, in publishing 
Parker's Gazette and Post-Boy ; and, as a silent 
partner, drew a share of the profits. After the repeal 
of the stamp act, in 1766, he went to Philadelphia, 
and there printed a newspaper, &c, 

I shall have occasion ag^n to mention Goddard, 
who was in business sererHl yestt^ in Philadelphia; 
and, afterward, at Baltimore where he finished his 
professional labors. 

As a printer he was ingenious a»d enterprising ; 
he made several strong efforts to acquire property, 
^s well as reputation ; but, by some means, his 
plans of business frequentiy felted of success. He 
was most fortunate in his concerns for a few years 
after the termination of the war. At length, he 
supposed that he had become possessed of a compe- 
tency to carry* }»Wk Hm^^^ ^> ^^ witiujat hard rub^ 
bing.'' In this apprehension, he quitted business, 
returned to Newengland, and resided several years 
en a lai^ ferm near Ppovidcnee^ dP w)»ch he is 
Ae ppoprietOT, 

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He now lives in Providence, on the means fur- 
nished him by his former enterprises. 

Major general Charles Lee, an officer in the 
American army during the revolutionary war, own- 
ed a landed estate in Berkeley county, Virginia, 
zp4 kft by wiU one third part of this estate to God- 
dard and Elea^ar Oswald, to whom he professed 
Iwmseif to have been under obligations. 

Few qould conduct s^ newspaper better than God-- 
diso'd ; h^ W^ ^ capable editor, and his talents were 
frftQix dr^wu into requisition. He, like many others, 
was ^ labc^ious agent in the cause of his country, 
and in many instances where he had neither honor 
rvor profit for his reward. When the loaves and 
lishes were to be divided, aspiring, interested, nom-» 
iml patriots, crowded him into the back ground, 
9nd Iws services were in ^ great measure forgotten* 

Gpddard, however, received from the postmas^ 
ter general the appointment of comptroller of post 
roads ; and, in this instance, fared better than many 
others, whose public services wene never rewarded 
by any office whatever, either of profit or honor. 
This is agreeable to the German proverb, (SttlCt 

9fiantf er ttn tmrn, nnn Der amiere itim Bi r 

ItCpS^I — *^ one plants the tree, and another eats the 
apple.'* There is always a host who stand ready to 
push after and receive the benefits of an enterprise, 
who never partook of the dstfigcrs by which it was 

l^See Philadelphia — Baltimore''^Newspap€rs.'] 

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The mother of William Goddard, was the 
daughter of Lodowick Updike, whose ancestors 
were among the first settlers of Rhodeisland, and 
her brother was for some years attorney general of 
the colony. She received a good education ; ac- 
quired an acquaintance with several branches of 
useful and polite learning, and married doctor Giles 
Goddard of Newlondon, who left her a widow. 

After her son had been a few years in business, 
she became his partner ; he left the management of 
the printing house and newspaper to her, and she 
conducted them with much ability for about two 
years, when John Carter supplied tfie place of her 
son ; the firm was then 

Sarah Goddard and Company. 

She resigned the business to Carter in 1769, re- 
moved to Philadelphia the same year, and died 
there in January, 1 770. [&<? Newspapers in voL ii.J 


Was bom in Philadelphia, and served his ap- 
prenticeship with Franklin and Hall, in that city. 
He was the partner of Sarah Goddard from 1766, to 

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1768 inclusive ; and, in 1769, he became the suc- 
cessor of William and Satah Goddard, and proprie- 
tor of the Providence Gazette. 

For more than twenty years his printing house 
was " at Shakespeare's Head, opposite to the Court 

He was postmaster before the revolution, and 
for many years subsequent to it. He is well ac- 
quainted with the art which he practises, and the 
productions of his press exhibit evidence of a good 
and correct workman. 

He was a staunch supporter of the cause of our 
country, before its independence ; and, since this 
important event took place, he has not lost sight of 
her best interests. His printing house is now near 
the bridge, and opposite to the market, where he 
prosecutes printing, in the same accurate manner, 
for which he has J^een remarkable more than forty 


Was bred a seamen, and became the master of 
a vessel. Preferring the mechanic arts, he left the 
pursuits of commerce, and built a paper mill two 
miles from Providence, which probably was the first 
erected in the colony. 

In 1769, he purchased the press and types 
which were, for many years, owned and used by 
Samuel Kneeland of Boston ; with these he opened 
a printing house near his paper mill, but made little 
use of them. 

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A31 HISTORY or rilHTlKC' 


THE printing for this colony was executed 
in Boston, Massachusetts, until 1756. Only two 
printing houses were opened in Newhampslure^ be-» 
tore the year 1775, and one of these had, for several 
years, been shut. The productions of the press 
-were few ; the largest work printed was, the laws 
of the province. 


Although this place was the capital of the col- 
ony, and had been settled a long time; yet, nO 
means had been used to introduce printing into it, 
until about the year 1755, when several c^the influ- 
oitial inhabitants exerted themselves for this pur- 
pose ; and, in the year following^ the press was es« 
tablished here, at which was executed the first 
printing done in Newhampshire. 

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tmiiti* n^*MM ^M^ 


Who had been arrested and hnprboned in Bos« 
ton^ on a charge of having published a libel against 
tfn^ government of MassachHactts^ waa^ as kaal)een 
stated, solicited by several gcntlram qi ¥mtammA^ 
and, afifflpwaidt enooiirageil b]i the gomnnMw^ to 
aet ^ a press in thaft town. Ha aooaidiEngly v^ 
moved fi^ Boston to Bsitsmoudi in Jufy If^ 
and apon after piiblisktd a vmrvpufHf^ 

Fbwie did but fitlte aib book piiidingv 
pd bu wieaa cpniiatad in publishing the netwipapta4 
He was appoib^ti^ printep to the fovemnmrt^ aM 
Ae laws5 itc were issued ipam l^pvass* 

In September 1764, he took his nephew^ Robeirt 
Fowle, as his partner. The firm of the company was 

DameJ and Robert FawUi 

They miudned tc^ther until 17?4 t^dmi'^tky 
aafMMited^ and Robert soon after namored te fiketar* 

D. Fo«de continued in fausinesa untU hb dflad^ 
iMit be ^Ud not ac^lre much proper^. He iqanied 
Into a very respectride &m% in Boston, sontt yeaia 
^fere he removed from tiukt tomi, but^ he faai^ ae 
children. He received the commission of a magia* 
trate a shiM time after he aetded at Fortmoudii 

He was a oc^raet printer, and industrious* &i 
Kk (!Bspo6ki(Hi he was pacMk, agre^aUe in hismaar 
ners, VSa^xA m hk sentiments, and 4|tached to the 
eause of lus eoun^. 


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4S4 HIST611T 6t t^tJfttHG4 

He died in June 1787, aged 72 years. [Ar 

; : . THOMAS ftJRBER. 

J Was bom in, Portsmouth^ and served lus ap-^ 
prendceshi^ with D* Fowle. 
«. . Some zealous whigs, who. thought the Fpwles 
were too timid in the cause of liberty, or their pr^s 
tod mudh under the influmce of the oflElcer9 of the 
crown, encouniged Furber to set up a second press 
in the^fMTovince ; he, in consequence opened a print- 
ing house in Portsmouth,^^ toward the end of 1764| 
ind soon after pubjiished a newspaper. In 1765^ 
he received as a partner Ezekid Russell. . Theur 
firm t«a& 

Furber and Mussett* 

Excepting the newspaper, they printed only ai 
few^ hand bills and trfanks^ The company became 
embarrassed ; and^ in less than a year^ its concerns 
terminated ;: and thepartnersUp was.dissolved. 

Upon the dis$(4tition of the firm^ the press 
and types were purdaased by the Fowles. Furber 
became their journeyman^, and Russ^U„went to 
Boston. . ) 

.Fuiber had beto taught plam bindimg ; he^ un- 
dertook to connect it witb printing ^ and^ although 
he .was not very skilful, either as a printer, or as a 
binder, he began the world under favorable ctr9um- 
stances; and» had he been attentive to^ bus a&irs» 

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UWITED'MATlf.-T ! 435 

he mi^t have been suocessfbl ; lie was good na- 
tured Btid friendly, but naturally indolent ; and, ^ce 
too many others, gave himself up to the enjoyment 
of a companion, when he should have been attend- 
. |ng to his busings. 

He died in Portsmouth many years ^nce, and 
•left a widow and sevQ:al children. 


A DIFFERENCE in the political sentiments of 
D. and R. Fowle, printers and copartners at Ports- 
mouth, was the cause of their separation in 1774 ; 
and, probably, the meam of the establishment of 
a press in Exeter. 


Was the son of John Fowle, who was seveitd 
years a silent partner with Rogers and Fowle in 
Boston, and, afterward, an episcopal clergyman at 
Norwatt: in Connecticut. 

He served his apprenticeship with his uncle, at 
Portsmouth; and, when of age, became his partner, 
as has been mentioned* This cc^artnership being 

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436 Rz&rtmT %y MtniTtKc. 

«adbd»lhlf#iiifldl'Aiirf)natiaginta)faiB. Aik- 

todk ibe fflntts ml t^lRs Wnidi had tweE itMd i^ 

He did some work for Hbc o\d^o^9fnbatiit4 «bI> 
:m IffS^ MBf fv (Ae unr* He made m^rmal at* 
tempts to establish mMi^pajpcrj Ad« « i?fti^ %t^ 
gan one, which he pubfisi^ more than a year. 

The new paper currency of Newhampshire had 
been printed by Fowl^ and it was counterfeited ; 
suspicion rested on him as having been concerned 
in this criminal act; he was a royalist, and fled 
within the British IneB m N^wyork. By this st^ 
the suspici<m which might not have be^i wdl 
founded, was confirmed. Thus ended &e typo* 
jgr^UGBl^MUMKr-df Babert FoiHe* 

With^ath^ refii^eep Irom &e UbitedSl&tes, ,1ie 
«B |>kt^ ?qpiQa am British ipmmm ikL Smm 
ilimis 4i£Kr Ae «0t*ladki^^ 
to this country, married the widonr^ his ym a ^ t r 
brother, who had succeeded him at Exeter, and 
resided in Newhampshire until he died« Robert 
Fowle had very respectably conne:dons^ 

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tX> TOLOME 1. 

MMfug) ^^ owpi ' liit t» littliivt'ViieftlficSk bMrdsdftiaril 

iHf «t tii»«ii «f «i» vo)mi«> ft vppesrs llifiti^ copy tms 

— hMUmHi iwte ^nhMf <iit*k %y ihendn <ftA app reHike rf n 
tookiJlMi mrnol Saflkir, wA fe » foilt>w»«*J« I Aftt liave 

mrt f wittTttit^mto )ifiii)^fiiit It Is perfect) Mt 

CODEX ARGENTEtJS. This tide dgiufiesthe sihei^ 
tirifiheredylxx)]^ The work which bears this name laconsid- 
ler^^ as <Hie of the greatest cunosities in Europe. It exhibits 
a degree iX peifectionln £he operatbns of the scribes^ which> 
n^en we consider the remoteness of the }>eriod wherein the 
yrofk was executed) cannot bil lo inspire us with admiration 
mud surprtle. Many of the greatest literaiy characters are of 
iqt^iflony that it is about fourteen hundred and fi%years old. 
Those who contend for its l>eing alater production, admit that 
tt may justly claim an andqui^ of twelve hundred and foitf 
years. It was discovered anno U979 iu the Benedictine abbey* 

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of Werdeii) and ftfterwards carried to Piagao. CowKiH 
nlg^sroark} who took Prague in 1648, discovered tins work, and 
sent it, among the literary spoila, and other plunder, t^that 
city, to the queen of Sweden. To^ those who have not seen 
any account of these ancient remnants of the Bible, the follow- 
ing extract from Rees's Cyclojpedia witt* be interesting. 

<< Codex Argenteus, in Ublical history, is so called, from 
itssilverletters; it is a manuscript of the four gospels, loidis 
^supposed ta be a copy oiUh^QfMkc verukm made 1:^ Ulphilas, 
the apostle of the Goths, in the fourth century. It is of a quarto 
aize ; the leaves, which are vellum, parchment or papyms, are 
stained with a violet colour; and on this ground, the letters 
wbkh are all ca{Nital% were afterwsod paintod itf tMmf4 ex- 
cept the init^ charact^s,. aiHl a few passiiges in geld. Mt. 
Co3te, from a close ins^cticHi, wast convinced that eadi leHer 
was paipted, and not fonnisd, as so^ae have nnaeited, by «lifif; 
iron upon leaves of gold and silver* IMbat of ijm sUver lell^it 
are become green by time ; but the gddeutl^lenfare^^Blfai 
good preservation. This codex is mutilated in several plaeea^ 
but what remains is, f<Mr the most, part, peffectfy* lef^ble. it 
was first discovered in 1597, in the Ubrwy of theBeaedktina 
abbey of Werden, isi Wes^ihaUa, wtiencm k wa» lireaigliit to 
Prague, and at the capture ofthbcx^ in l649i8etitMaviiiia» 
ble present to Christina ^f Sweden. It aftorwatd eame into 
the hands of Isaac Vossius,' either by atoaltfay or aa a pveaeat 
from the queen ; and on the death of Vossius, it was purchas- 
ed by Count Magnus Galmel de la Gardie for two hundred 
and fifty pounds, and presented to, the university- of XJ^aal, 
where it now remains. Three editions of it have beei;^ giventp 
the public ; the first was issued at Dort, in I6i65, by T. Juniu% 
who borrowed the MS. from Vossius ;. and accompanied with 
observations and a glossary, by Thomas M^irshall. That print* 
ed at Amsterdam in 1^72, is the same with this, having only a 
/new title page, date and place of impression. The second 
edition, published at Stockholm, in 1672, by the leai^ie^ 
Stiemhelm, differs from that of Junius, by haying the t^x^t in 
Latin, and not in Goduc characters. Benzelius, first librarian 
of the uir^v^rsity of Upsal, a^d afteirwards arphbishpp, cqU^« 

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ed tbe MSS. ^rectified mistakeg, uid made a litei^ translation 

into the Latin tongue. These collations and translations, to« 

gether, with various observations, were transmitted to mr. lEd^ 

W:Md.JL^e>. of Oxford, who published a third edition in 1750, 

bfoifi ti^ -Clarendon press 2. this. is esteein^d.^y. those iwho- 

haTe.^Q9ipare4 it with the. oijginal codex, a complete work^ 

Two. opiniaQS. have divided the jiearned concerning thejorig'* 

ipa^tongii^ofthe'Codex^^enteus; the first opiiocm, that it is. 

v»tten in .tit» la^gHf^^ ^apd <;h^rafster used ii^ the &Hrth cen* 

turjr b]^, tJi^ Goths of Mqesi^* ancestors of the .present Swedes, 

fnd.xsa tru^ co]^ of the veruon.made by Ulphilas, is singly 

sii^pprted l:^ Jimusi Stiemhdm, David Wilkins, Benz^us^ 

a»d Lore. The Qe<H«Mcl opmion, viz. that it i^ a tranfJbation in 

the; Fnt^do^h idi<Hn» is ^s warnily defended by Hickes, laCroze, 

Wettffiin, and Michaelis. , Mr. Coxe inclines to the former 

pinion, which is confirmed in an ingenious treatise of Ihre ; 

t^wt^ch it f^^nrs^that sev^rfd^ecimen^ of ^e Ostrogothio 

^opgue have bc^^^lately. discoyered in Italy, which perfectly 

relemble bothlto characters ^nd language ofthe version in 

Ibe codex argMteus.. However this be, as the Gothic and 

FranUsh^idionB^ wete^di^lects of theTeiUc^ orGerman,this 

Mfc isnmt be cqi^sj^er^.as, Ae iXM)st ancient specimen extant 

of that laaguaipe. Those who. attribute the version to Ulphi- 

teS| refer its date to the fourth century } and those who deeni 

it to be a FrM^kirtt tran sl ati op , allow it to have been cc^ied in 

the reign of CbiWeric, between 564 and 587. Besides, its 

high jWBtiquity is proved frpm the doxology at the end of the 

Lord's prayer, Matth. vi. IS, which, is not found in any of the 

most ancient versioi^; and> also, fixmi the interpretation of 

many passages in a similar manner with several of the Latin 

translations which are antecedent to the vi^gate of St. Jerome. 

Another fragment of this curious MS. containing a few chap^ 

ters of St. Paul's epistle tp the Romans, was found at Wolfen^ 

buttle, and is now jureserved in the library of that town. Of, 

thb fragment Ihte published anew and important edition at 

Upsal,. in 1763." Cycle, vol. 2.-^See also, Michaelis's Intro* 

duction to the New Testament, by Marsh* yol- Uf P« 133—153. 

p*- Coxe.'$ .Travf Is, yol. 4,— Carr's Nortjiem Summer. 

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[c] Page 180. 

tioBS of their ttnn% of wijMb Ae etj i m a ky of wotdti Hdd i 
feltfeloaii]r«rt orfdflBcoofwUchUMf iMqrtfwt; l«t off* 
Molo^isfjoeofthemootdlAeiiltoftUtiie bran^etofltenH 
tofox^^ad iHiioiq^ Ibo tonn j^Mlm^iSf conipAnMiPM^ no^ 
«n, k Is not more cMflf •splrittB^ tiuft BMnf otfHrvovAi 
vliich hsre an older rooty or ft sMck hIgiMY origin. TWd« 
leneeof aathoTB reapeedngdie e tym o lug3 f of ^Mtem wmi99 m 
iMth laduced me to attenpt dii^yrerlog w h e nce k 9stm. I 
eannoC find tliat it was used kitiieEiiglMiiorai^oliMrlvH 
gfUkgOykthepreckoteiiBewoiMoknieiii^l ^oagk tit^lteaef 
Biarkedy orspottedy or hAiHag mar to kaptiiiod en My tliiig 
mftjbe contained In the EnglMi word <^ y^r <»i V » Biedfcy 
Chaucer^ and other old authors, who mul e beBwFo tibo iM »e n > 
tion of priming. The Germans, Dutch, ItaliMie» Frend^ fcf. 
frequently nsed words deriTod fNNn the Ofeek^etb^oa^itiawn^ 
ilgidfying that the boek was knpressed. One ef thn oHsel 
printed books in mj possession, daSed in t4ir#>empressss thn 
operetion by which k was made dnis, ^Ma^mtif MUm fa» 
JtrcMOy'* kc. The Dutch TOfb pMM, whteh seeme^efaeM 
be«i adopted into the English knguage, Wmm^ pmhtfily, deitv* 
ed from the Ladn Tsrbyiremo, la*press« Among tiieOreehe 
the word x^'^ 'Af afyears to hare been 4brmed from the vsik 
X^d^^p, and signified ^miS^e to engrave or imppsie I neMi 
imiirfavHintuQitamuiitufmfiim^ TheQieA y if<»»% idim 
stands fi>r jeii^ iir^me. It Is certain ft«m the wHikigaef 
Moses, and other andent records, diat the art of engraving was 
known in the eaiHest or most remote ages of antiqttil|r. Wn 
read of the signet of Jiidah, [Gen. xxsrilL It, 8S] befiire the 
time of Moses ; and, k is easy to trace throng d>e succesaiea 
ages of the worid, the custom of using ttgnets, seals, or riaga» 
to make particular impressicms in wax, which render^ 4ie 
writings of men in authority raMd and binding, in the same 
manner as the hands and scab of those who now make otm^ 
tracts are set to their wridngs* We may, therefors, conchidn 
tiiat the ancients had words to conrey the ideas whidi these 

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Ikctt created. Although what b now emphatically called print- 
ing was not known to them, they could make hnpressions, or 
marks, or prints of various descriptions ; and, notwithstanding^ 
^e word tran^ated ^^firintcd^'* in Job ux, 23, was not intend- 
ed to convey the idea we now receive from it ; yet, perhaps, 
the kind of impression, there alluded to> could not be better 
expressed than by our word firmffd. Thus the Romans by 
Ifae perticij^e prenw conv^ed the idea of imprinted, or mark** 
ed, as is evident from the JEtema ret ea/ireaaa not a of Ovid. 
The participle im/tresausy means the same thing, as is evident 
from Virgil, Crutera imfireaaum aigma ; and the verb active 
>iit^tnmo,isfouikl in Horace, Imfirimat May cura^Macenaa aigna 
ta^iUa. The veri) impreaaioj may also be found in Cicero's 
imfireaaionem aenaere, &c. Here we find nearly all the tech- 
nical terms in the Greek and Latin languages ; and we may 
perceive, to go no higher, that the Dutch verb P^ititrn, and 
ours to print) are derived from the Latin imfirimo. 

While on the subject of etymology, I will remark, that our 
words type, typography, and graving, are wholly derived from, 
^e Greek rtrwh a seal, or stamp, and y^dfafi or y^a^q^ to grave, 
oe imprint. The atyiua acrifitoriuay grafihiumy or graving tooU 
they called o^«f imf, or y^ofv. The Greeks used the terms 
T^Afivf, yH^» ot*f^*^«'> yt^*^i y^f^Ui ot«?*«*^j ot^^^ci 8cc. 
which are descriptive of the various branches of writing, grav* 
ang, &c. The implements the andents used in writing are 
mentioned Jer. xyii. L The sin qf JucUih ia. written with a 
PHX OF IRON, and with the point of a niAMOND ; it ia orav« 
XN upon the table qf their hearty and ufiou the horns of your 


IT is worthy of observation that this workman Was sent for 
fit>m Holland, during the time that the civil war raged in 
England, between the houses of York and Lancaster. The 
whole kingdom was engaged in this dreadful contest from 
1459 to 1471, during which period the arts could neither 
flourish or be attended to. It may be supposed, that king 
Henry and the archbishop had matters of more importance to 

I $H 

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atte&d to than printiiig; andtfaestoiyoftheking'ii toittif 
Ibr a « Printing Mould," though not unpossible, b, ott thiB «c# 
county rendered more improbaMe. I>uTing tibb sanguinarf 
war, Hcmy VI and Edward IV, were twfce crowned and twko 
dethroned, and peace was not restored imtil the miH^erof 
Hemy in 1471. \¥ha^ becaane of the prnitier is not kMwSf 
as no account is s^ren of him after ko was seat to Oxftird. 
Probably he left the coiiatrf befom the war ended, or he wA^ 
hare been put to death by the rabble ; among K^iem the art of 
Piinting does not appear to have been popidar when it fedt 
became puUicly known; ibr Shakespeare, in his Henrf VI^ 
part second, scene seventh, introduces the rebel, John Cade, as 
thus upbraiding the lord treasurer Say^-^ Thou hast most 
traitorously comipled the youth of the realm, in creating a 
grammar school ; and whereas before, our fethers had no back, 
but the score and tsdly, thou hast caused fruiting to be used; 
and, contrary to the king, his crown and dignity, tlioa hast 
Imilt a paper milL^ 

Even admitting that a book was printed at Oxford, asstst- 
cd in what is called the LAmbeth House record, widiout the 
name of the printer, who is acknowledged to have been no 
more than a servant to the archbishops yet Caxton may still be 
called <^ the Father of the EngR^h Pre90" He, wkh much dif' 
iiculty and address, procured tiiat printor and sent him to £ng« 
land ; he^ afterward, became acquainted widi the new method 
of printing with metal types, provided himself with a printing 
apparatus, and when th6 civil war subsided, went to Enghmdy 
and publicly established his press at Westminster. He printecl 
in his own name, under the patront^e, not only of the abbot 
of that diocess, but of the royal femily. At that time there 
was no other printer m En^and, nor had there been any wha 
printed with metal types. If the historians of that dajr^ and 
those who succeeded them, can be credked, Caxtoawastbe 
first printer known in England; as they all acknotdedge him 
to have been the ^ret person who practised priatiiig m QaA 

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KaTis. 448 

[e] Page 180. 

AS the acccmnt given by the retercnd dr, Buchanan, in 
the appendix to his sermon^ entitled, The Star in the East, of 
the discovery lately made in the interior of India, of 300,000 
Christians, among vhom were foond engravings and mann* 
scripts of very ancient date— is highly interesting, I have 
made from it the following extract, viz. 

^ About ^e middle of November, 180f, Dr. Buchanan 
proceeded from the sea coast into the interior of the country, 
northeast from C^iion, to visit the ancient Sjrrian churches, 
situated amongst the low hiRs at the bottom of the high 
Ghauts, which divide the Camadc from Malayala. The face 
of the country in general, in the vicinky of the mountains, ex- 
hibits a varied scene of hill and dale, and winding streams. 
These streams fidl from the mountains, and preserve the val- 
lles in perpetual verdure. The woods produce pepper, car- 
damoms, and cassia, or wild cinnamon ; also frankincense and 
iHher aromadc gums. What adds much to the grandeur of 
the scenery in tiiis country is, that ^e adjacent mountains of 
Travancore are not barren, but are covered with teak forests, 
producing the ha*gest timber in the world. 

<^ The first view of the Christian churches, in this seques- 
tered region of Hindostan, connected with the idea of their 
tranqi^ duration for so many ages, cannot fail to excite pleas- 
ing emodons in the mind of the behokier. The form of the 
oldest buBffings is not unlike that of some of the old parish 
churches in England ; the style of building in both being of 
SaraceiHe origin. They have sloping roofs, pointed arch 
windows, and buttresses supporting the wtdls. The beams of 
the roof bekig exposed to i4ew, are ornamented; and the 
ceiling of tfie choir and «dtjur b circular and fretted. In the 
cathedral churches, the shrines of the deceased bishops are 
placed on each side of the altar. Most of the churches are 
built of a reddish stxHie, squared and polished at the quarry $ 
and are of dund)le construction, the front wall of the largest 
edified being six feet thick. The bells of the churches are 
cast m the foimdries of TravsoKore. Some of them are q£ 

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444 HiSTORr OF printing. 

large dimensions ; and have inscriptions in Syriac and Malay- 
alim. In approaching a town in the evening, the sound of the 
bells may be heard at a distance amongst th» hills ; a circum- 
stance which causes the Biitbh traveller to forget for a mo* 
ment that he is in Hindostan, and reminds him of another 
country. When dr. Buchanan arrived at the remote church- 
es, he was informed by the inhabitants that no European had) 
to their knowledge, visited the place before. The Romish ' 
priests do not travel thither, there being no church of their 
communion in that quarter. 

<< The number of Syrian churches is greater than has 
been supposed. There are, at this time, fifty five churches in 
Malayala, acknowledging the Patriarch of Antioch. The 
church was erected by the present bishop, in 1793. 

" The Syrian Christians are not Nestorians. Formerly, 
indeed, they had bishops of that communion; but the liturgy 
of the present church is derived from that of the early church 
of Antioch, called LUurgia Jacobi JfiqatoU. They are usually 
denominated Jacobita; but they difier in ceremonial from the 
church of that name in Syria, and indeed from any existing' 
church in the world. Their proper designation, and that 
which is sanctioned by tlieir own use, is Syrian Chritianay or 
The Syrian Church of Mdlayala, 

^< The doctrines of the Syrian church are contained in a 
very few articles ; and ar^ not at variance in essentials, with 
the docttines of the church of England* Their bishops and 
metropolitan, after conferring vrith his clergy <xa the subject, 
delivered the following opinion: ^^That an union with the 
English church, or at least such a connexion as should a^ear 
to both churches practicable and expedient, would be a ha^>y 
event, ^d fiivorable to the advancement of religion." It is in 
contemplation to send to England some of the Syrian youth, 
for education and ordination. 

^^ The present bishop. Mar Dionysius, is a nadve of Ma- 
layala, but of Syrian extraction. He is a man of respectable 
character in his nation, and exercises himself in the pious dis-* 
charge of the duties of his hi^ office. He is now seventy eight 
ye^rs of age, and pqss^ss^s a venerable aspect, his white be^ 

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NOTES. 445 

descencBng low to his girdle. On public occasions he wears 
the episcopal mitre ; axui is robed in a white yestment^ which 
covers long garments of red silk; and^ in his hand he holds 
the pastoral staffs The first native bishop was ordained by 
the Romish church in 1663 ; but he was of the Romish com- 
munion. Since that period, the old Syrians have continued, 
tOl lately, to receive their bishc^s from Antioch ; but that an-* 
jc^nt patriarchate being now nearly extinct, and incompetent 
to the appointment of learned men, the Christian church in 
Malayala looks henceforth to Britain for the continuance of 
that light which has shone so long in this dark region of the 

" From informaticm given by the Syrian Christians, it 
would appear that the churches of Mesopotamia and Syria, 
^215 in number) with which they are connected, are strug- 
gling with great difficulties, and merely owe their existence 
to some deference of their antiquity. There are two circum- 
stances which invite us to turn our eyes to the country of " the 
first generation of men." The tolerant spirit of the Waha- 
Inan Mahomedans, is a fair prognostic ; and promises to aid 
our endeavors to restore to an ancient community of Christians 
the blessings of knowledge and religious liberty. Another 
favorable circumstance is, that some of the churches in Meso- 
potamia, in one of which the Patriarch of Antioch now rc- 
fiides, are said still to remain in their pristine state, and to have 
preserved their archives and ancient manuscript libraries. A 
domestic priest of the patriarch, now in Cochin, vouches for 
the truth of this fact. We know, from authentic history, that 
the churches between the rivers escaped the general desola- 
tion of the Mahomedan conquest, in the seventh century, by 
joining arms with the Mahomedans against the Greek Christ- 
ians, who had been their oppressors. The revival of religioi^ 
and letters in that once highly &vored land, in the heart of the 
ancient worid, would be, in the present circumstances of man- 
kind, an auspicious event. 

^ The Syrian Christians in Malayala stUl use the Syriac 
language in their churches ; but the Malayalim, or proper 
MMabar, (a dialect distinct from the Tamul) is the vernaculat' 

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tDDgiie. Thef liare made some t ttc mpCt to lraiiibl» tte 
SyriacsoriptiHreftiiitoMalayalkii; Imtbave nol hitbeita bad 
^be arairiiie mtans of effectiag it* Wkm a px^osal waa 
inadeofseiidiDg&Makyalimtraiislatioii to cachctftkeirfifif 
Jbe cbiircbcsy as a standard book» on €Qiiditk>ft tet th»y wo«U 
transcribe ky and circalate tbe coyiea aioog the peop le t he 
cider replkdy That ao great waatibedetireef the people in 
genaraly ID baTe the Bible in the ndgar tongee^ thalUmiglii 
be eapected thai ererjr maat vtk^ ttmUL wriUf wo«ld nake e 
cflpT on aOar, (ptSm Ice? es) fer his ewn finnilf* 

<^ltoag^ttobe mentioiied, to the praise of the preaeit 
bifliiQp of the Romish church on the coast of Malabar^ that he 
hn ccasented to the ctradatioR of the Scr4>t«res throaghoiit 
bis diooeas. The Mabyalim tranakdioii acquirest i^m this 
cbcomstancey an increased importanse^. since there viH be 
worn npnards of ^000 Chriatians in bfolayala who are reedy 
to receive it. The translation of the New TestameiM:, (wUcb 
it is proposed to print first) has alreadj commencedf iinder the 
auperintendence of the Syrian bishop. The true cause of the 
kfw atatn of rel^ion amongst the Romi^ churches on the sea 
cosat and in CeyloB, is tkeir want qf the Bibk* All who a*e 
wdl aoqoainted with the natives^ know that instractimi kyboQk^ 
Isbeatsoitedtothem. Theyare in general a conten^plativa 
people* and patient in their inqairies; curious also to knaw 
wbal k canbethat kof impo]lanceenoaghtobewn'//tfii-«-at 
the same time that they regard written precept wkh reject. 
)f they possess abook in a language which they understand, k 
wiU not be left long unread. la Tanjore* and other j^aces 
^iiere die Bible is freely giveny the Protestaat religiim fioux^- 
ishes; and produces the happiest effects on the character of 
tfaepto]^e. in Tanjorct the Christian virtues will be fiwud 
in exercise by the feeble minded Hindoo^ in a vigor and purity 
which will surprise those, who have never known the native 
character but under the greatest diaadvantages. On the Sun- 
day, the people^ habited in their best apparel) repair to the 
parish church, where the sc^emnilyef their devotion in ao 
companying the public prayers, is tsuly impressive. They 
aing the old Fsalm tunes wellj. and the voice of the fuB cou- 


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iroTts. 447 

they listen to die sermoiii evide&tlfwkh deep attention; nor 
Itate they any ^Mfi&cidtylii uiiderrttiii&^ it^ lor tlieyidtiiQst 
c31, both men and wom^i, eea read Hidr Bftle. Mmxy of 
them take down the discourse on <flUi9^ that they mof resd it 
afterward s to their famines at home«* As soon as tl»B minis* 
ter has pronounced the text) tiie aound of the iron^tyietmiht 
palm leaf is heard througbo^ the cci^^regation. Even the 
boys of the 'Schools hare ^ir oOdct in their hands ; and mzf 
be seen after ditine serrlce reading them to thdr mothers, as 
diey pass over the fields homewards. 

<< When the Syiian Christians understood that tiiepiopos* 
ed Malayalan translation was to accmd with the Ei^rdi Bible, 
they desired^to know on wliat authorities onr translation had 
been made; alleging, that dieythemaelTes possessed a xer- 
Bion of nndoubted antiquity, namely, that used by the first 
Christians at Antibcfa; and that they could not depart from 
t^e reading of that version* This observation ledto tiie in* 
vestigation of the ancient Syiio Chaldaic manuscripts in Ma« 
layala; and the inquiry has been successful beyond any ex« 
pectadon that could have been formed. 

*< It had been commonly supposed, that all the Syriac 
nuamscripts had been burned by the Romish church at the 
Synod of UiiBamper, near Cochin, in 1599, but it now appears 
that the most valuable manuscripts were not destroyed. The 
inquisitors condemned many books to ^e flames; but they 
saved the Bible. They were content vridi ordering that the 
Syriac scriptures should be amended i^reeably to the reading 
of the Vulgate of Rome ; and these emendations now appear 
in black itik, and of modem appearance, though made in 1 599. 
But many Bibles, and many other books w^re not produced at 
all ; and the churches in the mountains remained but a short 
time subject to Romish dominion, (if indeed they can be said 
to have been at any time subject to it) for the native govern^ 

* tt it well known that the nativet of TMijore and Travancore can write 
^own wliat is tpoken MlbcraUly, without losing on* wofd. Tbey addom 
look at tbiix ollu while wiitiBg, oad eta wrio: in U» dark wiih fluency* 

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inei^ have ever foimed a barrier between the inquidtion at 
Goa and the Christians in the mountains. 

^ In the acts of the council at Nicci it is recorded that Jc 
annusy Bishop of India, signed his name at that council, A. D. 
325. This date correq;>onds with the Syrian year 636 ; for 
the primitive Syrian church does not compute time from the 
Christian xra, but from Alexander the Great. The Syriac 
version of the scriptures was brought to India, according to 
the belief of the Syrians, before the year 636 ; and they allege 
that their copies have ever been exact transcripts of that ver« 
sion without known error, through every age, down to this 
day. There is no tradition among them of the churches in 
the southern mountains having ever been destroyed, or even 
molested. Some of their present copies are certainly of an- 
cient date. Though written on a strong thick paper, like 
that of some MSS. in the British Museum, commonly called 
Eastern fmpcr^ the ink has, in several places, eaten through 
the material in the exact form of the letter. In other copies, 
where the ink had less of the corroding quality, it has fellen 
off, and left a dark vestige of the letter, £unt indeed, but not, 
in general, illegible. There is one volume found in a remote 
church of the mountains, which merits particular description. 
It contains the Old and New Testaments, engrossed on strong 
vellum in large folio, having three columns in the page ; and 
is written with beautiful accuracy. The character is Estran- 
. gelo Syriac ; and the words of every book are numbered. 
This volume b illuminated; but not after the European man- 
ner, the initial letters having no ornament. Prefixed to each 
book there are figures of principal scripture characters (not 
rudely drawn) the colors of which are disdnguishable ; and in 
some places, the enamel of the gilding is preserved ; but the 
volume has suffered injury from time or neglect, some of the 
leaves being almost entirely decayed. In certain places the 
ink has been totally obliterated from the page, and has left 
the parchment in its natural whiteness ; but the letters can, in 
general, be distinctly traced from the impress of the pen, or 
from the partial corrosion of the ink. The Syrian church as* 
signs to thb manuscript a high antiqui^; and alleges that it 

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KOTfis. 449 

lukftUeen for some centuries m the posaes^oa of thek I4s]>» 
<^l and, that it was industriously concealed from the Roman 
inquisition in 1599. But its true age can only be ascertained 
by a comparison with old manuscripts in Euix^e of a similar 
kind. On the margin of the drawing ar^ some old Roman 
4nd Greek letters, the form of which may lead to a conjecture 
respecting the age in which they were written. This copy of 
^e scriptures has admitted as canonical the epistle of Clem* 
«nt, in which respect it resembles the Alexandrian manu* 
scnpt. But it has omitted the Revelations^-that book hav« 
Ing been accounted apochryphal by some churches during a 
^certain period in tlie early ages. The order of the books In 
the Old and New Testament differs from that of the European 
«apies-«4;his cc^y adhering le>s to unity of subject in the ar« 
fangement, than to chronological order. The very first 
emendation of the H^rew text proposed by Dr. Kennicottt 
<iren. iv. 8. is to be found in tluL manuscript. The disputed 
ipasss^e in 1 John, v. 7, is not TD be found in it; that Terse is 
interpolated in some other copies in black ink| by the Romish 
>«hurch| in 1199. 

<< Thus It appears that during the dark ages of Euiopei 
while ignorance and superstition in a manner denied the 
Scriptures to the rest of the world, the Bible found an asylui^ 
in the mountains of Malayala; where it was revealed and 
freely read by upwards of 100 churches ; and, that it has been 
handed down to the present time under circumstances so 
highly fiEivorable to accurate preservation, as may justly epX> 
tie it to respect, in the collation of doubtlul readings in the sa« 

" There ar^ many old Syriac manuscripts besides the Bi- 
ble, which have been well preserved ; for the Synod of Udi-* 
sonper destroyed no voJumes but those Which treated of relig- 
ious doctrine or church supremacy. Two different characters 
of writing appear ever to have been in use among the Syrian 
Christians— *the conmoai Syriac and the Estrangelp. The 
eldest maimscripts are in the Estrangelo. 

M But ^lere are other ancient documents in M^yak) not 
leas interesting than the Synaa manuscripts* The oldP<>r« 

I 31 

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tuguese historians relate, that soon after the arrival of theif 
countrymen in India^ about three hundred years ago, the Syr-» 
ian archbishop of Angamalee, byname Mar Jacob, deposited 
in the fort of Cochin for safe custody, certain tablets of brass ; 
on which were engrayen rights of nobility and other privi- 
leges, granted to the Christians by a prince of a former age ; 
and that while these tablets were under the charge of the Por- 
tuguese, they had been unaccountably lost, and had never after 
been heard of. The loss of the tablets was deeply regretted 
by the Christians ; and the Portuguese writer, Gouvea, as- 
cribes their subsequent oppressions by the native powers, to 
the circumstance of their being no longer able to produce 
their charter. It is not generally Itnown that, at a former pe- 
riod, the Christians possessed regal power in Malayala. The 
name of their last king was Beliarte. He died without issue ; 
and his kingdom descended, by the custom of the country, to 
the king of Cochin. Wheo^asco de Gama was at Cochin, 
in 1503, he saw the sceptre ofthe Christian king. 

" It is farther recorded by the same historians, that be- 
sides the documents deposited with the Portuguese, the 
Christians possessed three other tablets, containing ancient 
grants, which they kept in their own custody ; and that ihcs% 
were exhibited to the Romish Archbishop Menezes, at the 
church of Tevelecar, near the mountains, in 1599--die inhab- 
itants having first exacted an oath from the archbishop that he 
would not remove them. Since that period little has been 
heard of the tablets. Though they are often referred to in 
the SjTiian writings, the translation itself has been lost. It has 
been said that they were seen about forty years ago ; but Ad- 
rian Moens, a governor of Cochin, in 1770, who published 
some account ofthe Jews of Malabar, informs us, that he used 
every mean in his power for many years to obtain a sight of 
the Christian plates ; and was at length satisfied they were 
irrecoverybly lost ; or rather, he adds, that they never existed. 

<< The learned world will be gratified to know, that all 
these ancient tablets, not oidy the three last mentioned exhib* 
ited in 1599, but those also (as is supposed) delivered by the 
Syrian archbishop to th& Portuguese, on their arrival in India* 

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Which arc the most ancient, have been recently recovered by 
the exertions of Lieutenant Colonel Macauley, the British 
i^sident in Travancore ; and are now ofEcially deposited with 
that officer. 

" The plates are six in number. They are composed of a 
mixed metal. The engraved page on the largest plate is 
thirteen inches long by about four broad. They are closely 
written ; four of them oil both sides of the plate> making in all 
eleven pages. On the plate reputed to be the oldest, there is 
writing perspicuously engraved in nail headed, or triangular 
headed letters, resembling the Persepolitan or Babylonish. 
On the same plate there is writing in another character, 
which has no affinity with any existing character in Hindos- 
tan. The grant on Uiis plate appears to be witnessed by four 
Jews of rank, whose names are distinctly written in an old 
Hebrew character, resembling the alphabet, called The Pal* 
myrene; and to each name is prefixed the title of M/^e»; 
that is, Chief. 

<* It may be doubted, whether there exists in the world an- 
other document of equal antiquity, which is, at the same time, 
of so great a length, and in such faultless preservation as the 
Christian Tablets in Malayala. The Jews of Cochin, indeed, 
contest the palm of antiquity and of preservation ; for they 
also produce tablets, containing privileges granted at a remote 
period. The Jewish tablets are two m number. The Jews 
were long in possession of a third plate, which now appears to 
be the property of the Christians. ' The Jews commonly ^ow 
4n ancient Hebrew translation of their plates. Dr. Leyden 
made another transladon; which differs from the Hebrew: 
And there has lately been found among the old Dutch records 
at Cochin, a third translation, which approaches nearer to Dr. 
Leyden's than to the Hebrew. In a Hebrew manuscript, 
which will shortly be published, it is recorded that a grant, on- 
brass tablets, was given to the Jews, in A. D. 379, 

" As it is apprehended that there may be some difficulty in 
obtaining an accurate translation of all U\ese tablets, it is pro- 
posed to print a copperplate fac simile of the whole, and to 
transmit copies to thi^^ learned societies in HindosGm and in 

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Europti fcr thh purpose an engrtnreris mm cnpteftd «| 
dieplMteti atCochifi. TheCliriid«& and JcTOh ^esto* 
gcther will makd fouiteen pages« A copf iiu been senl) in 
the first instance) to the Puncfits of the Shanscrit CoHege, «t 
Tncldar, by directkyn of the Rajah of CocMa. 

^ When the Whi<e Jews of Cochki were quettioQed vea« 
Ipecdn^ the ancient cojpMB of their Scriptares, tiief unweredy 
that it had beea usual to bury the old copjr read m the ayna* 
gogoe, when decayed by time and use. This does nqt, how* 
eter, appear to ha.Te been the prac^e of the Bhbdk lews, wfae 
w«re the &st "severs; for in tiie record chests of their Sfrm- 
gogoesy -old eofMes of the law have been diaoeirered; aome-of 
widch are complete; md, for the most part, legMe. $<^eillwr 
eoold the Jews of Codiin produce any historical sianuscripts 
ef consequence, their vicinity to the «ea coast having exposed 
liteir comfmmity to (requent revolution; hot tamf old wii* 
tkigs liave been found «t the remoto synagogues of their an* 
cient enemies, the Uack Jews, situated at Tritooa, Pareois 
Chenotta, and MaSeh ; the last of whidi places ie near the 
mountcdfis. Amongst ^esewiiftings are some oCgrea^lengtib, 
in Ratibifdcal Hebrew; but in so ancient and uncommonm 
ch««cter, tlu^ it will require much time and labor to ascer- 
taim their contents. Thei^ is one manuscript written in a 
character resembling ^le Palmyrene Hebrew, on the braas 
ptees ; but it is in a decayed state ; and the leaves adhere so 
^osely to each other, liwt it is doiftitfol whether it wMl be pos- 
aiMe to unfold them^ and preserve the reading. It Is euffi- 
cien#y establi^ied by the concurring evidence of written rec* 
ord end Jewish tradition, tSiat the Uad^ Jews had colonized on 
.the coasts of India, long before the Christian era. There 
wasMiother colony at Rajapoor, in the ^ahratta territory, 
which is not yet extinct; and ^tre are, at this time, Jewish 
* Bol^erst and Jewish native officers in the British serrice. 
That these are a remnant of the Jews of the iirrt dispersion 
at the Babylonia captivity, -seems highly probable. There 
iw^ many otiier tribes settled in Persia, Arabia, Northern 
India, Tartary and China, wiiose respective places of residence 
may be ea^ discovered. The places which hav^ been fl* 

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iroT£s. 45S 

tmSiy Mcert»iia4, ar« «ixtf fi^ in irataber* Thete tr^Mi 
have in general^ (particularly those who hav« passed the In* 
dm) aMunilated much to the customs of tho countries in 
whicli they Ut«; and muef sometimes be seen by a traveller^ 
without being recognized as Jews. The rery imperfect re* 
semblance of their eounlenance to the Jews of Europet iadi- 
caibes thttt they have been detached from the parent stock in 
Jttdea, many ages beibre the race of Jews in die west. A 
fact corroborative of this is, that ceitain of these tribes do not 
caU thenuiel^ies Jtw^ but Bttd-Itrtui, at laraeMut ; fior tho 
mane /rw is devivsd ftom Judah; whereas the ancestors of 
tliese tribes were not subject to the kings of Judah, but to the 
kings of Imiel« Tliey hare, in most places, the bo^ of the 
lisw, thebookof J<4)9 and the Psalms; but know little of the 
prophets. Some of them have even lost the bobk of the law ; 
and only know that they are IsraeUtes from tradition, and from 
their obsenrance of peculiar rites« 

^ Acopy of the Scriptures, bdonging to the Jews of the 
east, who might be supposed to have no communication with 
die Jews in the west, has been long a dcMera4um with He- 
hi>ew schidars« In the coifer of a synagogue of the black 
Jews, in the interior of Malaysia, there has been found an oid 
copy of the lawt written on a rail ofteathir. The skins are 
sewed together, and the roll is about fifty fbet in length. It 
is in some places worn out, and the holes hftve been patched . 
with {^eces of parchment. 

<< Some of the Jews suppose that tiiis roll came original^ 
from Senna, in Arabia; others have heard that it was brought 
fromCaahmir. The Cabol Jews, who travel annually kito 
the inteHor of China, say, that in some synagogues, the law is , 
still found written on a roll of leather; not on vellum, but on a 
soft flexible leather, made of goat skins, and dyed red ; which 
agrees witli the description of Uie roil above mentioned. 

" Such of the Syriac and Jewish manuscripts as may, on 
examination, be found to be valuable, wHl be deposited in the 
public libraries of the British untversHies* 

" The princes of the Deccan have manifested a liberai re- 
gard far ^le extenwHiof Shanscrit learning, byfamirfnng^ 

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lists of the books in their tembles for the college of Fort Wfl* 
haan, in Bengal. 

<< His Excellency the Rajah of Tanjore was pleased to set 
the example, by giving the yoluminous catalogue of the an- 
cient library of the kings of Tanjore ; and his example has 
been followed by the Ranny of Ramnad) patroness of the cele- 
brated temple of Ramisseram, near Adam's Bridge y by his 
Highness the Rajah of Trayancore, who has given lists of all 
the books in the Travancore country; and by the Rajah of 
Cochin, patron of the ancient Shanscrit cdlege, at the temple 
of Trichior . It is understood that a copy of any book in these 
catalogues will be given when required. The Bramins of 
Travancore consider that their manuscripts are likely to have 
as just at claim to high antiquity, or at least to accurate prea« 
ervation, as those in the temples in the north; and for the 
same reason that the Christian and Jewish records have been 
so well preserved; which is, that the country of Travancore, 
defended bymountains, has never, according to tradition, been 
subjugated by invaders from the north of Hindostan. 

^^ The design 6f investigating the hist«Hy and literature of 
the Christians and Jews in the East, was submitted to the 
Marquis Wellesley, before he left India. His lordship judg- 
ing it to be of importance that the actual relation of the Sjrrian 
Christians to our own church should be ascertajmed, and au« 
guring something interesting to the republic of tetters, from 
the investigation of the Syriac and Jewish antiquities, was 
pleased to give orders that public aid should be afforded to Dr. 
Buchanan, in the prosecution of his inquiries, wherever it 
might be practicable. To the operation ofthese orders, it is 
owing that the proposed researches, of which some slight no« 
tices are given above, have not been made in vaio/' 

[/] Page 199. 

Extracts from M. de St. Mery*s History of St. Pomingo. 
" Columbus died at Valladolid, on the 20th of May, 1505. 
His body was carried to Seville, and there deposited ; and not 
in the convent of the Carthusians, on the other aide of the Gua* 

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NOTES. 455 

dalqiuver^as some authors, and especially Oviedo andZuniqua 
have asserted. It was placed before the choir, in the cathe* 
dral, under a stone, on which were engraven these miserable 
verses, in CastUlian, and which are still legible. 
A Castilla y Arragon, 
Otro Mondo Dio Colon; 

<< The historians tell us, that from this place it was con- 
veyed to Santo Domingo, and there lodged in the cathedral 
but they do not mention the date of the removal. The pro- 
ceedings of a sjrnod held in 1683, of which there are still some 
copies existing, in speaking of the cathedral church of Santo 
Domingo, remark, that on the outside of the steps of the great 
altar, repose, in two leaden coffins, one on the right hand side, 
the other on the left, the remains of Christopher Columbus, 
and his brother. ^ 

« As whatever relates to Columbus, must necessarily be in 
the highest degree interesting, and especially to those who 
write on the island of Saint Domingo, I was extremely anxious 
to procure certain information concerning his sepulchre in 
this cathedral ; and for this purpose I applied to Don Josep{;L 
Solano, admiral in the Spanish service, and commanding the 
fleet then lying at Cape Francois. The obliging dispo^tion 
of the admiral, the particular proofs I had before received of 
his inclination to serve me, his having lately been president of 
the Spanish part, and his intimate connexion with Don Isidore 
Peralta, who had succeeded him in the presidency, all seemed 
to promise me an efficacious and successful recommendation. 
In consequence of my application, Don Joseph Solano, wrote 
in the most pressing manner, and I shall here transcribe the 
answer of the president Don Isidore Peralta. 

« Santo Domingo, 29th March, 1783. 
•* My Dearest Friend and Patron, 

^ I received your Lordship's kind letter of the 18th instant, 
the answer to which I have kept back till now, in order to have 
time to get the desired information relative to the sepulchre 
of Christopher Columbus, and to enjoy the pleasing satis&c« 
tion of serving your lordship to the best of my power, and to 
enable you to experience on your part, that of obliging the 
friend who has requested you to collect this information. 

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M With respect to Christopher Cdumbiit» thou^thoiiH 
sects destroy the paper in such a manner that the archives are 
foU of holes, I hope that I now send jour lordship stifBclent 
proof that the remains of Christopher Colmi^s are enclosed 
in a leaden coffin, surrounded with a case of stone, which is 
buried on the gospel side of the sanctuary ; and that those of 
Don BartAolomeny his brother, are interred in the same man- 
ner, on the epistle side of the sanctuary. Those of Christo- 
pher Columbus were brought hither from Seville, where they 
had been deposited m the family vault of the dukes of Akabif 
after being conveyed from Valladc^id, and where they remain* 
ed till removed to the cathedral where they now are* 

** About two months ago, as some repairs were making in 
the church, a piece of thick wall was taken down, and built up 
s^ain immediately after. This accidental event was the oc* 
casion of finding the stone case above mentioned ; and which, 
though without inscription, was known finom umnterrapted 
and invariable tradition, to contain the remains of Cohimbus. 
Besides this, I caused search to be made, to see if there was 
not, in the ecclesiastical archives, or in those of the govern- 
ment, some document, capable of throwing light on the suh* 
ject ; and, in consequence, the canons have upon examination 
found that the bones were in great part reduced to ashes ; but 
that the principal bone of the arms had been distinguished. 

^ I send your lordship also, the list of all the bishops that 
have ever belonged to this island, which is a more valuable 
curiosity, than that of the presidents ; for, as I am well assur* 
•d, the former is complete, while in the latter there are sev- 
eral chasms, produced by the insects already mentioned, which 
are more destructive to tome papers than to others. 

<^ As to the edifices, the churches, the beauty of the streets, 
the motives that led to the removal of the capital to the west- 
em bank of the river, that forms its port, I also send you some 
interesting particulars j but with respect to the plan a»kedfbT 
in the no/c,^ there is an msurmountable difficulty; which is, 
that as governor, I am forbidden to communicate it. The su- 
perior understanding of your lordship will at once perceive 
the reason. 

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fm ftttW in my P99^«is|pni perfect in ^ Uieir forafis. 

^( I, Don jQseph Nui^«s in Cf^^reay d^ctoip of ^ylnify in 
Ac pantificAl mi vqj^ miy^rs^i^ of tlie Angfliic St, T^on^a^ 
Aq^inuS) dMn dignit^Ty Qf it^, My ^burch B^etropoli^ ^nd 
primatild of tlit Indieq s do pertii^ that, tbf si^ctuaiy of ^1% 
l^y catbedrd Phap«h} t>^g t$^en 4fi»i^n on the 30th of J^u-r 
ary last, in order to be rebuilti tb^r^ v[^ found on tbe side of 
the cholri where ikfi gQsp^J U sung, and near the door which 
opens on the stairsi leading to tbe ci^;>itnl^ chfiniber, a stone 
c^e> hoUQw, Qf a quhic fenn, s^ ^bout a v^re'* in depth, en-r 
closing a le%df n um ^ little dam?^ed, which pQnUnned several 
human bones. I also certify that SQme ye^l^ ago, on a like 
.occasion, there was found on the epistle guides another stone 
case, resembling the one above described i ^d tbat, according 
to the traditian toded dpi^^ns wA coiumi^icated by the old 
tnen of the country, and by ^ simpler of t^e synqd of this holy 
cathedral chufch? the case found on the gQ^pel side,ii^ reputed 
to contain the remains of admiral Chm^pber Cplumb^Hs, and 
that found on the epist)e side) tbo^e of his brptber ; npt being 
able to verify, however, whether the latter be really the re- 
mains of lus brother Don BarthplpmeWs or gi Don Piego, son 
of the admiral. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand. Dene ^t Santo DomingQi tbia 90th day of April, 1783. 
(Signed) O. Jqssbk iivimz ni; CMVftl^a*^' 

1^ I, Don ^f^mel Sancbfi2> CantKC^ Dignitary, ^d Chanter 
ef this holy cathedral church, do certify, $ce. [t^ord for wor4 
09 ifh ike pveceding certificate*'] Done at 3ant9 Domingo, 
this 96th ds^ of April, 1783. 

(Signed) Manvsl Savphisz." 

« I, Don Pedro de Galvez, Preceptor, Canon, Dignitary^ 
of this cathedral church. Primate of the Indies; do certify 
that the sanctuary being taken down, in order to be rebuilt, 
ther^ W^ foux^ on (he sld^ of ^e cbQir> wh^re the gospel is 
s^^g, ^ ftone cfLfe, with ^ Ipi^den urn^ in the ^side of if, f^ little 
*»lgi4i yfUitk 9?«^e4 9^vpwd kxmm l^ope? I ^¥h thaf H 

f At»f ^ two ff«| e^bf ii^b^ l(o|;)^b neii^f^. 
I 3 K 

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is remembered that there is another of the same description 
on the epistle side ; also, that according to a tradition handed 
down through the old people of the country, and a chapter of 
the synod of this holy cathedral church, the case found on the 
gospel side, contains the remains of admiral Christo^er Co- 
himbus, and that found on the epistle side, those of his brother 
Bartholomew. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand, this 36th day of April, 1 783. 

(Signed) Don Pedho de Galvbz/' 
" I must, however, observe here, that Don Antonio d* 
Alcedo assures us in his entertaining and useful dictionary, 
under the word ^mmca, that the following epitaph was placed 
in some part of the cathedral : 

< Hie locus abscondit prseclari membra Columbi 
Cujus nomen ad astra volat. 

Non satis unus erat sibi mundus notus, at orbem 
Ignotum priscis omnibus ipse dedit; 

Divitias summas terras dispersit in omnes ; 

Atque animas coelo tradidit innumeras ; 

Irivenis campos divinis legibus aptos, 

Regibus et nostris prospera regn^ dedit.* 
But this epitaph does not now exist, and it is even forgotten in 
the colony. 

^< A synod, held an hundred and forty three years after the 
perfection of the metropolitan church, makes mention, indeed, 
of the remains of Christopher Columbus being deposited In 
that edifice; but without entering on any explanation, al- 
though it ought to have been recollected that the pillage of 
Drake, forty seven years before, had caused the destruction of 
the archives, and that the insects alone might have annihilated 
many important pieces." 

M P<iS^ 226. 

At a County Court held at Cambridge, Aprfl 1, 1656. 
Jn*>' Glover* Gent. Plant, against Mr. Henry Dumter 
DefH' in anactdn of the case for an acct. of an estate of houses 

* He studied pByiiCi became sr practitioner, manied| and tettled In Boatoik 

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NOTES^ 459 

Landsy goods^ and chattels, debts, Legacies, and gifksi or other 
estate, together with the deeds, leases, and other manusscriptS) 
and evidences thereof, w*^ by any manner of wayes or means, 
eyther have been (or at pY*ent bee) in the possession of the said 
Henry, or wider his rule, costpdy or dispose^ And of right 
due and belonging imto the said Jn** Glover, by the last will 
and testament of his Mher Mr. Josse Glover deceased, or 
Elizabeth his wife, or their, or eyther of their gifts, or by the 
last will of W"' Harrb deceased or otherwise to him the said 
Jn*' Glover appteyning and of right due and belonging by any 
manner of wayes or means whatsoever, and, also for debteyn- 
ing and with-holding the same, viz'* both the account and 
•state, with the effects and proffits thereof and damages to the 
said Jn®* Glover thereby susteyned. 

The Plantiffe appeared by his Attorneyes Edw. Goffe, and 
Thomas Danforth, The Deff** appeared personally and plead- 
ed to the case. The Court having heard the Pl't's demands 
and the proffe thereof, and Mr. Dun^ter's acknowledgm'* and 
Answ'* web are upon file virith the Records of this Court, the 
Juryfindes for the plantiffe, as appeareth by their verdict 
given into Cpurt in writeing (wch is also upon y« file) theis 
following p'tic'^'* 

Imp'* The Inventory as it is brought in 140 00 00 

It. The Presse and the p'fitt of it 040 00 00 

It. ThepriseofMr.Dayes house 030 00 00 

It. Debts received by Mr. Dunster 143 00 00 

It. More debts received by Mr. Dunster 015 00 00 

It. Rec** of Mr. Humpheries 080 00 00 

It. The plate mentioned in the Inventory 448 QQ 00 

It. more acknowledged in the Court by Mr* 
Dunster one silver tankard, and one tipt Jug^ 
and a silver plate. 

It. one watch. 

It. acknowledged by Mr. Dunster 12 Rheapa of 
refuse paper. 

It. The proffit of the houses and lands in Cam- 
bridge irr 10 oa 

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46d HISTOEY dt #klNTING. 

It. ittmkehcM toff^ At 8M)^ MS 09 tD 

It. 'The hod^e In BoMbh iU>iUa tib f)i€oi»!^ ku 

kinsdh B09 W tl9 

tt. ntnt i^ceired ftf* th^ fitiihe at ^flitty Hit 

it the R^tit of tte ^tdclD6 x>f IS Kintt OW^ lb 09 

h. the pristt vi tight steers a^d bt^ isA fitUh 

kin^ IIB k« W 

it. for the itsht r^teivM fW- thii BMMttSda^ 

btity sfeavfen yeai^s ^ t)*B tO W 

It. therfehtofiheiaadw ^Id 00 00 

It two swine Wt od W 

mfcf II ^f 'fwf 
St. Lead pahs tS2 1^ 00 

448 00b6 

'it 'frr ^ii ii» 

lITb tft j^ 
tt. die faHh^ tbkt Rbbi^ \^§6h «S6W obtKif^iMh Id t>^ M^i 

It. all th^ bobkes of Mh Olbf er*^ "OM baMe B Mn Buiilfili 

whereof he promised to give in a CattologU^ 
^t. the fbHne that Obodiki^ Rlc^ boW bbcMpieA b b« fii^« 

iu that Mr. Dunstcr shall givfe to the Cbttrt^ ail kcbbtirit aJ> 
tordih^ to the attachm^ whtotht^ itet^b^fidO^^HUiaa 
riequir^ it. 

Charles Chadwicke ki the fu^^ bt th%fSM!t. 
E^cution granted June 17, 1656. 
The Court orders that Mh ])tifti^ter shM %tUxg {il %iB fiA 
account to the Court thb 9th of May hfe!tt. 

[^i^d. Recordsy Fot. I.jh rf^OV.] 
At a second Sessions of the Coupty Coutt hbid aiCattibTitlge> 
9th (3) mo. 1656, 
In the case between Jn*»- iGlovil' ^laht. iga^St Mir. tteAit 
punster DeiD* entered at the last sessions of this CouHi Mt. 
Henry Dunster pres^htfed his ahsw^ to the Jutfes tetdict ib 
"^ritein^) containing his account under his hand, also a Catto* 

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nfw MWb bd6i^ wttH MiA% m^ t^ff^^e^ihnt^mm 

«^t^^«^ ^i^iiti^e, TM Cduft ftdVisI^ b&th pftfties (6 ^nde^V« 

At a CbuWf Court nste M Charf-eS-Tb^fl Jtlilfe 19tti, leSft. 

Mr. H^hfy li\ifiStef P*l. agathSt Mh Ja*» <JlbVfef Bfefe. 1ft 
ah dbdoh of ftevts^ ot tfed sUlt^ ^pbtt attkchm*' td iht t^luo 
df t^ ihojisafid polihdft coinfencfe'd mi pfts^cUted 111 thfe l^t 
County Coiift holdeh at talnbf idgd, by thfe said ih**'- bf M§ St- 
tomeycs for accounts and estate pretended to be inth-h6ld by 
the said ttfeiiry horn the said Jh** As also fe'r th6 aildiUng 
Ae kccounls, acdordihg 16 the advice ^f the Hoiibured Magis- 
tFales, aiid fo? the biallahcihg, sctiihg^ jmd satlisfymg what u^ 
dh thfe s^d Accbuhls is fight ahd just to be done, According i6 
«ltachm* dated 12th 4th mo. 1656. 

The Jury found a hoh liquet. 

At a County Court held at Cambridge, by adjoummenti June 
^ 24th, 1656. 

Mr. Henry Dunster ^sometimes husband to Elizabeth the 
relict widow of josse Glover deceased^ Plsait. ag*' jn»- Glover 
Gent. Deff^* In an action of the case for debt upon accounts, 
and for rights and interests in any wbe appertayneing to the 
ftaid Henry from the estate now claimed by the said Jn*' Glov- 
er by vertue of the last will of his father Josse Glover deceased. 

The Plantive and t)eft** appearing in Court legally, They 
mutually agreed to referrc this case to the Hearing and deter- 
mination of the honoured Bench of Magistrates. The Courta 
determination and judgm^ in the said case is as foUoweth. 

Whereas there hath been some actions and suites oifdebt, 
account, and review, in this Court, between Jn*** Glover Gent. 
And Henry Dunster his father in Law and Guardian, concern- 
ing the estate, under his managem** belonging to the ssdd 
John Glover by the will dt his father Josse Glover deceased^ 
The premises considered, and the parties consenting to issue 

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tlie whole case, induded in the formeracdons^ and judgm^ te 
the detenniiiation of this Court. The Court having taken 
paynes to examine all matters explicidj in reference to the 
whole case, doe find die estate of Josse Gloyer is Creditor, 
One thousand Ibure hundred forty and seaven pounds, nine 
shillings and nine pence, and a silver tankardin kiodQ,al8oMr. 
Clover's hookes acconUng toCattologue given in to the Courts 
to he delivered in kinde, also the price of a house at Hing^ 
bam diat was received of Payntree at fifteen pounds. 

And the estate, is also jnsdy debtor, one thousand thre 
hundred and thirty pounds, one shilling and seven pence, the 
pardculars whereof are expressed in an account hereunto an- 

The Court therefore do find for John Glove)*, one hundred 
and seventen pounds, eight shillings and two pence, due from 
Hemy Dunster, according to the account, leaving some debts 
expGctdy expressed in the account to the valine of fifty seaven 
pounds eleven shillings foure pence to be fiirther cleared by 
the said Henry before any credit be given him fi»r it. 

Also we Bud for Mr. Henry Dunster the lands m Sudbury 
bounds, purchased by the said Henry called the &nne now it 
the occupation of Wilson. 

1656. June 35. The Account in refTerence to the afore« 
named case, being drawn up and examined by the Honoured 
Court b as followeth. 

Mr. Henry Dunster is debitor £, t. d, 

Imp»^ To plate 030 12 03 

Toatipt Juggandawatch P06 06 06 

To rents of land in Cambrs^ whiles in Blower*s 

hands 040 00 OQ 

To rents rec* of John Stedman for ditto 070 00 00 

To rent ofdittorcc* of Richard French 013 00 00 

To rent rec** for marsh land all the time ^015 1 5 00 

To rent of the slate house all the time 019 14 04 

To the house and land at Boston sold Mr. Atkin- 
son 314 00 00 
To a Legacy given Jn*** Glover by his uncle 
' Harris 040 00 OQ 

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HOTSS. 463 

To uteiiuls at Sudbury five pounds 005 00 00 
Toreiitoffourt€nCowe8dxyeares,atl5*pf.cow 063 00 00 
To rent of seaven oxen 6 yeares at 20«* pr. ox 043 00 00 
To the stocke £mrten cowes and seven oxen 118 16 00 
To rent for meadow 010 00 00 
Totwos^dne 003 00 QO 
To one lead pan sould for 001 03 016 
Tosaleof Bookes 036 10 00 
To so much rec* of Mr. Tho* Fowle 099 1 1 04 
To rents from Boston and Cambridge 049 06 08 
To advance upon the Inventoiy 030 00 00 
To advance upmi plate 003 17 06 
To so much cUsbursed in building and other 
things upon Henry Dunster's land in Sud- 
bury bounds 050 00 ocf 
To the Inventory in Goodes 140 00 00 
To prindng presse and paper 050 00 00 
To Mr. Dayes house sold for 030 00 00 
To debts rec"^ of several! persons £7$ and of Pea- 
cock and Sill ^8 081 00 00 
To so much received of Mr. Humphery 071 04 09 
To plate and other things that I had vie9 et mo* 

c^tf^fbygiftofmywifeynotyallued 073 16 11 
To plate and bedding for Mr. Harris and Simon 

Smith 035 00 00 

Topapei^-— 16Rheams 003 00 11 

To 3 oxen and one cow killed for the &mily 030 00 00 
To profits of stocke and crop the first yeare of 
his marriage with Mrs. Glover, not yet ac- 
counted for, abating for Servants wi^es and 

diet 015 00 00 

1447 09 09 

To a silver tankard in kind. 

To all Mr. Glover's bookes unsold, to be delivered 

according to Cattologue. 
To a house at Hinghsun of Panteryes, the value 

to be made good 

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Mr , Hcmy Dunster qniitef £, f, * 

Imp** l]p lan4» ig Ru4bm7 tatt9#3 B^ppb»«»i by 

tftp W4 Dun^len galled lb« fikf^Q^QV yi t^ 

wcupsttionof WibiPAs found m lilpd to botongr 

to t^ Plantifie 

^y t^f di^t) apparell and education of Roger and 
Jn^ Qlprer two yeares two m*' sAoi^ tiitUF 
i^^pt^f r's maris^e with the said Dunstef UU 
llQF d<^4th at )C20. 686 Qi 91 

Bf dUbuftem^* for the m^Wti&^Ct Qf Mf^t 
Qlo¥0P for diet and apparvdl in fickMI 9X4 
l^ealtH |wo yeares and two months, aftur bMF 
marriage witb Mf, DuQft|eF» uatil bur dfiftthi 
with a m^d to atlend her i^ £90 pr, amum OH qq oo 

By a l^ill &r physicke payd Mr. Ay res 615 QQ 00 

By SluewU charges expended for Mffb Cii«|V Ql? QQ 9? 

By diebura^ments for the diet and 9|^" df Mf f 
£liz^* Glover 7 m®* with her mttfiage fiui^* 
being mawd t0 Mr. Adftm Ww^W© p?© Q?| 9^ 

By diet 4Ad apparrall for Mrs. Sarah and Mffts 
Prisciila Glover, duri% thflir mPtliQP'^ Ufet 
being two year^ 9 »«• » pMC» ftt f 1« iP» 
annum Q|9 0$ 08 

By diet and ei^encet of Mr. Blcbard Ha^i tWO 
year« aad two monthes, it being due fix)m the 
estate to him for the interest of jC2|9t Qf W^ 
in the estate 9tf%Q pr, annum <H3 99 Of 

By maintenance of 0vt children ^r thif d^th 
of their mother, vis. 

By Jn<»* Glover's Ubf rail edueatinn fbf di«t» ap« 
parell and schooleing mostly at the Colledge 
for seven years and two months at ;C30pr« 
an^- 143 03 04 

• The three Milt 0\pf9^ l^9^ Uh) Tiff JWiwMV W4 gfwh P^ Pfj«^ 
cilia Glover mentioned in the next article of charge, were ^e t)^ffe 49()g|>ter« 
of Mr. Jeue, or Jot^^ Gloyer deceased. Pptcilia paarriefl John Appletofis 
who also commenced in 1655, *^ action against Dunster for tool, left to his 
wife by her father, and detained by Dunster, which sttm Appletoa reeovtred« 

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KOTfiftJ 465 

By diet, appantU 6f MrA^ 9Knk Qlortr five fear A 

at auLten ];KAMi ^u ihuMM 080 00 00 

Bf tomuoh reWftt^d mt ef the «8(ale b]r Mf. 
Appleton, for his mfe Mt^. JPlifiieilla Oldvei'i 
her mamtenincd ai^r her mother's death) 
and before mAMi^c #ith hitfl 088 00 06 

By so much paiA f<^ e3llhu>rd^ciiy enpetiees lly 

Mr. Jn^Gl6V^r^k8lbynoteofpani(^tilAr^ 006 15 od 

By charges disbtlHiid ^tocemifig fii^ arbitral 
tions, and p** for wiiteings to scrivcn" &c. 
^2 in aU OOr 00 00 

* By debts paiA by Mr. DUtist6r whieh # ere du6 
fhmi tht estate, in Mt. JoiiSe Qldter's lifo 
time 334 12 00 

fi)r debt* iAdde by Mrs. Glover in the time of her 
ifidoirhoodj payi BJr Mr. IMister detely 
ptortd 183 1^ 09 

By losses and damages beMing the Osteite at 
Sudbuiy, payd for fencihg on John Glover's 
forme at Sudbury 034 19 03 

By expences, rates and suites cohcerhing lands 

ttCaifkbrg;** 045 19 04 

By dii^tlrsMiiit'* tar refnffa^iis df the house at 

Cambridge in Mrs. Glover's life 016 04 00 

By rdpaires of the ssod house after her death 016 01 04 

By ca^e added to the eslate^ viE'« three Ofirwes, 

one calfi 2 oxen at 031 16 11 

By rated payd to the fneeting house 003 00 OS 

ji309 03 or 

By so much |>ayd .to Mr. Haris for redeeming 
a tankard) and a porringer of silver, payd 
him in part of his debt 005 18 00 

1315 01 oy 

* To Mr. HarrU OS50 00 00 

To Mr. Turner 0076 1 a 00 

To CotWa SUcke 0008 00 00 

093i la 00 

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By account of some debts contracted by . Mrs^P 
Glover in her widowhood^ w^ Mr, Dunstep 
alleadgeth he hath payd; not allowed at pres- 
ent for want of cleare proof vizt. 
By Mr. King of Lex. 06 13 04 

By so much to Mr. Morecroft 25 00 00 

By so much to Skidmore Smith 08 00 00 
By so much to Mr. Harris 12 19 00 

By so much pd. Major Bourne 05 00 00 

/ 57 11 04 

By so much p*** to Capt. Kaine being a debt due 

before marriage as a^^ars by bUl 0015 00 00 

1330 01 07 
Mr. Bellingham declared his dissent &om this account and 
departed out of Court before the Court's determination and 
judgmt. was draMme up. 

IMidd. Records. Vol. I. p. 87, l^c,'\ 

[A] Page 232. 

PARTICULAR circumstances respecting the first print* 
ed book in this country may be interesting to some ; I there- 
fore mention the following. 

It had been customary to sing a prose translation of the 
Psalms ; and, for this purpose, the psalms were marked for 
singing in lines to suit the tunes. To accommodate common 
metre times, two syllables in every other line were pmted in 
black letter, which were to be omitted when tunes of this 
metre were sung. The minister or the deacon, who read the 
psalm line by line as it was sung, usually annomiced that the 
syllables in black, were, or were not, to be omitted. 

This practice may, in some measure, account for the sin- 
gular version of the Psalms used by oiu* fore&thers. It was 
their aim in this version to keep as near the origi^ Hebrew 
as possible, and they did not even allow themselves any po- 
etic license to &vor the rhyme. Ains worth had long been 
celebrated as a musician. He had arranged the Psalms in a 

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KOTES. 467 

maiu&er to favor the singing of them, and had ccmiposed tunes 
lor that purpose. His psalms and tunes were brought to this 
countiy by our ancestors, and vrere used by them until the 
83mod published a version of the Psalms in conformity to their 
apprehension of the original ; in several churches, however, 
Ainsworth's Psalms were preferred to this version, and were 
continued in use for many years. An edition of Psalms, inti- 
tied, Fsalterium Jmericanum^ in which lines of eight syllables 
were marked out, as before mentioned, by a || for singings 
was printed in Boston as late as 17 17. 

The synod's version of the Psalms was called in Neweng- 
land for many years. The Bay Faalm Book, But afterwards 
it was more generally designated, The Jstev) England Paatnt 
Book. Early jealousies and controversies existed between 
the s3mod and the church in Salem ; and these, for a long 
time, prevented this church from adopting the Bay Psalm 
Book according to the recommendation of that reverend body. 
This version was not, in fact, used in Salem church, till 1667, 
as appears from the following vote, extracted from the rec- 
ords of said church, viz. 

<* The pastor having formerly propounded and given rea- 
son for the use of the Bay Psalm Book in regard of the diffi- 
culty of the tunes, and that we could not sing them so well as 
formerly, and that there was a singularity in our using Ains- 
worth's tunes ; but especially because we had not the liberty 
of singing all the Scripture Psalms according to 3 Soloss. 16. 
He did now again propound the same, and after several breth- 
ren had spoken thereto, at last, a unanimous consent with res- 
pect to the last reason mentioned, that the Bay Psalms should 
be used together with Ainsworth's to supply the defects 
of it." 

p] Page2U. 

THE author of " Wonder Working Providence,'* page 
205, gives the following account of this edition of the laws. 
" This year [1646] the General Court appointed a Committee 
of diverse persons to draw up a Body of Laws for the well or- 
dering this little Commonwe^th j and to the end that they 

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■ / 

might be mest ^igreeable with t)ie nile of S(;rip^Q> in f fsif 
County thfipo W9A {ippduited two Maii3tmes, Vmi Wm^fU 
tmi two able persona fpom amwag the peoplft who hs^TWS 
provided such a epmpeteat numher ia waa mfiPU I^^A^ 
with the foimer that were enacted wmly MaencMi Aey ^«y 
aented them to the General Court, whtr^ Ihfgr wew HiaiQ p#r 
ruaed and amended ; and then an^er C^^mi^te ehoa^ to 
bring them into formi and preaent th^m t^the Court ag;ate» 
who the year following passed an act of ponfivmation upM 
them, and so committed them to the preaa) and in the year 
1^48, they were printed, and now are to be aeen of all men, to 
the end that none may plead ignorance, and tha^ tH who intfoid 
to transport themselves hither may knew that thia ia no pl^qQ 
ef Ucentioufi liberty, nor will this people aufier any tQ tr^nplfi 
4own this vineyard of the Lord, but with diligent. Q:^§cut|Q^ 
will cut off from the city of the Lord, the wjck^ d^^a, an4 tf 
^ny m^ can shew wherein any of them d©r®g^te frgm thf 
word of G^d, very willingly will they aec^pt tberepii W^ 
amend their imperfections (the Lord aasisting) hut Jet not %^ 
ill affected persons find fault with them, b^cfinise thfy suit net 
"with their own buiUQUr, pr bec^visfj they meddle with matters 
nf religion, for it is no wrong to ^y man, that % i^mph who 
havfc spent their estates, many of them, and ventured theip 
lives for to keep £^th and a pure conscience, to use all mesoia 
that the word of God allows for maintenance and continuance 
of the same, especially they have taken up a desolate wUder^ 
ness to be their habitation, and net deluded any by keeping 
their profession in huggermug, but print and proclaim to all 
the way and course they intend, God willing, to walk in. If asy 
will yet notwithstanding seek to justle them out of their own 
right, let them not wonder if they meet with all the opposi^ 
tion a people put to their greatest straits can make, as in all 
their undertaking their chiefest aim hath been to promote the 
prdinances of Christ, so also in contriving their Laws, Liber- 
ties and Privileges, they have not been, wanting, v^hich h«th 
caused many to majign their civil government, and more e^ 
peci^lly for punishing any by a law, tha^t yralk contr^ to tb^ 
rule of the gpsppl which they profess* but tp thep^ it ^^^m^ 

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NOTjss. 469 

HimiifOD^lQt w^4 Wfoun too ranch of hypocri»i«j that any 
pe^pb Bhaul4 pFfty untP the Lord for the speedy accomplish- 
jftfiPt of hin word in the pvonhrpw of Antichrist, and in th« 
mean time become a patron to ninful opiniont^ and damnable^ 
errors that oppoi^ th^ truths of Christ) admit it he but in the 
k«ro poimiwiw of thew-" 

THE New Testament was translated into the Indian lan- 
guage by the rev. John Eliot, then pastor of the church ia 
Hoxbury. Mr. Eliot was ealled the Jfiaatle of the Indiana^ 
and he truly was so. He also translated the Old Testament 
into their language, and gave them a version of the Psalms. 
They were all completed at the press in 1663, and were bound 
together. The rev. Cotton Mather, in his Magnalia, men- 
tions that mr. Elliot wrote the whole of this great work with 
one pen ; if so, we may presume that his pen was not made of 
a goose quill, but of metal.* After mr. Eliot had acquired 
the Indian language, he taught English to the Indians, and 
fDinaed an English Grammar. He went among them and 
preached the gospel, instituted schools, and formed churches. 

[/] Fage 255. 

THE cqlonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut 
and Newhaven,t in 1643, entered into articles of confedera- 
tion for their mutual safety and support. Each colony was 
annually to choose two commissioners, who were to meet 
yearly and alternately in the several colonies. These commis* 
siqners had the power to manage all concerns, in which the 
colonies were generally interested ; comprising those of war 
as well as peace, and each colony retained the direction of its 
own internal polity. The commissioners were chosen by the 

^ I hayci b^fls inforiBcd that Edward Gibbon, the celebrated author of 
The pecUne aipd Fall of the Rooaan Empire, wrote the twelve volumes of 
wh^cb tb^t work consist* with one pen ; which he presented to the beautiful 
4vt;chea of Devpiuhire^ and U wai by her preserved in « silver sbiine. 
i Nfwb«vco wai at that time a distinct colony from Consecticut. 

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general court, or assembly of the respective colonies aiid were 
tailed the Commissioners of the United Colonies ; to this of- 
^ce,men of the most respectable talents were elected, and, not 
infrequently, the governors of the colonies. 

By the agency of Massachusetts, a society had been form* 
ed in London, for propagating the gospel among the Indians 
in Newengland. Some time after the confederation of the 
colonies took place, the society in England for props^ting the 
gospel was incorporated by act of parliament; by which act, 
the commissioners of the Umted Colonies were s^pointed the. 
agents of the society,, to manage its concerns, and to dispose 
of the property which might be forwarded to America, in such 
manner as might promote, in the most useful degree, the de- 
sign of the institution. In time, the funds of the Corporation* 
enabled them to send missionaries among the Indians, to in- 
struct them in the Christian faith, and to build a number of 
small meeting houses, in which the Christianized Indians 
might assemble for public worship. An addition was made 
to the college at the expense of the corporation, to make 
room for the education of Indian youth. Several small books 
were written, and others translated into the Indian language ; 
and, eventually, the design was conceived of translating the 
whole of the Holy Scriptures into Indian, and to print the 
translation. For this great undertaking the corporation sup- 
plied the means, and the commissioners of the United Colo- 
nies attended to its execution. 

Before the New Testament was finished at the press, the 
corporation in England was, at the restoration of king Charles 
II, for some reason, deprived of their charter ; but after some 
time it was restored and confirmed by the king.t Before the 

* The society in England for propagating the gospel among the Indians 
was so called . 

+ After the charter was restored, the corporation sent over to the commis- 
aioners by their request, as a remittance toward printing the Bible, and in other 
ways promoting the propagation of the gospel, a quantity of pieces of eight, 
to be recoined here ; which is taken notice of in the following manner in a 
letter horn the corporation to the commissioners-^** We have thooght good 
in panuance of the trust committed to vt aad for the ImpioveAoit of that 

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charter was restored, Ae New Testament was completed, aiui 
the commissioners here, and the late members of the corpo« 
ration in England, judged it good policy to present to the king 
one of the first copies of this work; and to make it accepta- 
ble to his majesty, a dedication was written, printed and pre- 
fixed to the few copies of the Testament which were sent to 
j^ngland. This measure had the effect desired, and the king 
became interested in the restoration of the charter. ThQ 
^opy for the king and nineteen cqpies more were forwarded 
in sheets to the members of the late corporation in England, 
with a letter from the commissioners of the United Colonies, 
an extract from which as recorded, follows, viz. 

<< The New Testament is alreddy finished, and of all the 
old the five bookes of Moses ; wee have heerwith sent you 
20 peeces [copies] of the New Testament which wee desire 
may bee thus disposed viz : that two of the speciall being uery 
Well bound vp the one may bee presented to his Majestic in 
the first place, the other tp the Lord Chancellor ; and that five, 
more may be presented to Doctor Reynolds Mr. Carrill Mr. 
Baxter and the two vischancellors of the Vniuersities whoe 
wee vnderstand have greatly Incurraged the worke ; the rest 
to bee disposed of as you shall see cause." 

The dedication is recorded among the proceedings of the 
commissioners of the United Colonies, and is there prefiiced 
in the following manner. 

« Vpon the enformation of the Desolution of the Corpora- 
don, and intimation of hopes that his Majestie would [renew 

little wee have to send you ouer 433 peeces of eight, which cost vs one han« 
dred pounds heer, hauing obtained this priviledge in our Charter that what 
wee shall send ouer shal be without any charge or custom pay'd for the same, 
and that the coyning thereof into youer coyne, and according to youer standi 
ard will make a considerable adoance for your supply," &c. 

The commissioners, September tS, 1663,, in answer to the corporation 
•bienre, *' Youer honores accepting our bill of fine hundred pounds, and 
' sending ouer a supply of an hundred pounds in peeces of eight wee humbly 
acknowledge, and^haue Improued the said peeces co the vttermost wee could, 
whereof by minting or otherwise is 117 lb. o s. 07 d. by which youer hon- 
•res may see what aduance there may be made to the stocke by sending of 
•uch peeces," [^Records of the Unitid Colonies, j 

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md] contbitttte the Mftld» fcc« The 5oliliMk)Mf§ tlldUg^ 
meet to present hU Majestie ^ith the Nd\^ TeiliSMiit ptiAU 
•d in the Indian language with the^ {»l1lft(inte ftilidwfasg, kc 

The dedicfttidn as printed in the leW t&pies of* the Tedtin* 
ment sent to England, is in the f&ll^wing Wofdii. 
« To the High and Highly Prineej Chdrl&g the Seednd, by tht 

Grace o/Qod^ JSng oftnglaHdy Saotlund^ Prance and Itt* 

iandj De/hidet of the Paith^ eft. 
«> The Commissioners of the United Cdlemieit in N'etlr'Efig>< 
land, wish increase of all hftppine^, fit. 
" Moit Dirtad 8&i>endgn^ 

*^ If our weak apprehensions have nbt misled ttd, ttiiil 
Work will be no unacceptable Present tb Your MdjeSty, as 
having a greater Interest therein, thiui We believe is generally 
understood: which (upon this Occasion) WetOticeiTe itottf 
Duty to declare. 

«* The Pedple of these fonr Colonies (Conftderated for Mn- 
tual Defence, in the time of the l&te Distractions of our deaf 
Kadve Country) Your Majesties natural boTn Subjects, by the 
Favour and Grant of Your Royal Father ahd 6raiidftthcf of 
Famous Memory, put themselves upon this ^at and hazard- 
ous Undertaking, of Planting themselves at their own Charge 
in these remote ends of the £arth, that without offellce or 
provocation to our dear Brethren an4 Courttrymeti, we might 
enjoy that liberty to Worship God, which our own CoUscieneest 
informed us, was not onely our Right, but Duty ^ AS ^so that 
we might (i{ it so pleased God) be kistrumental to spread the 
light of the Gospel, the knowledg of the Son of God our Say« 
iour, to the poor barbarous Heathen, which by His late Miy* 
esty, IB some of our Patent^ is declared to be His prineipal 

" These honest ahd Pious ItttcndonSj have, through the 
grace and goodness of God and our Kings, been seconded with 
proportionable success: for, omitting the Immunities indulg- 
ed us by Your Highness Rojral Predecessors, we have been 
greatly encouraged by Your Majesties gracious expressioin 
of Favour and Approbation signified^ unto the Addteng made 
by the principal of our Colonies, to which the rest do most 

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Ror£s* 473 

^cvdiilfy SubwAtf thdugh wanting the like seasonable op-^ 
portimi^) thef have l>een (dil now) depiired of the meatus to 
Congratulate Y<mr Majesties happy Restitution, after Your 
loni^ sufiering) wkidi w« implore may yet be graciously ac- 
oeptedf that wb may be eqvnl partakers of Your Royal Favour 
and Moderation; wbmh hath been so Illustrious that (to ad- 
miration) the animosities and different Perswasions of men 
have been so soon Composed) and so much cause of hope, that 
(unless the sins of the Nation prevent)^ a blessed Calm will 
succeed the late herrid Confusions of Church and State. And 
shall not we (Dttad Soveraign) your Subjects of these Colo« 
mes) of the same Faith and Belief in all Points of Doctrine 
with our Countrymen, and the other Reformed Churches, 
(though perhaps not alike perswaded in scnne matters of Or- 
der, which in outward eespeets hath been unhappy for us) 
promise and assure our selves of all just fevour and indul- 
gence from a Prioee so happily and graciously endowed ? 

^ The other part of our Errand hither, hath been attended 
with Endevours and Blessing; manyofthewilde/itiAfaft^ being 
taught, and understanding the Doctrine of the Christian Re- 
ligion, and with much aHfection attending such Preachers as 
are sent to teach them, many of their Children are instructed 
to Write wad Reade, and tome of them have proceeded fur- 
ther, toattainthe knowledge of the Latine and Greek Tongues, 
and are brought up with our English youth in University- 
learnings There are divers of them that can and do reade 
some parts of the Scripture, and some Catechisms, which for- 
mierly have been Trandated into their own Language, which 
faath occasioned the undertaking of a greater Work, viz: The 
Printing of the whole Bible, which (being TranMated by a 
painful Labourer amongst them, who was desirous to see the 
Work accomplished in his dayes) hath already proceeded to 
the finishing of the New Testament, which we here humbly 
present to Your (lajesty, as the first fruits and accomplish- 
ment of the Pious Design of your Royal Ancestors. The 
Old Testament is now under the Press, wanting and craving 
your Royal Fatdur and Assistanee for the perfecting thereof. 

I ^ M 

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" We may not ^nceal, that though this Vfotk hath bcc» 
begun and prosecuted by such Instrumeitts as Grod hath raised 
up here, yet the chief Charge and Cost, which hath supported 
and carried it thus far, hath been from the Charity and Piety 
of divers of our well-affected Countrymen in -Cw^/anrf^ who 
being sens&le of our inability in that respect,- and studious to 
promote so good a Work, contributed large Sums of Money^ 
which were to be improved according to the Direction and 
Order of the th^i-prev ailing Powers, which hath been fidth- 
fully and religiously attended both there and here^ according 
to the pious intentions of the Bene&ctors. And we do most 
humbly beseech your Majesty^ that a matter of so much De-* 
votion and Piety, tending so much to the Honour of God, may 
suffer no disappointment through any Legal defect (without 
the &ult of the Donors, or the ^oov Indiansj who onely receive 
the benefit) but that your Majesty be graciously pleased to 
Establish and Confirm the same, being ccaitrived and done (as 
we conceive) in the &^t year of your Majesties Reign, as thb 
Book was begun and now finished in the first year of your Es- 
tablishment ; which doth not onely presage the happy success 
of your Highness Government, but will be a perpetual monu- 
ment, that by your Majesties Favour the Gospel of our Lord 
and SvcviourJeaus Christy was first made known to thelndioTu: 
An Honour whereof (we are assured) your Majesty will not 
a little esteem* 

" SIR, The shines of Your Royal Favour ufion these Vnder" 
takings^ will make these tender Plants tojlourishy notwitkstand^ 
ing any malevolent Asfiect from those that bear evil will to thU 
Sion, and render Your Majesty more Illustrious and Glorious 
to after Generations • 

<< The God of Heaven longfireserve and bless Yoiir Majesty 
with many happy Dayesy to his Glory, the good and com* 
fort of his Church and People, Amen^** 
In 1663, when the whole Bible, and a version of the New-' 
england Psalms, translated into the language of the abo- 
rigines of Newengland, were completed fi*om the press, a 
copy, elegantly bound, was presented to the king with another 
address, or dedication* This address, and that presented to 

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NOTES. ^ 475 

Ws majesty with the New Testament, were printed together 
itnd prefixed to those complete copies of the whole work, 
which were sent to England as presents. Few of the copies 
which were circulated in this country contained those ad- 
dresses. I recollect to have seen, many years since, a copy 
that contained ^em ; that which I possess is without them, as 
are all others which I have lately examined. The rev. Thaddeus 
M.Harris, some time since, fortunately discovered inabarber's 
shop, a mutilated copy of the Indian Bible, which the barber 
"was using for waste paper. In this copy the addresses to king 
Charles are entire. He transcribed the addresses, and after- 
ward published them in Vol. 7, of the Collections of the His- 
torical Society. I have extracted them from that volume, 
finding them exactly to agree with the copies ctfi the Records 
of the Commissioners of the United Colonies, in every thing 
but the spelling, which on the records is in a mode more ob- 
solete and incorrect, but doubtless conformable to the origin- 
sds, which we may well suppose were carefully corrected before 
they were printed and prefixed to the Bible. ^ 
* The Second Address, or Dedication, is as follows, 
« To the High and Mighty Prince^ Charles the Second^ by the 

Grace ofGod^^ King of England^ Scotland, France and IrC' 

land, Defender of the Faith, istc, 
*< The Commissioners of the United Colonies in New-Eng- 
land, wish all happiness, &c. 
<^ Moat Dread Soveraign, 

" As our former Presentation of the New Testament was 
Graciously Acfcepted by Your Majesty; so with all Humble 
Thankfulness for that Royal Favour, and with the like hope, 
We are bold now to Present the WHOLE BIBLE, Trans- 
lated into the Language of the Natives of this Country, by A 
Painful Labourer in that Work, and now Printed and Finished, 
by means of the Pious Beneficence of Your Majesties Subjects 
m England: which also by Your Special Favour hath been 
Continued and Confirmed to the intended Use and Advance- 
ment of so Great and G6od a Work, as is the Propagation of 
the Goafiel to these poor Barbarians in this (Ere-while) Un- 
luiown World. 

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" Translations of Holy Scriptufe, The Wont qftkt finf ^f 
Kings^ have ever been deemed not unworthy of the moit 
Princely Dedications : Examples whereof are extant in diYera 
Languages. But Your Majesty is the First th«(t hath Receiv«* 
ed one in this Language^ or from this Jmericun Woritft Qf 
from any Parts so Remote from £ur<^ as the^ are^ for oug^ 
that ever we heard of, 

<< Publications also dT these Sacred Writings to the Soaui 
of Men (who here, and here onely, have the MjFiteriesQf tk»r 
Eternal Salvation revealed to them by the Ckxl of Heaven) is 
a Work that the Greatest Princes have Honoured themselvies 
by. But to Publish and Communicate the same to a Lost 
People, as remote from Knowledge and Civility, mueh more 
from Christianity, as they were from all Knowing, Civil and 
Christian Nations ; a People without Law, without Letterf» 
without Riches, or Means to procure any such thing ; a Peo- 
ple that 9ate aa deefi in J}arkn<$8j and in the 9kg4tmf qfJ>c€Uh% 
as (we think) any mee the Creation : This puts a Lustre up- 
on it that is Superlative ; and to have g^ven Royal P^ro&ago 
and Countenance to such aPublication, or to the Means here- 
of, will stand among the Marks of Lasting Honour in the eyes 
of all that are Considerate, even unto Afrer-Generaticms. 

" And though there be in this Western World many Col- 
onies of other Europ^ean NaticMis, yet we humbly conceive, no 
Prince hath had a Return of such a Work as this ; which 
may be some Token of the Success of Your Majesties Planta- 
tion of Mw-England^ Undertaken and Setled under the En- 
couragement and Security of Grants from Yout Royal Father 
and Grandfather, of Famous Memory^, and Cherished with late 
Gracious Aspects from Your Majesty. Though indeed, the 
present Poverty of these Plantations could not have Accom"» 
plished this Work, had not the forementioned Bounty of Bng- 
land lent Relief; Nor could that have Continued to stand us 
in stead, without the Influence of Your Royal Favour and Au* 
thority, whereby the Corfioration there, For Propagating the 
Gospel among these Alitives^ hath been Established and En- 
couraged (whose Labour of Love, Care, and Faithfulness in 
that Trust, must ever be remembred with Honotff.) Y^a> 

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¥QTIl$. 477 

^kfin iiritnte ptn^nif for theif prlv^^e Eadsy have of latA 
a^gl^t Advaotiig^ to i^riY^ tlie sud Corporation of Half tho 
Possessloos that had bo^ar l^y Liberal Contributions, obtained 
§Qfl^ 90 Qi^i^oua End^ $ We understand. That by an Honour- 
aUo and Righteous Decision in Your Majesties Court of Chan* 
c^rsf) their Hopes have been defeated, and the Thing Settled 
vhere it was and is. For which great Favour, and Ilhistrioua 
Vmit of Your MajesUes Qo^emment, we cannot but return 
our most Humble Than)^ in thisPublick Manner: And, as 
the Result^ of the jc^t Endeavours of Your Majesties Sub* 
jects there and here, acting under Your Royal Influence, We 
PvesiGit You with this Work, which upon sundry accounts is 
ta be called Yqutm. 

<« The Southern Colonies of the Sfianiah MtHon have sent 
home from this ^merkan Continent^ much Gold and Silver, 
aa the Fruit and End of their Discoveries and Transplanta- 
Hons : That (we confess) is a scarce Commodity in this Colder 
Climate. But (autable to the Ends of our Undertaking) we 
Ft eses^ this^ and other Concomitant Fruits of our poor En- 
deavors to Plant and Propagate the Gospel here ; which, upon 
a true account, is as much better than Gold, as the Souls of 
men are more worth than the whole World. This is a No* 
T)ler Fruit (and indeed, in the Counsels of All-Disposing Prov- 
idence, was an higher intended End) of Columbus his Adven* 
ture. And though by his Brother's being hindred from a 
seasonable Application, your Famous Predecessour and An- 
cestor, King Henry the Seventh, missed of being sole Owner 
of that first Discovery, and of the Riches thereof; yet, if the 
Honour of first Discovering the True and Saving Knowledge 
ofthe Gospel unto the poor ^mericans^ smd of Erecting the 
Kuigdome of JESUS CHRIST among them, be Reserved 
for, and do Redound unto your Majesty, and the English Na- 
tion, After^iges will not reckon this Inferiour to the other. 
Religion is the End and Glory of Mankinde : and as it was the 
Professed End of this Plantation ; so we desire ever to keep 
it in our Eye as our main design (both as to ourselves, and the 
Nadves about us) and that our Products may be answerabl^ 
thereunto. Give us therefore leave (Dlread Sqveraign) yet' 

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478 HISTOItY OF PftlNTIirG. 

again humbly to Beg the Ck>fitinuia!ice of your Royal Favoori 
and of the Influences thereof^ upon this poor Plsmtation, The 
United Colonies (f NEW-ENGLAND, for the Seturing and 
Establishment of our Civil Priviledges, and Religious Liber- 
ties hitherto Enjoyed; andy upon this Good Work of Propa* 
gating Religion to these Natives, that the Supports and En- 
couragements thereof from England mx^ be still countenanced 
and Confirmed* May this Nursling still suck the Breast of 
Xings, and be fostered by your Majesty, as it hath been by 
3Four Royal Predecessors, unto the Preservation of its main 
Concernments ; It shall thrive and prosper to the Glory of God, 
and the Honour of your Majesty : Neither will it be any loss or 
grief unto our Lord the King, to have the Blessing of the Poor 
to come upon Him, and that from these Ends of the Earth. 
<* The God by whom Kings Reign^ and Princes Decree JuS" 
ticcy Bless Your Majesty^ and Establish your Throne in 
Bighteousnessy in Mercy, and in Truths to the Glory of 
His Ndrncy the Good of His Peofilcy and to Your own 
Comfort and Rejoycing, not in this onely, but in another 

Specimen of the Language of the Indians of Newengland, 
taken from the first edition of the rev, mr. Eliot's translation* 
of the Bible. Printed at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1661. 

The Lord's Prayer. Mat. vi, 9, life, 
Nooshun kesukqut, qut- Our Father which art in 

tianatamunach koowesuonk. heaven, hallowed be thy name. 

Peyaumooutch kukketassoo- Thy kingdom come. Thy 

tamoonk, kuttenantamoonk will be done in earth, as it is 

ne n nach ohkeit neane ke- in heaven. Give us this day 

sukqut. Nummeetsuongash our daily bread. And forgive 

asekesukokish assamaiinean us our debts, as we forgive 

yeuyeu kesukod. Kah ah- our debtors. And lead us not 

quontamdinnean nummatch- into temptation, but deliver 

eseongash, neane matchene- us from evil : For thine is the 

hukqueagig nutahquontam- kingdom, the power, and the 

ounnonog. Ahque sagkom- glory forever. Amen, 
pagunsdinnean enqutchhuao* 

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imganit) "webc pohquohwus- 
sonnean wutch matchitut* 
Newutche kutahtaun ketas- 
sootamonk} kah menuhkesu- 
onk, kah sohsumoonk mich- 
eme. Amen. 

Some writers have mentioned that the second edition of 
the Bible in the Indian language was published after the death 
of the translator; and, that it was revised and corrected by 
the rev. John Cotton, of Plymouth. Others observe, that to 
the second edition an Indian Grammar was added by mr. Cot- 
ton. They must l^ive been misinformed, as appears by the 
statement of mr. Eliot. In a letter dated Roxbury, Nov. 4, 
1680, to the hon. Robert Boyle, president of the corporation 
for propagating the gospel in Newengland, mr. Eliot men- 
tions, " We are now at the 19th chap, of the Acts ; and when 
we have impressed the New Testament, our commissioners 
approve of my preparing and impressing also the old." Nov. 
27, 1683, mr. Eliot in another 'letter to the same person, 
writes, ^ The work [second edition of the Bible, which had 
then been more than three years in the press} goeth on now 
with more comfort, though w« have had many impediments, 
&c. They [the Indians] have still fragments of their old Bi- 
bles [first edition] which they make constant use of." Aug. 
29, 1686, mr. Eliot informs the hon. Robert Boyle, " the Bi- 
ble is come forth ; many hundreds bound up, and disposed to 
the Indians, whose thankfulness I inthnate and testify to your 
honour.'* And in another letter of July, 1688, he requests 
that 10 /. may be given to the rev. John Cotton, ^' who has 
helped him much in the «rc(md edition of the Bible."* It 
appears, as has been elsewhere observed, that the second edi- 
tion was six years in the press. Mr. Eliot died two years after 
this edition was published; according to Mather,t in 1690, 
aged 86. The Newengland Version of the Psalms was print- 
ed with the Bible ; but I cannot find that the Indian Grammar 

• See the letters at large, His. Col. Vol. 3. p. 177. ct jcq. 
+ Magnalia.— Life of Eliot. 

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was published with either of the edfaioii^ It fiKxom|Miiied 
some copies oi ihe Psalter ; i. e. thef were occasismallj bound 
together in one volume small octaro. 

[m] Page %S7. 

THE following is given as a specimen of the Neweng^and 
version of the Psalms ; first, as they were originally printed ; 
and, secondly, as they appeared after being revised aud cor* 
rected by president Dunster and mr. Lyon. The first psahtt 
df each edition is selected fi>r the purpose. 

£No. I — By Eliot and others.'] 

In Metre 
Blessed man, that in th'advice 
of wicked doeth not walk: 
nor stand in sinner's wayy nor ait 
m chayre of scomfull folk* 

2 But In the law of lehovahf 
is his longing delights 

and in his law doth meditate^ 
by day and eke by nights 

3 And he shall be Uke to a tree 
planted by water-riversi 

that in his season yeOds his fruity 
and his leafe never withers. 

4 And all he doth, shall prosper wetlf 
^e wicked are not so: 

but they are like vnto the chaffs, 
which winde drives to and fro^ 

5 Therefore shall not ungodly meB) 
rise to stand in the doome^ 

nor shall die sinners with the just;» 
in their assemUit come. 

6 For of the righteous men, the Lord 
acknowledgeth the ws^: 

but the way of vngodly meni 
shall vtterly decay. 

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KOTES. 48i 

Jlf Q. Uncorrected by JDnnster and Lyoni} 


Book of psalms. 


O Blessed man that walks not in 
th'advice of wicked men 
Kor standeth in the sinners way 

nor scomers seat sits in. 

? But he upon Jehovah's law 

doth set his iifhole delight x 

And in his law doth meditate 

Both in the day and night. 

3 He sha)l be like a planted tree 
by water brooks , which shall 

|n his due s^as^n yield his fruit. 

whose l^af dhall neter fall ; 
And all he 4pth shall prosper wellr 

4 The wicked are not sol : 

But they are like unto the chaff, 
which wind driyed to and fro. 

5 Therefore shall no ungodly men 
in judgement stand upright . 

Nor in th'assembly of the just 

shall stand the sinfull wight. 
4 For of y* righteous men > y* LORD 

acknowledgeth the way : 
\Vhereas the way of wicked men 

shall utterly decay. 


AS no newspapers, or other periodical works were printed 
in this country till 1704, seventy five years after Boston began 
to be settled, it is difficult to ascertain facts rei^ctmg persons 
in private life who died previously to th^ comniencement of 
such publications ; and, as it ^^as not tisual to publish charac- 
4er3 of the dea4 who had itot been in some degree eminent in 
J 5N 

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church or state till within the last fifty years, it is remarkable 
that we should meet with any thing respecting the private life 
of a printer in Boston, from an English writer who flourished 
more than a century past ; but it is more so, that the charac* 
ter of the wife of a printer in Boston should be found in a 
British publication of a remote period. Every thing respect- 
ing our first printers, or their families, will, in some degree, 
be interesting to our brethren of the type at the present day ; 
especially, of a printer^s wife who was selected, by an Elnglish 
author, to draw from real life ** the Picture of the beut of 
Wives.** I will, therefore, carefully copy this picture ftam 
John Dunton's original ; * it wiU give the reader an idea of the 
standing of Green and his wife In spciety ; a glance of their 
family and its character, &c. and cannot, I think, /ail of being 
read with pleasure by the wives and daughters of modem 

^ The person whose character I am gwng to give, is Mrs. 
Grcei^, a printer's ivife, in Boston. A Wife is the next Change 
that a Virgin can lawfully make, and draws many other Rela- 
tuM^S after it: Whicfe Mrs, Green tvas sensible ofy For I have 
heard her say. That when she married JVIr. Green, she es- 
pousicd his Obli§;ations also ! a^d whererever her Husband, 
either by Tyes ofJ^ature^ or Squeezing of WftXf ow*d either 
Monoy or Love, she esteemM her self to be no Ipss a Debtor. 
She knew her Marriage was an Adofition into Ms family^ and 
therefore paid to eveiy Branch of it, what their respective sta- 
tions required. She is sensible that the Duty of her place has 
several Aspects ; First, As it relates to her Husband's Per- 
son, and next to his Relations, and thirdly to his Fortune. M 
$0 his Person^ she wcU enough knew that the great Duty of a 
Wife is Love : Love was the reason that she marry *d him, for 
she knew where Love is wanting, 'tis but the Carcase of a Mar- 
riage ; it Mras her study therefore, to preserve this Flame of 

• Dunton't «* Life and Enron," p. 139, Dunton inived tt Boston in 
march, 1686; be wa» a bookseller of extensive trade in London. He brought 
with htm to Boston, a quantity of books for sale ; remained there some 
months, and visited the governo.i^ the principal msigistratcs, and all the 
clergy^ ^. in and near that town. 

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NOT£$. 483 

Lore, that like the Vestal Fire, it might ncrer go out; and 
therefore she todk- care to guard it from all those things that 
might Extinguish it. Mrs* Green knew very well how fatal 
Jealousie had been to many ; and therefore as she took care 
never to harbour it in her own Breast, so she was nicely care- 
ful never to give her Husband the least umbrage for it ; she 
knew, shou'd she give way to Jealousie, she shou'd not only 
lose her Ease, but run the Hazard of parting also with some- 
what of her Innocence ; for Jealousie is» very apt to muster up 
the Forces of our iraacS)le part to abet its quarreL ' Another 
Debt that Mrs. Gremk was sensible she aw'd,.and was careful 
to pay to her Husband, was Fidelity : She knew that as she 
had espousM his Interest, so she ought to be true to 'em, kee/t 
all his Secrets^ inform him of his Dangers, and in a mild and 
gentle manner admonish him of his Faults. And this she 
knew, (how ill soever many take it) is one of the VAo^^envine 
Acta of Faithfulneaa ; and to be wanting in it wou'd be a Fail- 
ure in her Duty'; And she was sensible that if she did not do 
it, she shou*d be unfaithful to herself, as well knowing nothing 
does so much secure the Happiness of a Wife, as the Vertuc 
and Piety of her Husband. But Matrimonial Fidelity y has a 
special Relation to the Marriage Bed, and in this Mrs. Green 
was so severely scrupulous, that she wou'd never suffer any 
light Expressions, or wanton Discourse in her Company, and 
this was so remarkable in her, that there being an invitation 
of several Persons to a Gentleman's House in Boatonj and 
some that were invited, resolvmg to be very merry ; one of 
the Company made this an Objection, that Mrs. Green toou'd 
be therej. which vtotCd afioil their Mirth : To which another 
wild Spark in the Company reply 'd, Tia but afieaking two or 
three voorda of B—^^ and she'll be gone presently. Another 
thing that was very remarkable in Mrs. Green^ was her Obe* 
dience to her Husband ; to whose will she was so exactly ob- 
servant, that he Cou'd not be more ready to Command^ than she 
was to obey ; and when some of his Commands seem'd not to 
be kind, she would obey 'em, and wisely dissembj© the Unkind- 
ness of (hem ; as knowing, where Men have not wholly put off 
humanity, there is a native compassion to at mieek sufferer. She 

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VTBB also extremeljr tender of her Husband^s Repuisftioii; set* 
ting his Worth \n the dearest Light, puttibbg his Infirmities 
(for whereas Ijie Man Who lives without ^em) in the Shaife* 
And as she was tender of his Reputation, so she was idso S^ 
linother respect more particvilari]^ relatuig tt> herself t Fo» 
Rowing that the nUa^behaviour of the Wife reflects upon thtt 
Husband, she took care to abstain i^ven ft*(»n all appeaianee of 
evil, and resolved to be (what C««ar desired of his Wife) noi 
only free from Fault, but from all suspicion of it But Mrs. 
Green wa^ not only ^ Loving^ a Foithfui^ and at| Obedient Wi/e^ 
^t an Indu8iriou9 Wife too ; managing; that part Of his Buw 
ness wh^ch he had deputied to her, with so much j^fiUcarion 
and Dexterity y as if she had never come into ^e House ; tcosk 
Jret so managed her House, as if she had fteVer gone into thf 
Ware-»house — *The Emperor AugicBtua himself, scarce wore 
any thing, but what was the Manu&cture of his Wife^ hln 
Sister, his Daughter j ot his Meces ; should our gay MngU^h 
Ladies, those Lilie§ of our Fields j tt;Mch neither sow nor sfdn^ 
nar gather into Barns, be exempted from fiirnishing others^ 
and only left to Cloath themselves, ^i to be doubted thef 
Wou*d reverse Our Saviour^s Parallel of Solomon^a Cloric^ 
and no Beggar in all his Rags, wou*d be arrayed Hke one ijf 
Me»^.— But Mrs. Green followed the Example of Soloman*§ 
Vertuous Wife, who riseth white it ijn yet Mght, giving Meat 
to her Household, and a Portion to her Maidens, '^"yfbid as 9h& 
is a good Wife to her Husband, so she is also a good Mother tet 
her Children, whom she brkigs up W\th that Sweetness and 
Facility as is admirable ; not keeping them at too great a dSs* 
lance, (as some do) thereby discourag^)g their good parts ; 
nor by an Over-Fondness, (a fault most Mothers are guilty^ 
of) betraying *em into a thousand Inconven^nctes, which oft^ 
^ntimes proves fatal to *em. In brief, she takes care of their 
Education, and whatever else belongs to 'em, so that Mr. Green 
pnjoys the comfort of his Children, without knowing any thing 
bf the trouble of them.— i»Nor is she less a good Mistress than 
a good Mother ; Treating her Servants with that Love and 
Gentleness, as if she were their Mother, taking care boA of 
their Souls^and Bodies, and not letting them want any thing 

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JloTXs. 485 

votm^Mf %t tiUket^-^l one day told her, That I belirv'd ehe 
«flM an ejttrdttrmtapy ^ift^ but Mt. Green twi* 90 good a Man 
«*tf could not bt HoeU tthet'oH^. To which she answered, that 
i^ie had bo good a Hasbcoid was her Merey ; but had her Hus- 
band b6^ as bed a Mm as any in the Worid, her Duty ^oi^d 
fmfe been the aamey and 90 9Ae ftofi^d her Practice should have 
been f 00— -Which as it is a great Truth, it wants to be mor^ 
)aiown and Practice.'' 


BARTHOLOMEW GREEN began the printmg of The 
Sbston News-Letter, in Newbury street, in a small wooden 
buildihg, to "^diich aihother room was annexed some years af- 
ter, for the accommodation of his son. This building was 
burnt down in January, 1734 ; it was previously occupied as a 
printing house both by young Green and John Draper, who 
did business independently of each other. Another house of 
like dimensions was built on the same spot by John Draper, 
the successor of the elder B. Green. This building was oc-j 
cupied as a printing house, until the British troops evacuated 
Boston in 1770* At that place began and ended the printing^ 
of The Boston News-Letter. Part of the building is now 
standing, back of No. 56, Newbury street. That house was 
built and occupied by Richard, the son and successor of Johi^ 


THE following is the account of the fire in Boston on the 
2d of October, 1711, taken fnmi the News Letter of October 
9,1711. ^^ Bo9ton. On Tuesday the second of October, 
about 8 o' Clock in the Evening, a fire broke out in an old 
Tenement within a back Yard in Comhill, near to the First 
Meeting-House, occasioned by the carelessness of a poor Scot- 
tish Woman, by using Fire near to a parcel of Ocum, Chips, and 
other combustible Rubbbh, which soon raised a great Flame, 
and being a time of great drought, and the Buildings very dry, 
the Flames took hold of the Neighbouring Houses, which were 

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486 HISTORY or printing. 

high and contigUQti& in that pai% notwithsjtandiBg all i^^plka^ 
tion and diligence to extinguish and prtvent the spreading 
thereof by throwing 0f Water, .and. blowing up of Houses^— 
The Fire nuide its progress throughout ComhiU on both sides 
of the Street, and on both udea of the upper parts of King and 
Queen-Street; The Town House and the Meedng-Housei 
with many £sdr Buildings were Consu]na9d> and several persons 
kill'd and bumU" 

IN the Life of Dr. Franklin, written by himself, little at- 
tention seems to hare been paid to dates, particularly in nar- 
rating events which took place duiing his minority. He in- 
forms us, that he was bom in Boston, but does not mention the 
month nor the year ; he, however, observes,* that his broth- 
er returned fron^ Ei^land in 1717, with a press and types ; 
and, that his fsitber determined to make him a printer, and was 
anxious that he should be fixed with his brother. He also ob- 
serves, that he himself held back for some time, but suffered 
himself to be persuaded,, and signed hb indentures. By the 
manner in which he mendons thes^ circumstances, we may 
suppose that they took place within a short period, and as soon 
as his brother began business, which was within a few weeks 
after, he returned from London. The doctor mentions that 
when he signed his indentures, he was only twelve years of 
age ; this was in 1717. The New-England Courant was not 
publi^ed till August, 172^1 ; at this time Betijamin Franklin 
must have been in his seventeenth year. The first Courant 
published by Benjamin Franklin, after his brother was ordered 
to print it no longer, is No. 80, dated February 11, 1723, of 
course Benjamin must then have been advanced in his eigh- 
teenth year. I have seen a file of the Courant from the time 
it began to be published in the name of Benjamin Franklin 
to the middle of the year 1726,t the whole of which was puk* 

• In the London i2mo. edit, of 1793, p. 29. 
f This file is in the Historical Library at Boston. 

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KOTJES. 487 

ftshed in the name of Benjamin Franklin, the doctor does 
not mention how long the paper ^as published in his name ; 
he only observes, it wa8 for <f some months." Froip the doc- 
tor's manner of relating this part of his history, we may con- 
clude that he did not leave his brother short of one year after 
the Courant was printed in his, Benjamin's, name ; and, if 
so, he must have been nearly ninete^ years of age ; but, if he 
remained with his brother till the year 1736, he would then 
have been twenty one years old : Yet the doctor mentions, 
page 53, after he left his brother, <^ he found himself at New- 
york, nearly three hundred mOes from his home, at the age 
only o£ aeventeenycorsJ* It is evident fr<Hn the doctor^s ac- 
count of himself after he left his brother, that he did not re- 
main with him so long as the Courant was published in the 
name of Benjamin Fnuiklin, for he gives an account of his 
return to Boston, remaining there some time, his going again 
to Philadelphia, working with Keimer, and afterward making 
a vojrage to London, where he was near two years a journey- 
man, and returning back to America, and again arriving in 
Philadelphia in October, 1726. It is difficult to reconcile all 
these events with the few dates which the doctor has men- 
tioned. But I leave them with those who are inclined tp 
make further investigation. 

jgl^D OF VOL, J, 

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